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COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND IN-VITRO BIOAVAILABILITY EQUIVALENCE OF COTRIMOXAZOLE TABLETS MARKETED IN TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA
Gebremedhin Solomon Hailu et al.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2011,
Abstract: The availability of numerous brands of co-trimoxazole in our local market today places health professionals in a difficult situation of choice of a suitable brand or the possibility of alternative use. The aim of the study was to predict the physicochemical and in-vitro bioavailability equivalence of six brands of co-trimoxazole tablets marketed in Tigray, Ethiopia. Weight uniformity, friability, hardness, disintegration, assay and dissolution profile were performed using methods described in British and United State Pharmacopoeias and all these tablets passed compendial specifications. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of thickness, weight and disintegration data showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between generic and innovator brands. Similarly, a significant difference was found between the mean % release of trimethoprim (p<0.0002) and sulfamethoxazole (p<0.0001) of the generic and innovator brands at the pharmacopoeia specified time, 60 min. These statistical results indicated that the brands were not equivalent with respect to their in-vitro release profile. All products showed a trimethoprim % release of greater than 85% within 15 min. Model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) showed; generic brands C (f2=33.71), D (f2=31.85) and E (f2=36.33) were not bioequivalent with the innovator and so may probably not be used interchangeably. However, generic brands B (f2=52.02) and F (f2=77.55) were similar with the innovator and so may probably be used interchangeably. Results have shown that more than cost consideration and company reputation is required for day-to-day rational decision making in drug products sourcing.
Transcorneal permeation of ciprofloxacin and diclofenac from marketed eye drops  [cached]
Patidar N,Rathore M,Sharma D,Middha A
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the in vitro permeation characteristics of various marketed eye drops of ciprofloxacin (0.3% w/v aqueous solution) and diclofenac (0.1% w/v aqueous solution) through isolated goat cornea. Effect of these drugs on isolated goat eye lenses was also evaluated. Permeation studies were conducted by putting 1 ml of formulation on the cornea fixed between the donor and receptor compartments of an all glass modified Franz diffusion cell and monitoring ciprofloxacin and diclofenac concentration in the receptor (containing normal saline or bicarbonate ringer solution under continuous stirring at 37±2 0 ) spectrophotometrically at their respective absorption maxima, after 120 min. Paired isolated goat lenses (i.e. of same animal) were used to evaluate the effect of these drugs at selected concentrations against oxidative stress (1 mM hydrogen peroxide solution). After 24 h of incubation at 37 0 , the lens treated with test solution (hydrogen peroxide+drug in bicarbonate ringer solution) was estimated for soluble protein content and compared with control (only hydrogen peroxide). Among marketed eye drops of ciprofloxacin, Joxin (Jawa Pharmaceuticals) showed maximum in vitro transcorneal permeation (0.558%) while I-Gesic (Centaur Pharmaceuticals) showed maximum % in vitro permeation or in vitro ocular availability among diclofenac eye drops after 120 min of permeation. The soluble protein content estimation studies revealed that these drugs at selected concentrations (permeated after 120 min.) had no deleterious effect on eye lenses rather possessed protective effect, since all formulation showed more soluble protein content when compared with control.
Determination of methylene chloride organic volatile impurity in marketed formulations of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin and ofloxacin  [cached]
Pai PNS,Balaphanisekhar B,Rao G,Pasha K
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A simple and sensitive method for the determination of methylene chloride as residual solvent was developed and validated on gas liquid chromatograph fitted with flame ionization detector. The carrier gas was nitrogen, and separation was carried out on BP 5 capillary column consisting of 5% phenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase. The retention time for methylene chloride was 5.4 min. The method was extended for determination of the methylene chloride organic volatile impurity in the marketed formulations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, norfloxacin, pefloxacin and ofloxacin.
