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El malecu: Una cultura en peligro de extinción / Maleku: A Culture in Danger of Extinction  [cached]
Elvia Espinoza Romero,Noemy Mejía Marín,Sandra Ovares Barquero
Revista Electrónica Educare , 2011,
Abstract: Recibido 05 de mayo de 2010 Aceptado 31 de agosto de 2010 Corregido 28 de julio de 2011 Resumen. El presente artículo versa sobre una de las lenguas indígenas de Costa Rica, el malecu. Esta lengua es una de las que aún se mantienen vivas en el país; no obstante, la comunidad lingüística que la practica, compuesta por menos de 400 personas, tiende a reducirse aceleradamente. Existe un alto riesgo de que en el futuro próximo dicha lengua llegue a desaparecer. El artículo surge como producto de un proyecto de investigación que se plantea la construcción e implementación de estrategias de aprendizaje, que incorporen las costumbres, tradiciones y lengua autóctona de los indígenas malecu; todo esto en el ámbito escolar, para fortalecer la identidad y la cultura de esta población indígena costarricense. Abstract. This paper is about the Maleku, one of the indigenous languages that is still alive in the country; though the linguistic community that uses it, composed of less than 400 people, tends to reduce rapidly. There is a high risk that in the near future this language will disappear. This paper is the result of a research project that proposes the construction and implementation of learning strategies that would help to include the customs, traditions and the native language of the Malekus in the schools, to strengthen the identity and culture of this Costa Rican indigenous population. The research project includes a brief overview of the history and problems of the indigenous Maleku population, and an analysis on the importance of the language and oral expression. It also makes a review of how the indigenous languages in Costa Rican schools are currently taught. It later includes a diagnosis of the current situation of language from the perspective of different members of the Maleku community. This diagnosis is based on the research conducted and it will facilitate focusing on the integration of the Maleku and rural curriculums. Finally, there are some reflections about the bilingual intercultural education.
Danger Invariants  [PDF]
Cristina David,Daniel Kroening,Matt Lewis
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Static analysers search for overapproximating proofs of safety commonly known as safety invariants. Fundamentally, such analysers summarise traces into sets of states, thus trading the ability to distinguish traces for computational tractability. Conversely, static bug finders (e.g. Bounded Model Checking) give evidence for the failure of an assertion in the form of a counterexample, which can be inspected by the user. However, static bug finders fail to scale when analysing programs with bugs that require many iterations of a loop as the computational effort grows exponentially with the depth of the bug. We propose a novel approach for finding bugs, which delivers the performance of abstract interpretation together with the concrete precision of BMC. To do this, we introduce the concept of danger invariants -- the dual to safety invariants. Danger invariants summarise sets of traces that are guaranteed to reach an error state. This summarisation allows us to find deep bugs without false alarms and without explicitly unwinding loops. We present a second-order formulation of danger invariants and use the Second-Order SAT solver described in previous work to compute danger invariants for intricate programs taken from the literature.
Trauma is danger
Paul F Hwang, Nancy Porterfield, Dylan Pannell, Thomas A Davis, Eric A Elster
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-9-92
Abstract: A literature search using PubMed was used to identify pertinent articles describing the Danger model in relation to trauma.Our knowledge of Danger signals in relation to traumatic injury is still limited. Danger/alarmin signals are the most proximal molecules in the immune response that have many possibilities for effector function in the innate and acquired immune systems. Having a full understanding of these molecules and their pathways would give us the ability to intervene at such an early stage and may prove to be more effective in blunting the post-injury inflammatory response unlike previously failed cytokine experiments.The immune system has two effector arms, innate and adaptive, which mediate the response to pathogens and injury. The innate system is a non-specific response while the adaptive system is pathogen and antigen specific. This system has evolved to respond appropriately to pathogen or injury, but may be maladaptive in the setting of overwhelming injury as seen in complex traumatic war wounds or multisystem civilian trauma. In the setting of severe traumatic injury, the immune system is overwhelmed by the massive release of endogenous signals from injured tissue. Once systemically activated, the immune system reacts against the host, potentiating tissue damage and leading to organ failure [1]. In this situation, the immunologic response to injury, not the actual injury itself, leads to undue morbidity, and in some cases mortality.While immune mediated responses have classically been thought to center on self and non-self interactions and thereby neglect most traumatic injuries, the Danger model abandons this classical concept [2]. The Danger model theorizes that the immune system's primary driving force is the need to detect and protect against danger and does not discriminate between self and non-self [2]. This concept states that the mechanism by which a cell dies governs whether the immune response is initiated. Therefore, tissue damage or an
Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity
Blasco, A.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008001300012
Abstract: some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. the central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. a breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. a breed can be generated or transformed. we can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that), and genetic variability within breeds is large. we need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. a breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction), it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be). we can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.
