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Birth of live calves by in vitro embryo production of slaughtered cows in a commercial herd in South Africa  [cached]
T. Arlotto,D. Gerber,S.J. Terblanche,J. Larsen
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v72i2.620
Abstract: In vitro fertilisation (IVF) has become a useful breeding tool in most of the developed world. In this paper the success of bovine IVF and the birth of live calves under typical South African conditions is reported. Oocytes for IVF were collected from the ovaries of 6 slaughtered Bovelder beef cows. On average, 36.2 oocytes per donor were retrieved. From these oocytes, 43 blastocysts were produced from 5 of the donors by IVF with frozen Bovelder semen. The best 11 of these embryos were transferred into oestrous, synchronised Bovelder recipients in the same herd. As a result, 7 calves were born (a 64 %calving rate) from 4 of the original donors. The calves had a normal birth mass, but the mean gestation length of the male calves was significantly longer than the herd average (291.6 versus 285.2 days respectively). No calving difficulties were encountered. In summary, it was shown that IVF for bovine embryo production and transfer is possible on a commercial basis in South Africa.
Flea infestation in a Nigerian local chicken:
B A Agboola, B D Remi-Adewunmi, R I Agbede
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Fleas refer to a blood-sucking wingless insect of the Order: Siphonaptera. They are parasites in their own right and also act as vectors which transmit diseases (Soulsby, 1982). Their bites leave wounds which become portals of entry for infection. There are three important Genera fleas that infest poultry. Echidnophaga gallinacea, the small stick fast (stick tight) flea, belongs to the Family: Pulicidae and is found in warm countries (Soulsby, 1982). It is unique among poultry fleas because the adults become sessile parasites and remain attached to the skin of the head for days or sometimes weeks. The flea spends much of its adult life on the host and feeds only on blood and causes intense irritation and related allergic dermatitis. The adult females forcibly eject their eggs so that they reach surrounding litter (Philips, 2005). These hatch into larvae which develop in sandy, well drained litter and feed mainly on organic matter. After pupating in a cocoon, the flea completes its life cycle. The adult flea can be found on chickens, turkeys, pigeons, pheasants, quail, man as well as many other mammals (Soulsby, 1982). Irritation and blood loss may cause anemia and death especially in young birds (Philips, 2005).
Transit through the Flea Vector Induces a Pretransmission Innate Immunity Resistance Phenotype in Yersinia pestis  [PDF]
Viveka Vadyvaloo,Clayton Jarrett,Daniel E. Sturdevant,Florent Sebbane,B. Joseph Hinnebusch
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000783
Abstract: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is transmitted to mammals by infected fleas. Y. pestis exhibits a distinct life stage in the flea, where it grows in the form of a cohesive biofilm that promotes transmission. After transmission, the temperature shift to 37°C induces many known virulence factors of Y. pestis that confer resistance to innate immunity. These factors are not produced in the low-temperature environment of the flea, however, suggesting that Y. pestis is vulnerable to the initial encounter with innate immune cells at the flea bite site. In this study, we used whole-genome microarrays to compare the Y. pestis in vivo transcriptome in infective fleas to in vitro transcriptomes in temperature-matched biofilm and planktonic cultures, and to the previously characterized in vivo gene expression profile in the rat bubo. In addition to genes involved in metabolic adaptation to the flea gut and biofilm formation, several genes with known or predicted roles in resistance to innate immunity and pathogenicity in the mammal were upregulated in the flea. Y. pestis from infected fleas were more resistant to phagocytosis by macrophages than in vitro-grown bacteria, in part attributable to a cluster of insecticidal-like toxin genes that were highly expressed only in the flea. Our results suggest that transit through the flea vector induces a phenotype that enhances survival and dissemination of Y. pestis after transmission to the mammalian host.
