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Characterization of Household Solid Waste and Management in Tripoli City—Libya  [PDF]
Walid A. S. Moftah, Dragan Markovi?, Omar A. S. Moftah, Layth Nesseef
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.67041
Abstract: Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problem in Tripoli city, Libya. It is recognized that information on both quantity and composition of generation waste is important for the effective planning of household waste handling infrastructure. So, this study is aimed to evaluating the generation, composition and density of household solid waste in Tripoli city, Libya. The study is carried out according to the Annex 2.1 of: WHO 1996. It was conducted during one week in summer, autumn and winter 2011/2012. The daily household solid waste generation assessment has been carried out for 150 Libyan families where 947 people in three main parts of Tripoli city have been chosen randomly. A questionnaire was prepared according to Buenrostro et al. 2001 and Raje et al. 2001 using door-to-door surveying. The result showed that the average of total generation quantity, daily generation rate, total volume and density were 1415 kg, 0.64 kg/person/day, 19.3 m3 and 74.4 kg/m3 respectively in Tripoli city. Household solid waste contains 36.3% organic matter and 32.5% recyclable materials (glass, paper, plastic, metals). The total generation quantity, daily generation rate, total volume and density were in Tripoli city agreed with those for African and Arabic countries. But the problem is that Tripoli suffers from insufficient municipal solid waste management and lack of sanitary landfills.
Adaptability of Traditional Arab House to its Environment in Core Tripoli, Libya
S.M. Sharif,M.F.M. Zain,M. Surat
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2012.199.207
Abstract: Indigenous house form is a kind of vernacular architecture typical of valuable heritage sites like core Tripoli in Libya. These habitats are blessed with considerable traditional housing stock. A case study research approach qualitatively evaluates adaptation factors associated with traditional Arab family residences as at the year 2010 in Core Tripoli neighborhoods. Exclusively, physical and social housing typology characters were measured. Qualitatively, housing environments generate user adaptation from a combination competing social and physical requirements like thermal comfort. A double single storey Arab housing type, shared by multiple families seems to dominate Tripoli landscape. Here, spatial hierarchical order separates public from private zones with strong sense of neighborly interaction and social cohesiveness internally. The research findings suggest the congruence of social value of privacy and physical factor of natural ventilation. From these findings, it is evident that social and physical environmental determinants coincide hence, enhancing the sustainability housing total adaptability.
Pemphigus : A clinical study of 109 cases from Tripoli, Libya  [cached]
Shafi M,Khatri M,Mashina M,Ben-Ghazeil M
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1994,
Abstract: From 1981 to 1992, 109 cases (90 females and 19 males) of pemphigus were seen in the Department of Dermatology, Central Hospital Tripoli, Libya. Age of onset of the disease varied from 17 to 85 years, while duration of the disease at the time of presentation varied from 3 days to 13 days. On the basis of clinical features and routine histological findings the cases were divided into various subtypes as : pemphigus foliaceus 65 cases, pemphigus vulgaris 34 patients, pemphigus erythematosus 5, herpetiform pemphigus 3 and vegetans type 2 cases. Three of our patients had diabetes mellitus preceding pemphigus, while 12 patients developed steroid induced diabetes. Significant secondary bacterial infection occurred in all cases at some stage of the disease while oral candidiasis occurred in 15 cases. Eczema herpeticum was seen in 4 patients, while 2 had extensive tinea corporis. One of 4 patients of pemphigus vulgaris had complete shedding of nail and 1 female patient had alternate phases of pemphigus foliaceus and generalized pustular psoriasis. The features in our cases of pemphigus foliaceus were somewhat similar to Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus and we had more cases of pemphigus foliaceus, almost exclusively affecting females.
Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya
MO Ahmed, AR Abuzweda, MH Alghazali, AK Elramalli, SG Amri, ES Aghila, YM Abouzeed
Libyan Journal of Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims: To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 Staph System and retested for resistance to methicillin using the cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility test and PBP2a. D-tests and vancomycin E-tests (Van-E-tests) were also performed for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Results: Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51%) were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA). Fifteen (17%) of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15%) were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although discdiffusion testing indicated that 23 (27%) of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test. Conclusions: Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories of Libyan hospitals.
Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV Co-Infection and Risk Factors Analysis in Tripoli-Libya  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Daw, Amira Shabash, Abdallah El-Bouzedi, Aghnya A. Dau, in association with the Libyan Study Group of Hepatitis & HIV
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098793
Abstract: Background In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. Methods A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. Results A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20–40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. Conclusion HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned.