COMPARATIVE QUALITY EVALUATION OF PARACETAMOL TABLET MARKETED IN SOMALI REGION OF ETHIOPIA  [PDF]
Nasir Tajure Wabe et al.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: The safety and efficacy of a pharmaceutical dosage form can be guaranteed when its quality is reliable. The efficacy of pharmaceutical dosage forms generally depends on their formulation properties, and manufacturing methods, hence it is likely that the quality of dosage form may vary. The aim was to evaluate the quality of paracetamol tablet marketed in Somali region of Ethiopia. The study was exclusively experimental that used BP, USP and other standard books to check the in vitro quality of Paracetamol tablet using different analytical techniques and procedure. Test for weight variation, friability, disintegration time, identification test and assay were conducted. All of the brands under the study were within the specification for weight variation test. But from the contraband brands, two for friability, one for disintegration and all for percentage content paracetamol failed to satisfy the requirement though all of the products contain the wright active ingredients. The research has showed that the quality of contraband tablets were below the standard in contrast to the legal paracetamol tablet which is hazardous to the community. The regulatory body must work to stop illegal smuggling of medications .
Characterization of Mosquito Breeding Sites in and in the Vicinity of Tigray Microdams
T Dejenie, M Yohannes, T Assmelash
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control in Ethiopia has a history of more than 50 years, but malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Thus, targeting the control program on the larval stage is of paramount importance. This study aimed to characterize the aquatic habitats of vector mosquito larvae associated with micro-dams. METHODS: Cross-sectional larval survey was conducted on six micro-dams in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in 2005/06. The study area on each dam was divided into eight zones. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected using standard dippers. The physico-chemical characteristics of the aquatic habitats were measured onsite. RESULTS: A total of 301 aquatic habitats were surveyed for mosquito larvae; in 32.56% (n=301) only Anopheles, in 27.91% only Culex, both genera were found mixed in 21.59% and no mosquito larvae were found in 17.94%. The findings depicted that dissolved oxygen (r = 0.34, p =0.04), pH (r = 0.35, p =0.03), conductivity (r = 0.36, p =0.03), vegetation (F = 3.54, p =0.002), microhabitat (F = 2.65, p =0.04), fauna and bottom surface of the water body were positively associated and important in explaining the presence and abundance of Culex. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen (r = 0.39, p =0.02), pH (r = 0.42, p =0.008), vegetation (F = 5.6, p =0.000), water transparency (F = 2.72, p =0.00), rainfall (F = 2.22, p = 0.027) and fauna were positively associated and important in explaining the presence and abundance of Anopheles. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that both biotic (vegetation and fauna) and abiotic (chemical and physical) factors play a significant role in larvae’s habitat preference in both Culex and Anopheles. KEYWORDS: Anopheles, breeding, characteristics, Culex, larvae, mosquito, Northern Ethiopia
Physicochemical analysis of Tigray honey: An attempt to determine major quality markers of honey
Kebede Nigussie, P.A. Subramanian, Gebrekidan Mebrahtu
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess quality of Tigray honey and content of selected metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn). Thirty honey samples from various areas of Tigray Region, Ethiopia were collected and analyzed for major quality parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, ash content and levels of selected metals). Moisture content had a value of 18.6 (minimum) and 18.8 (maximum) indicating optimum harvesting and good degree of maturity. All honeys analyzed in this work had ash contents less than 0.6%, indicating that they were more likely to be floral than honeydew origin. Electrical conductivity varies from 8.27 ± 0.02 mS/cm (Hawzene) to 33.5 ± 0.2 mS/cm (Abiy Adi). Values recorded for honey pH ranged from 3.82 ± 0.01 (Hawzen) and 4.45 ± 0.01 (Abiy Adi). In general the Tigray honey shows relatively acidic behavior which is similar to other honeys in the world. The concentration of trace metals in honey was more or less different depending on the sampling area. The highest concentration was observed for iron, copper, nickel, manganese, zinc, chromium, cobalt and cadmium in that order. The highest concentration of metals was observed in Adigrat honey and then Hagereselam, Abiy Adi, Hawezene and the least for Atsbi. KEY WORDS: Honey, Moisture content, Electrical conductivity, Tigray, Ash content, pH, Mineral content, Bioindicator Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2012, 26(1), 127-133. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.14
Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria
E Bamigbola, M Ibrahim, A Attama, J Arute
International Journal of Health Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin tablets and soluble aspirin tablets were assessed in eight healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic parameters including amounts of aspirin excreted up to 24h (E24h), maximum excretion rate (dE/dt)max and time for maximum excretion rate (Tmax) were compared for all the brands. Results: There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the maximum excretion rates among all the brands but the amount of soluble aspirin excreted up to 24 hours was a significantly different (p< 0.05) from one of the regular brands of aspirin. The soluble brand had significantly lower Tmax (p < 0.05) than all the three plain brands. There was no significant inter-subject variation among the subjects that participated in the study. Conclusion: Bioinequivalence exists between some regular aspirin and soluble aspirin marketed in Nigeria.
