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Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
R Gauton
Lexikos , 2008,
Abstract: Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully.
Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
Rachélle Gauton
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--479
Abstract: : This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHER, TRANSLATOR, ISIZULU,PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY LEXICOGRAPHERS, PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY TRANSLATORS,NONEQUIVALENCE BETWEEN LANGUAGES, CHARACTER, SHORTCOMINGSAND ADVANTAGES OF BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES Opsomming: Tweetalige woordeboeke, die leksikograaf en die vertaler.Die fokus van hierdie artikel is op die probleme, en voor- en nadele van die tweetalige woordeboekvanuit die oogpunt van sowel die leksikograaf as die vertaler, met spesifieke verwysing na tweetaligeZuluwoordeboeke. Daar word aangetoon dat daar baie en uiteenlopende probleme is waaraandie leksikograaf moet aandag gee en waarvan hy/sy moet kennis neem by die samestelling van 'nvertalende woordeboek. Die vernaamste van hierdie probleme is die basiese gebrek aan ekwivalensieof anisomorfisme wat tussen tale bestaan. Hierdie nie-ekwivalensie tussen tale is ook diegrondoorsaak van die moeilikhede waarmee die vertaler of gebruiker van die tweetalige woordeboekmoet worstel. Die probleme ondervind deur vertalers oorvleuel dus tot 'n groot mate met diéwat die leksikograaf ondervind by die samestellling van 'n tweetalige woordeboek. Daar word totdie slotsom gekom dat die gebruiker van 'n tweetalige woordeboek nie net moet weet wat om van'n vertalende woordeboek te verwag nie, maar ook so 'n woordeboek omsigtig en oordeelkund
Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specific situation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners' dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in modernday lexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a new language, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especially in closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionary could assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage.
Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries
L Potgieter
Lexikos , 2012,
Abstract: Dictionaries are written for a specific user group and the content and presentation must therefore be directed/aimed at that specific target group. In the past dictionaries were often compiled without the lexicographers really taking time and researching the intended users and their specific needs. School dictionaries especially were often compiled after very little or no attention being paid to the users and their needs. This article will look at the role of example sentences in dictionary articles, different types of example sentences as well as the criteria for example sentences in bilingual school dictionaries in order to ensure that the final product is natural, typical, informative, intelligible and of use to the user.
Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--693
Abstract: : When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY. Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag. Daar word aangedui dat 'n tipologiese hibriede woordeboek van waardekan wees vir sekere gebruikers. Die belang van 'n ondubbelsinnige vasstelling van die tersaaklikewoordeboekfunksies word beklemtoon en die begrippe funksieverdigting en funksiesamesmeltingword aan die orde gestel. Daar word aangetoon dat die tipologiese keuse bepaal moet word deur 'nfunksie-gebaseerde benadering tot woordeboekgebruik. Sleutelwoorde: AANLEERDERWOORDEBOEK, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, FUNKSIESAMESMELTING, FUNKSIEVERDIGTING, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE FUNKSIES, TEKSPRODUKSIE,TEKSRESEPSIE, TIPOLOGIE, TIPOLOGIESE HIBRIED, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VALSEVRIENDE, WERKLIKE D
The role of the introductory matter in bilingual dictionaries of English and Arabic
H Al-Ajmi
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for learners of English as foreign language differ from each other in many aspects. Among the differences are the types of information a dictionary provides outside the A–Z word list, especially in its introductory matter. Yet, dictionary introductions have been referred to rather peripherally in the literature on dictionary users and uses. Within the context of lexicographic practice, this study aims to outline the differences between EFL learner's dictionaries and bilingual English–Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what extent a given set of popular dictionaries provide varied and sufficient information in their introductions. Three categories of dictionaries will be the subject of comparison: EFL dictionaries, European bilingual dictionaries, and bilingual dictionaries in the Arab world.
Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries
N Mpofu
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: In compiling bilingual dictionaries, lexicographers are mostly concerned with semantic equivalence. As a result, the practice of bilingual dictionary compilers is usually that of giving one-word equivalents. However, this equivalence is at times difficult to arrive at because of the disparities and incommensurability between languages and cultures. According to Sapir (1921) and Whorf (1956), one cannot expect an exact match between two languages that express different cultural realities. Given this scenario, compilers of bilingual dictionaries end up bridging the gap between languages by giving translational equivalents rather than relying solely on one-word equivalents. The Shona-English bilingual dictionaries, namely Hannan (1974) and Dale (1981), like other bilingual dictionaries, also display this characteristic. This article will discuss the problems of translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora.
Outer texts in bilingual dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Dictionaries often display a central list bias with little or no attention to the use of outer texts. This article focuses on dictionaries as text compounds and carriers of different text types. Utilising either a partial or a complete frame structure, a variety of outer text types can be used to enhance the data distribution structure of a dictionary and to ensure a better information retrieval by the intended target user. A distinction is made between primary frame structures and secondary frame structures and attention is drawn to the use of complex outer texts and the need of an extended complex outer text with its own table of contents to guide the user to the relevant texts in the complex outer text. It is emphasised that outer texts need to be planned in a meticulous way and that they should participate in the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary, both knowledge-orientated and communication-orientated functions, to ensure a transtextual functional approach.