Evaluation of the Murine Immune Response to Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Saliva and Its Effect on Transmission of Yersinia pestis  [PDF]
Christopher F. Bosio ,Austin K. Viall,Clayton O. Jarrett,Donald Gardner,Michael P. Rood,B. Joseph Hinnebusch
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003196
Abstract: Background/Aims Arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. Immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. Most rodent reservoirs of Yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. We examined the innate and acquired immune response of mice to bites of Xenopsylla cheopis and its effects on Y. pestis transmission and disease progression in both na?ve mice and mice chronically exposed to flea bites. Methods/Principal Findings The immune response of C57BL/6 mice to uninfected flea bites was characterized by flow cytometry, histology, and antibody detection methods. In na?ve mice, flea bites induced mild inflammation with limited recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the bite site. Infectivity and host response in na?ve mice exposed to flea bites followed immediately by intradermal injection of Y. pestis did not differ from that of mice infected with Y. pestis without prior flea feeding. With prolonged exposure, an IgG1 antibody response primarily directed to the predominant component of flea saliva, a family of 36–45 kDa phosphatase-like proteins, occurred in both laboratory mice and wild rats naturally exposed to X. cheopis, but a hypersensitivity response never developed. The incidence and progression of terminal plague following challenge by infective blocked fleas were equivalent in na?ve mice and mice sensitized to flea saliva by repeated exposure to flea bites over a 10-week period. Conclusions Unlike what is observed with many other blood-feeding arthropods, the murine immune response to X. cheopis saliva is mild and continued exposure to flea bites leads more to tolerance than to hypersensitivity. The immune response to flea saliva had no detectable effect on Y. pestis transmission or plague pathogenesis in mice.
Control of immature stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis(Bouché) in carpets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid  [cached]
L.J. Fourie,D.J. Kok,R.J. Peter
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i4.718
Abstract: Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v) cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure) steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2) to 12 %(Day +43). For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.
SNAKE BITE
KAMRAN ZAHEER BUTT,FAHEEM ANWAR,MOHAMMAD RIZWAN
The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: 15 percent of the snakes are poisonous and present a potential life threatening risk to human lives. Objectives:(1) To review the demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of 48 patients of snake bite treated in a field hospital. (2) To evaluate the treatment and outcome of these patients. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Field hospital in rural Sindh. Period: From January 2002 to December 2003. Material & Methods: All patients diagnosed with snake bite had first aid treatment by a either a nursing staff close to the place of bite or by a quack and later on transferred to field hospital. The first aid treatment consisted of pain relief (injectable diclofenac, oral acetaminophen), application of bandage or tourniquet proximal to the bite, antihistamine (oral or injectable chlorpheniramine) anti- inflammatory (injection hydrocortisone) and immobilization of the affected limb with a splint. Results: We are treated 48 patients withsnake bite. There were 45(94%) male patients and 3(6%) female patients. Age range was 18 to 56 years with a mean age of 29.8 years. 35(73%) patients suffered from snake bite between the months of May and September. The timing of the bite was also peculiar with 36(75%) patients bitten between 8pm and 8am whereas only 12(25%) patients during other times of the day. 38(79%) patients gave history of seeing the snake themselves and 10(21%) patients were not able to see the snake mainly because of darkness. Conclusion It should be remembered that not all snakes are poisonous and that they are more afraid of humans than we are of them. Psychological effects of the bite are at times more devastating than the clinical effects, therefore patient reassurance forms part of the treatment.
Fleas and flea control  [PDF]
Dautovi? ?ivomir,Kne?evi? Dragan L.,Zdravkovi? Danilo,Kati? Sofija
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0204177d
Abstract: Fleas as hemeatophagous arthropodes take part in the spreading of certain diseases such as bubonic plague, murine typhus, tick-borne typhus tularaemia, or can be transitory hosts for certain species of cestodes for dogs and cats. Depending on the type of host on which fleas persist and the habitat, measures that can be taken to control them can be only sanitary-hygiene, individual, or treatment of the habitat. Sanitary-hygiene measures mostly consist of regular cleaning. Individual protection implies the use of insecticides for re-impregnating clothing, spraying clothing and the use of repellents. Treatment of habitats comprises the use of insecticides of the group of organophosphates, metyl-carbamates, pyrethroids and organo-chlorine compounds, instruments for dusting and spraying. In addition to these compounds, preparations based on imidaclopride, fipronyl and inhibitors of insect growth (IGRs) and development (IDIs) are also used. Flea control in household pets is implemented using measures of individual protection and treatment of their habitats.
