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Categorising Example Sentences in Dictionaries for Research Purposes
L Hiles
Lexikos , 2011,
Abstract: Examples in dictionaries come in many different forms. They may be sentences or phrases. They may be corpus-based or made up by the lexicographer. They may contain the lemma in its uninflected form or they may contain an inflection of the lemma. In some dictionaries the function of examples is to provide contextual support to the meaning of the headword, and in others the grammatical support that they provide is more important. While there is literature on the usefulness of examples, and on whether examples should be corpus-based or not, there is very little on what makes one example more useful than another. I have set out to find out what sort of examples South African school users identify as most helpful. In this article, I look at whether examples in five South African school dictionaries do provide suitable contextual or grammatical support. I have constructed a table to classify example sentences according to different criteria. I filled in this table with randomly selected words and their examples which have been taken from five different South African school dictionaries. The goal of this research is to present characteristics of examples in a way that makes them easier to analyse and compare. This should help lexicographers in future dictionaries check whether they have written or selected the best possible examples for their users' needs.
Categorising Example Sentences in Dictionaries for Research Purposes Kategorisering van voorbeeldsinne in woordeboeke vir navorsingsdoeleindes.  [cached]
Lorna Hiles
Lexikos , 2012, DOI: 10.5788/21-1-46
Abstract: Examples in dictionaries come in many different forms. They may be sentences or phrases. They may be corpus-based or made up by the lexicographer. They may contain the lemma in its uninflected form or they may contain an inflection of the lemma. In some dictionaries the function of examples is to provide contextual support to the meaning of the headword, and in others the grammatical support that they provide is more important. While there is literature on the usefulness of examples, and on whether examples should be corpus-based or not, there is very little on what makes one example more useful than another. I have set out to find out what sort of examples South African school users identify as most helpful. In this article, I look at whether examples in five South African school dictionaries do provide suitable contextual or grammatical support. I have constructed a table to classify example sentences according to different criteria. I filled in this table with randomly selected words and their examples which have been taken from five different South African school dictionaries. The goal of this research is to present characteristics of examples in a way that makes them easier to analyse and compare. This should help lexicographers in future dictionaries check whether they have written or selected the best possible examples for their users' needs. Voorbeelde in woordeboeke verskyn in baie verskillende vorme. Hulle kan sinne of frases wees. Hulle kan korpusgebaseer of deur die leksikograaf geskep wees. Hulle kan die lemma in sy onverbo vorm bevat of hulle kan 'n verbuiging van die lemma bevat. In sommige woordeboeke is die funksie van voorbeelde om kontekstuele steun vir die betekenis van die trefwoord te verskaf, in ander is die grammatiese steun wat hulle verskaf, belangriker. Terwyl daar literatuur oor die nuttigheid van voorbeelde bestaan, en of voorbeelde korpusgebaseer moet wees of nie, bestaan daar baie min oor wat een voorbeeld nuttiger maak as 'n ander. Ek het begin om uit te vind watter soort voorbeelde Suid-Afrikaanse skoolgebruikers aanwys as die nuttigste. In hierdie artikel kyk ek of voorbeelde in vyf Suid-Afrikaanse skoolwoordeboeke wel geskikte kontekstuele of grammatiese steun verskaf. Ek het 'n tabel opgestel om voorbeeldsinne volgens verskillende maatstawwe te klassifiseer. Ek het hierdie tabel voltooi met lukraak gekose woorde en hul voorbeelde wat uit vyf verskillende Suid-Afrikaanse skoolwoordeboeke geneem is. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om eienskappe van voorbeelde op 'n manier aan te bied wat dit makliker maak om hulle
Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
R Gauton
Lexikos , 2008,
Abstract: Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully.
Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator
Rachélle Gauton
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--479
Abstract: : This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilingual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific reference to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexicographer has to deal with and take cognisance of when compiling a translation dictionary. Of these, the main problem is the basic lack of equivalence or anisomorphism which exists between languages. This non-equivalence between languages is also the root cause of the difficulties with which the translator or user of the bilingual dictionary has to contend. The problems experienced by translators therefore overlap to a great extent with those which the lexicographer experiences in compiling a bilingual dictionary. It is concluded that the user of a bilingual dictionary should not only know what to expect to find in a translation dictionary, but must also treat such a dictionary with caution and discernment. It is also shown that there are clear criteria which the lexicographer can follow in compiling a bilingual dictionary, which would then enable the user (and in particular the translator as user) to disambiguate the recorded information successfully. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHER, TRANSLATOR, ISIZULU,PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY LEXICOGRAPHERS, PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY TRANSLATORS,NONEQUIVALENCE BETWEEN LANGUAGES, CHARACTER, SHORTCOMINGSAND ADVANTAGES OF BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES Opsomming: Tweetalige woordeboeke, die leksikograaf en die vertaler.Die fokus van hierdie artikel is op die probleme, en voor- en nadele van die tweetalige woordeboekvanuit die oogpunt van sowel die leksikograaf as die vertaler, met spesifieke verwysing na tweetaligeZuluwoordeboeke. Daar word aangetoon dat daar baie en uiteenlopende probleme is waaraandie leksikograaf moet aandag gee en waarvan hy/sy moet kennis neem by die samestelling van 'nvertalende woordeboek. Die vernaamste van hierdie probleme is die basiese gebrek aan ekwivalensieof anisomorfisme wat tussen tale bestaan. Hierdie nie-ekwivalensie tussen tale is ook diegrondoorsaak van die moeilikhede waarmee die vertaler of gebruiker van die tweetalige woordeboekmoet worstel. Die probleme ondervind deur vertalers oorvleuel dus tot 'n groot mate met diéwat die leksikograaf ondervind by die samestellling van 'n tweetalige woordeboek. Daar word totdie slotsom gekom dat die gebruiker van 'n tweetalige woordeboek nie net moet weet wat om van'n vertalende woordeboek te verwag nie, maar ook so 'n woordeboek omsigtig en oordeelkund
Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries
M Mafela
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.
Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specific situation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners' dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in modernday lexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a new language, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especially in closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionary could assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage.
Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*
Rufus H. Gouws
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/14--693
Abstract: : When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY. Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag. Daar word aangedui dat 'n tipologiese hibriede woordeboek van waardekan wees vir sekere gebruikers. Die belang van 'n ondubbelsinnige vasstelling van die tersaaklikewoordeboekfunksies word beklemtoon en die begrippe funksieverdigting en funksiesamesmeltingword aan die orde gestel. Daar word aangetoon dat die tipologiese keuse bepaal moet word deur 'nfunksie-gebaseerde benadering tot woordeboekgebruik. Sleutelwoorde: AANLEERDERWOORDEBOEK, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, FUNKSIESAMESMELTING, FUNKSIEVERDIGTING, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE FUNKSIES, TEKSPRODUKSIE,TEKSRESEPSIE, TIPOLOGIE, TIPOLOGIESE HIBRIED, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VALSEVRIENDE, WERKLIKE D
The role of the introductory matter in bilingual dictionaries of English and Arabic
H Al-Ajmi
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: Monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for learners of English as foreign language differ from each other in many aspects. Among the differences are the types of information a dictionary provides outside the A–Z word list, especially in its introductory matter. Yet, dictionary introductions have been referred to rather peripherally in the literature on dictionary users and uses. Within the context of lexicographic practice, this study aims to outline the differences between EFL learner's dictionaries and bilingual English–Arabic dictionaries, and to determine to what extent a given set of popular dictionaries provide varied and sufficient information in their introductions. Three categories of dictionaries will be the subject of comparison: EFL dictionaries, European bilingual dictionaries, and bilingual dictionaries in the Arab world.
Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries
N Mpofu
Lexikos , 2001,
Abstract: In compiling bilingual dictionaries, lexicographers are mostly concerned with semantic equivalence. As a result, the practice of bilingual dictionary compilers is usually that of giving one-word equivalents. However, this equivalence is at times difficult to arrive at because of the disparities and incommensurability between languages and cultures. According to Sapir (1921) and Whorf (1956), one cannot expect an exact match between two languages that express different cultural realities. Given this scenario, compilers of bilingual dictionaries end up bridging the gap between languages by giving translational equivalents rather than relying solely on one-word equivalents. The Shona-English bilingual dictionaries, namely Hannan (1974) and Dale (1981), like other bilingual dictionaries, also display this characteristic. This article will discuss the problems of translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable corpora.
Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries  [cached]
Munzhedzi James Mafela
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/15-0-18
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard. Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY ***** OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die ekwivalent waarvoor hule soek, te maak. Tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke is dus nie van hulp vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaal-sprekers van die taal is nie. Middele soos die gee van ophelderende voorbeelde, die aantoon van rededele en die byvoeging van etimologie kan gebruik word om die probleem van betekenisonder-skeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke op te los. Hierdie artikel beklemtoon die probleem van die afwesigheid van betekenisonderskeiding en dien oplossings in dié verband aan die hand vir toekomstige Vendaleksikograwe. Sleutelwoorde: TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, BETEKENISONDERSKEIDING, EKWI-VALENSIE, TREFWOORD, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, KULTUUR, V
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