Outer Texts in Bilingual Dictionaries  [cached]
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--683
Abstract: : Dictionaries often display a central list bias with little or no attention to the use ofouter texts. This article focuses on dictionaries as text compounds and carriers of different texttypes. Utilising either a partial or a complete frame structure, a variety of outer text types can beused to enhance the data distribution structure of a dictionary and to ensure a better informationretrieval by the intended target user. A distinction is made between primary frame structures andsecondary frame structures and attention is drawn to the use of complex outer texts and the need ofan extended complex outer text with its own table of contents to guide the user to the relevant textsin the complex outer text. It is emphasised that outer texts need to be planned in a meticulous wayand that they should participate in the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary, bothknowledge-orientated and communication-orientated functions, to ensure a transtextual functionalapproach. Keywords: BACK MATTER, CENTRAL LIST, COMMUNICATION-ORIENTATED FUNCTIONS,COMPLEX TEXT, CULTURAL DATA, EXTENDED COMPLEX TEXT, EXTENDED TEXTS,FRONT MATTER, FRAME STRUCTURE, KNOWLEDGE-ORIENTATED FUNCTIONS, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, OUTER TEXTS, PRIMARY FRAME, SECONDARY FRAME Opsomming: Buitetekste in tweetalige woordeboeke. Woordeboeke vertoondikwels 'n partydigheid ten gunste van die sentrale lys met min of geen aandag aan die buitetekstenie. Hierdie artikel fokus op woordeboeke as tekssamestellings en draers van verskillende tekssoorte.Met die benutting van óf 'n gedeeltelike óf 'n volledige raamstruktuur kan 'n verskeidenheidbuitetekste aangewend word om die dataverspreidingstruktuur van 'n woordeboek te verbeteren om 'n beter herwinning van inligting deur die teikengebruiker te verseker. 'n Onderskeidword gemaak tussen primêre en sekondêre raamstrukture en die aandag word gevestig op kompleksebuitetekste en die behoefte aan 'n uitgebreide komplekse buiteteks met sy eie inhoudsopgawewat die gebruiker kan lei na die relevante tekste binne die komplekse buiteteks. Dit wordbenadruk dat buitetekste sorgvuldig beplan moet word en dat hulle deel moet hê aan die leksikografiesefunksies van die betrokke woordeboek, sowel die kennis- as die kommunikasiegerigtefunksies, om 'n transtekstuele funksionele benadering te verseker. Sleutelwoorde: AGTERTEKSTE, BUITETEKSTE, KENNISGERIGTE FUNKSIES, KOMMUNIKASIEGERIGTEFUNKSIES, KOMPLEKSE TEKS, KULTURELE DATA, LEKSIKOGRAFIESEFUNKSIES, PRIMêRE RAAM, RAAMSTRUKTUUR, SEKONDêRE RAAM, SENTRALE LYS, UITGEBREIDEKOMPLEKSE TEKS, UITGEBREIDE TEKSTE, VOORTEKSTE
The Role of the Introductory Matter in Bilingual Dictionaries of English and Arabic
Hashan Al-Ajmi
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/11--839
Abstract: : Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for learners of English as foreign language differ from each other in many aspects. Among the differences are the types of information a dictionary provides outside the A?Z word list, especially in its introductory matter. Yet, dictionary introductions have been referred to rather peripherally in the literature on dictionary users and uses. Within the context of lexicographic practice, this study aims to outline the differences between EFL learner's dictionaries and bilingual English?Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what extent a given set of popular dictionaries provide varied and sufficient information in their introductions. Three categories of dictionaries will be the subject of comparison: EFL dictionaries, European bilingual dictionaries, and bilingual dictionaries in the Arab world. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, INTRODUCTORY MATTER, ENGLISH?ARABIC, EFL LEARNER'S DICTIONARY, ORIENTALIST DICTIONARY Opsomming: Die rol van die inleidende gedeelte in tweetalige woordeboekevan Engels en Arabies. Eentalige en tweetalige woordeboeke vir aanleerders vanEngels as vreemde taal verskil in baie opsigte van mekaar. Een van die verskille is die tipes inligtingwat 'n woordeboek buite die A–Z-woordelys verskaf, veral in die inleidende gedeelte. Tog isdaar slegs in die verbygaan na woordeboekinleidings in die literatuur oor woordeboekgebruikersen -gebruik verwys. Hierdie studie het dit ten doel om, binne die konteks van die leksikografiesepraktyk, die verskille uit te stippel tussen EVT-aanleerderswoordeboeke en tweetalige Engels–Arabiesewoordeboeke, en te bepaal in watter mate 'n gegewe groep gewilde woordeboeke veelsoortigeen genoegsame inligting in hul inleidings verskaf. Drie kategorie woordeboeke sal die onderwerpvan hierdie vergelyking vorm: EVT-woordeboeke, Europese tweetalige woordeboeke entweetalige woordeboeke binne die Arabiese wêreld. Sleutelwoorde: TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, INLEIDENDE GEDEELTE, ENGELS–ARABIES, EVT-AANLEERDERSWOORDEBOEK, ORI NTALISTEWOORDEBOEK
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