SNAKE BITE
Muhammad Inayat Ullah
The Professional Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To find out demographic features, manifestations, complications and effects oftreatment in victims of snake bite in Multan region. DESIGN: Prospective observational study.PERIOD: 1986 to 1996 MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the patients coming to the NishtarHospital Multan with history of snake bite between 1986 and 1996 were included in the study.Their demographic features and manifestations of snake bite were recorded. In addition to general measures,antivenom if indicated was given and its effects noted. RESULTS: A total of 134 patients of snake bite, 103males and 31 females, with age ranging from 1-84 years (mean 25 years) were studied. Snake was seen in54% cases, 60% patients were bitten during the dark, 52% patients were bitten on the foot, 79% patientsreceived first aid, either cut or bandage. Local pain and swelling, nausea, vomiting, fever and spontaneousbleeding were common manifestations, 49.7% patients required local treatment, 2.2% patients requiredrespiratory support. Antivenom was given to 62.6% patients, 2.2% patients showed severe anaphylacticreactions and antivenom was withheld. Average dose of antivenom given was 60 ml. 1.4% had toeamputation and 2.2% patients died. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous bleeding is the most commonmanifestation of snake bite in this area. Antivenom can be successfully given to a large majority of victimsif reactions are treated and effects of antivenoming can be life saving.
Predictors for Abundance of Host Flea and Floor Flea in Households of Villages with Endemic Commensal Rodent Plague, Yunnan Province, China  [PDF]
Jia-Xiang Yin ,Alan Geater,Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong,Xing-Qi Dong,Chun-Hong Du,You-Hong Zhong
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000997
Abstract: Background From 1990 to 2006, fifty-five natural villages experienced at least one plague epidemic in Lianghe County, Yunnan Province, China. This study is aimed to document flea abundance and identify predictors in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague in Lianghe County. Methods Trappings were used to collect fleas and interviews were conducted to gather demography, environmental factors, and other relevant information. Multivariate hurdle negative binomial model was applied to identify predictors for flea abundance. Results A total of 344 fleas were collected on 101 small mammals (94 Rattus flavipectus and 7 Suncus murinus). R. flavipectus had higher flea prevalence and abundance than S. murinus, but the flea intensities did not differ significantly. A total of 315 floor fleas were captured in 104 households. Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were the predominant flea species on the host and the floor flea, respectively. The presence of small mammal faeces and R. flavipectus increased host flea prevalence odds 2.9- and 10-fold, respectively. Keeping a dog in the house increased floor flea prevalence odds 2-fold. Keeping cattle increased floor flea intensity by 153%. Villages with over 80% of houses raising chickens had increased prevalence odds and intensity of floor flea about 2.9- and 11.6-fold, respectively. The prevalence and intensity of floor flea in brick and wood houses were decreased by 60% and 90%, respectively. Flea prevalences of host and floor flea in the households that were adjacent to other houses were increased 7.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively. Houses with a paddy nearby decreased host flea intensity by 53%, while houses with an outside toilet increased host flea intensity by 125%. Conclusion Rodent control alone may not be sufficient to control plague risk in these areas. In order to have successful results, plague control programs should pay attention to ecological and hygiene factors that influence flea populations.
Tick Bite
Abdulkadir Gunduz,Suleyman Turedi,Murat Aydin,Oguz Eroglu
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2008,
Abstract: Ticks, which can be seen in many areas over the world, are the arthropots feeding from both human and animals blood. Today 850 tick species are known in the family of Argasidae and Ixodidae. From the point of disease transmission, the general characteristic of ticks is their need to feeding with blood in order to pass next stage of development. They can feed from all vertebrates without fishes. The mechanism of disease transmission according to tick bites has not been understood completely yet. Ticks live in wet and copse areas. Pets can carry ticks in their bodies when they go to fields. Ticks inject a toxin that causes a local irritation or mild allergic reaction during the bite. However, most of the tick bites cause either fewer symptoms or none. Ticks should be removed as soon as possible while seen. None of the eradication methods have been successful yet. There are 3 different strategies to prevent tick-borne diseases defined as environmental, intimate and prophylactic. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2): 173-178]
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