EVALUATION OF CONTENT AND DISSOLUTION PROFILE OF GENERIC AMOXICILLIN TABLETS MARKETED IN INDONESIA  [PDF]
Nyi Mekar Saptarini,Rusniyanti
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Amoxicillin is the penicillin derivatives and used to treat bacterial infection that caused by Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria. Generic amoxicillin tablets in Indonesia produced by government and private. The aims this study were to compare the content and dissolution profiles of generic amoxicillin tablets marketed in Indonesia which produced by government and private was determined using a method from the United Stated Pharmacopoeia. The result showed that there was no significant difference between public and private generic amoxicillin tablets which contain 95.36-114.11% of amoxicillin with 80.58- 99.56% of amoxicillin dissolved in 30 minutes.
Physicochemical analysis of Tigray honey: An attempt to determine major quality markers of honey  [cached]
Kebede Nigussie,P.A. Subramanian,Gebrekidan Mebrahtu
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess quality of Tigray honey and content of selected metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn). Thirty honey samples from various areas of Tigray Region, Ethiopia were collected and analyzed for major quality parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, ash content and levels of selected metals). Moisture content had a value of 18.6 (minimum) and 18.8 (maximum) indicating optimum harvesting and good degree of maturity. All honeys analyzed in this work had ash contents less than 0.6%, indicating that they were more likely to be floral than honeydew origin. Electrical conductivity varies from 8.27 plus or minus 0.02 μS/cm (Hawzene) to 33.5 plus or minus 0.2 μS/cm (Abiy Adi). Values recorded for honey pH ranged from 3.82 plus or minus 0.01 (Hawzen) and 4.45 plus or minus 0.01 (Abiy Adi). In general the Tigray honey shows relatively acidic behavior which is similar to other honeys in the world. The concentration of trace metals in honey was more or less different depending on the sampling area. The highest concentration was observed for iron, copper, nickel, manganese, zinc, chromium, cobalt and cadmium in that order. The highest concentration of metals was observed in Adigrat honey and then Hagereselam, Abiy Adi, Hawezene and the least for Atsbi.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.14
TOXICITY OF CIPROFLOXACIN
MUHAMMAD ASLAM CHANNA
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the preventive role of ZincChloride on Toxicity of Ciprofloxacin administration on secondary ossification centers in wistar albino rat litters.Design of Study: Prospective and comparative animal study carried out on experimental Wistar Albino Rats.Setting: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JinnahPostgraduate Medical Center (JPMC) Karachi from 2001 to 2002. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and Zinc Chloridewere administered to newly born albino rat pups separately and simultaneously at a dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight and 120 ug/100g body weight respectively intraperitoneally twice daily from day 1 to 14 after birth.These animals were killed by deep either anaesthesia and fixed in 80% alcohol. They were then bulk stained withalizarin Red S and alcian blue. Finally they were cleared in 4% KOH and stored in Glycerin. The fore and hindlimbs were disarticulated from the axial skeleton and observed under stereo-microscope for evidence of skeletaldifferentiation in the form of presence of secondary ossification centers in ling bones. The time of appearanceof these centers were noted and compared statistically with those in the control animals. Results: This studyrevealed that the secondary ossification centers in long bones were delayed in experimental animals andsimultaneous treatment with Zinc Chloride partially prevented toxicity of ciprofloxacin as compared withcontrols. Conclusion: these results strongly suggest that ciprofloxacin causes a risk to skeletal differentiation and therefore to its growth. However the cirpofloxacin toxicity could ne partially prevented by simultaneousadministration of Zinc Chloride in wistar albino rat litters.
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