Carolina Díaz Giraldo
Luna Azul , 2006,
Abstract: Two topics make up the central discussion of the present essay: the danger and opportunity of the environmental crisis. Intimately related, and yet contradictory notions, danger and opportunity are worthwhile subjects of reflection from a critical perspective, as well as from a propositional one; making it viable to motivate the discussion in regards to the interpretations of the environmental crisis in Colombia on the grounds of complex thought.
Method of Testing of Driver’s Response to Danger  [PDF]
Andrey A. Pesoshin,Valery V. Rozhentsov
European Researcher , 2012,
Abstract: The article considers the method of testing of driver’s response to danger. The average time of the response to danger, based on examination of a group of 10 driving school students is from 0.3 to 0.6 seconds.
A Discussion of Chinese Swaddling Culture  [PDF]
Xiaorong Liu, Yunyi Ma
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.42011
Abstract: Every culture has its own swaddling culture. As for China, this swaddling culture can be dated from Shang Dynasty. It is widely employed in not only royal families but also normal families in ancient times, and even till now is still a vital part of Chinese minorities nurturing custom. Swaddle, a long historical nursing product, itself owns a high practical value as well as presenting humanism. Base on ancient literatures and Chinese archaic characters (襁褓), this manuscript will display the unique and profound aspect of Chinese nurturing culture, dispel the misunderstanding of this traditional culture.
Ancient Origin of the New Developmental Superfamily DANGER  [PDF]
Nikolas Nikolaidis, Dimitra Chalkia, D. Neil Watkins, Roxanne K. Barrow, Solomon H. Snyder, Damian B. van Rossum, Randen L. Patterson
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000204
Abstract: Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER), which originated before the emergence of animals (~850 million years ago) and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution. Sequence analysis demonstrates that DANGER proteins diverged via multiple mechanisms, including amino acid substitution, intron gain and/or loss, and recombination. Divergence for DANGER proteins is substantially greater than for the prototypic member of the superfamily (Mab-21 family) and other developmental protein families (e.g., WNT proteins).?DANGER proteins are widely expressed and display species-dependent tissue expression patterns, with many members having roles in development. DANGER1A, which regulates the inositol trisphosphate receptor, promotes the differentiation and outgrowth of neuronal processes. Regulation of development may be a universal function of DANGER family members. This family provides a model system to investigate how rapid protein divergence contributes to morphological complexity.
Misunderstanding Prescription Physician’s Oral Instructions in Patients with Low Back Pain
Alireza Khoshnevisan,Mir Saeed Yekaninejad,Amir Haji Agha Pakpour,Azam Mardani
Acta Medica Iranica , 2010,
Abstract: "nMedication errors and adverse drug events can bring about hospitalization, permanent injury, or death. Patients due to lack of adequate understanding of instruction may unintentionally misuse a prescribed medicine. The aims of the study were to examine whether patients with low back pain were correctly able to understand physician's instructions regarding drug use and also to identify influencing factors in patient's misunderstanding. The sample of the study included patients with low back pain who had been referred to five clinics in order to follow their treatment procedure. The patients completed a questionnaire to assess understanding of physician's instructions by the patients. Afterwards, physician provided them oral instructions on how they must use medications. Once the physician finished the oral instruction, he was asked patients to repeat whatever he said about the instructions. This procedure repeated frequently until the patients described correctly Instructions of the medications use. One hundred and five patients participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 57.5 (± 13.9) years. Thirty three patients were female (31.4%) and 75.2 percent were married. Almost 80% of the patients misunderstood the oral prescription instructions at first time of presentation instruction. Gender, educational level, back pain history and drug use history were risk factors for misunderstanding prescription medication oral instructions for patients. The study affirmed that patients with low back pain suffered from a poor understanding of oral instruction.
The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems  [PDF]
Uwe Aickelin,Steve Cayzer
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Over the last decade, a new idea challenging the classical self-non-self viewpoint has become popular amongst immunologists. It is called the Danger Theory. In this conceptual paper, we look at this theory from the perspective of Artificial Immune System practitioners. An overview of the Danger Theory is presented with particular emphasis on analogies in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing for a critical assessment of the concept, and its relevance for Artificial Immune Systems.
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