In-vitro activity of tigecycline against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from wounds of burn patients in Tripoli-Libya
Abdulazziz Zorgani,Omar Elahmer,Hisham Ziglam,Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh
Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives: Tigecycline is a new glycylcycline group antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity. In the present study wereport on in vitro activity of tigecycline as well as the comparator antimicrobials linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristinagainst methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)strains isolated from burn wounds in Tripoli-Libya.Materials and methods: Included in the study 155 MSSA and 144 MRSA isolates from wounds of burn patients andidentified by PCR. The susceptibility of MSSA and MRSA isolates to tigecycline, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristinwas determined by the disc diffusion technique.Results: Of the MSSA and MRSA isolates examined, susceptibility to tigecycline was observed in 96.8% and 95.8%, tolinezolid in 97.4% and 96.5% and to quinupristin/dalfopristin in 98.1% and 97.2%, respectively.Conclusion: Tigecycline showed excellent in-vitro activity against MSSA and MRSA similar to the comparator drugs (i.e.linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin). However, tigecycline should be used to treat serious infections when no otheroption exists. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3): 109-112Kew words: Tigecycline; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); wounds, burn patients, Libya.
Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya  [PDF]
Joseph J. Valadez, Sima Berendes, Caroline Jeffery, Joanna Thomson, Hussain Ben Othman, Leon Danon, Abdullah A. Turki, Rabea Saffialden, Lusine Mirzoyan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066701
Abstract: Background Publications on Libya’s HIV epidemic mostly examined the victims of the tragic nosocomial HIV outbreak in the 1990s and the related dispute about the detention of foreign medical workers. The dispute resolution in 2003 included an agreement with the European Union on humanitarian cooperation and the development of Libya’s first National HIV Strategy. As part of this we conducted Libya’s first bio-behavioural survey among men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods Using respondent-driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and related risk factors among 227 MSM and 69 FSW in Tripoli (FSW recruitment ended prematurely due to the political events in 2011). Results For MSM we estimated an HIV prevalence of 3.1%, HBV prevalence of 2.9%, and HCV prevalence of 7.3%, and for FSW an HIV prevalence of 15.7%, HBV prevalence of 0%, and HCV prevalence of 5.2%. We detected high levels of risk behaviours, poor HIV-related knowledge, high stigma and lack of prevention programmes. These results must be interpreted in the context of the political situation which prohibited reaching an ideal sample size for FSW. Conclusion There is urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research. The risk of transmission within different risk groups and to the general population may be high given the recent military events that led to increased violence, migration, and the disruption of essential HIV-related services.
Plant Pathogenic Alternaria Species in Libya
Abdalla M. El-Alwany
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101662
Abstract: This study was carried out to identify unknown Alternaria species or less known as plant pathogenic anamorphic fungi from Benghazi District. Plant materials with fungal signs and symptoms were collected and examined to identify causal agents. Five species—A. brassicae (on Eruca sativa), A. longipes (on Nicotiana glauca), A. tenuissima (on Ficus carica), A. triticicola (on Hordeum vulgare L.) and Alternaria state of Pleospora infectoria (on Avena sativa)—were reported as plant pathogenic and new to Libyan mycobiota.
Mosques in North America  [cached]
Omar Khalidi
American Studies Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.
A short introduction to historical earthquakes in Libya  [cached]
A. S. Suleiman,P. Albini,P. Migliavacca
Annals of Geophysics , 2004, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3320
Abstract: As a result of the relative motion of the African and European plates, Libya, located at the north central margin of the African continent, has experienced a considerable intraplate tectonism, particularly in its northern coastal regions. If the seismic activity of the last fifty years, at most, is known from instrumental recording, macroseismic effects of those earthquakes which affected Libya in the past centuries are still imperfectly known. To try and partly overcome this lack of information, in this contribution we present a short introduction to historical earthquakes in Libya, focusing on the period up to 1935. According to the studies published in the last twenty years, the earliest records of earthquakes in Libya are documented in the Roman period (3rd and 4th century A.D.). There is a gap in information along the Middle and Modern Ages, while the 19th and early 20th century evidence is concentrated on effects in Tripoli, in the western part of nowadays Libya. The Hun Graben area (western part of the Gulf of Sirt) has been identified as the location of many earthquakes affecting Libya, and it is in this area that the 19 April 1935 earthquake (Mw = 7.1) struck, followed by many aftershocks. Further investigations are needed, and some hints are here given at historical sources potentially reporting on earthquake effects in Libya. Their investigation could result in the needed improvement to lay the foundations of a database and a catalogue of the historical seismicity of Libya.
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