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Health Services Utilization and Associated Factors in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia
F Girma, C Jira, B Girma
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, utilization of health services remains low and unevenly distributed. To ensure appropriate health care use, we need to understand factors affecting health care use, and the reasons for low levels of utilization among our community. The objective of the study was to assess utilization of health services and associated factors in Jimma zone, south west Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional data was collected from January 15 to February 08, 2007 in Jimma zone. First, four districts were selected by lottery method. Then 2 ‘kebeles’ from each district were selected randomly and households were selected by systematic sampling. A total of 836 households were studied. The data were cleaned, coded and entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 12.0. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were conducted and a significance level of 5% was considered for interpretation. RESULTS: The health services utilization rate was found to be 45.6%. After controlling confounders using logistic regression; sex (OR=0.23), marital status (OR=8.1), household income (OR=0.70), socioeconomic status (OR=3.5), presence of disabling health problem (OR=3.3), presence of an illness episode (OR=28.3), perceived transport cost (OR=3.6), perceived treatment cost (OR=0.15) and distance to the nearest health center or hospital (OR=2.9) were found to be predictors of utilization of health care. CONCLUSIONS: It has been shown that utilization level was not satisfactory. Thus, we recommend that the level of health service utilization should be improved by improving predictors of health care use like physical accessibility. KEY WORDS: Health services utilization, accessibility, health status
Magnitude and Pattern of Injury in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia
K Woldemichael, N Berhanu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Injury statistics in Ethiopia provides little knowledge about its magnitude and related information needed for prevention. This study, therefore, aims to determine the magnitude and pattern of injury in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHODS: A retrospective review of records of all injured patients seen at surgical outpatient department from April 09, 2010 to January 07, 2011; was conducted in January 2011. Data were collected using a structured checklist that was developed by adapting the World Health Organization instrument. Five degree holder nurses collected the data while investigators closely supervised. Socio demographic characteristics of the patients and injury related information were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. RESULTS: Of 13500 patients who visited surgical outpatient department of JUSH during the study period, 1102(8.2%) were injury cases. The commonest mechanism of injury was blunt assault, 341(30.9%), followed by road traffic accident, 334(30.3). Fracture was the leading outcome of injury, 454(41.2%), followed by bruise or skin laceration, 404(36.7%). Significantly more males had cut, (AOR=2.0; 95% CI=1.2, 3.3) and stab, (AOR=3.0; 95% CI=1.6, 5.7), injuries compared to females. Conversely, significantly fewer males had burn, (AOR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2, 0.8) and road traffic accident, (AOR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5, 0.9), than females. Most, 715(95.8%), patients were presented to the hospital within one week. The commonest functional limitations were; difficulty to use hands, 312(28.3%) and difficulty to use legs, 217(19.7%). Eighty three, (7.5%) of the patients died and road traffic accident alone accounted for almost half, 179 (49.7%), of the severe injuries. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of injury in the hospital was considerably high. Age and sex were predictors of injury. Appropriate prevention strategies should be designed and implemented against assault, road traffic accident and cut by sharp tool. KEYWORDS: Injury, Magnitude, Pattern, Case records, Jimma University Specialized Hospital Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3 November 2011
Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia
Abebe Alemu, Gemeda Abebe, Wondewossen Tsegaye, Lemu Golassa
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-30
Abstract: Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables.During last ten years (2000-2009), a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008), monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013) and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040), at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area.Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and climatology is necessary to identify the real effect of meteorological factors on vector- borne diseases like malaria.Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. Nine out of ten of these deaths occur in Africa and the rest occur in Asia and Latin America, being the world's most prevalent vector-borne disease. It is the fourth leading cause of death of children under the age of five years and pregnant women in developing countries [1,2]. Also, the disease remains one of the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality with enormous medical, economic and emotional impact in the world. More than half of the world's population is at risk of acquiring malaria, and the propo
Assessment of Quality of Care Delivered for Infectious Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia
T Geremew, C Jira, F Girma
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACK GROUND: Providing quality of care for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients is crucial in prevention and control of the disease. However, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of care delivered for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patient in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. METHODS: Facility based cross- sectional study was conducted from January- February 2008 in 10 public health facilities in Jimma Zone. Facility audit was carried out to assess structural quality. Twenty providers were interviewed and records of 299 smear positive patients registered for 1 year was reviewed. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 11.0 for windows statistical software and findings at 95% CI and p value of 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that all the three quality dimensions were graded as poor in all the study health facilities and overall 66.0% of TB patients receive poor quality care. Four variables were identified that significantly predicted treatment success, i.e. conformity to the recommended schedule of sputum smear microscopy, conformity to DOTS drug regimen during both intensive and continuation phase of therapy and quality of registration of patients' medical records. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that most of the problems could be managed at local level, while a few needs further discussion with other management bodies. Success of anti tuberculosis therapy could be ensured through strict adherence to all the elements of DOTS strategy, with special emphasis on the 4 variables that significantly predicted treatment success in the present study. KEYWORDS: Quality, Tuberculosis care, Jimma Zone.
Traditional Forest Management Practices in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia
K Hundera
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: A Study on traditional forest management practices was conducted in three selected woredas of Jimma zone from January 2005 to June 2005. The objective of the study was to identify traditional practices that had contributed to the conservation of forests and to devise means of utilizing these practices presently for the conservation effort of the remaining forest resources of the zone. The methods employed in the study were interview and focus group discussion with local community elders and leaders, Woreda level agricultural experts and kebele administrators. From the study, it was found that the local communities conserve forest tree species traditionally either for religious practices as in the case of Ficus vasta, Podocarpus falcatus, Ekebergia capensis and Ficus sychomore, or for the benefits they drive from the forest as in the case of coffee shade trees (Albiza gummifera, Milletia ferrugnea and Acacia abyssinica), and for the apiculture. There are traditional administrative setups in the community for enforcing these practices but their ultimate authority is presently eroded by modern administrative setups. If these traditional practices are integrated with modern conservation efforts, it will greatly support the conservation of rapidly diminishing forests of the region. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Science Vol. 2 (2) 2007: pp. 1-10
Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Jimma municipal abattoir, South West Ethiopia  [cached]
T. Tolosa,W. Tigre,G. Teka,P. Dorny
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v76i3.37
Abstract: A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis was conducted from October 2007 to March 2008 in cattle slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir. Cyst distribution and viability of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis were also determined. A total of 512 carcasses were inspected of which 15 (2.93 %) and 161 (31.44 %) were infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes and hydatid cysts, respectively. From a total of 109 cysticerci collected from infected carcasses, 47 (43.12 %) were viable. The anatomical distribution of the cysticerci was, shoulder muscle (39.5 %), heart (33.9 %), neck muscle (13.8 %), tongue (10.1 %), masseter muscles (1.8 %) and diaphragm (0.9 %). Of the 1171 hydatid cysts collected 223 (19.0 %) were fertile, 505 (43.1 %) sterile, 49 (29.8 %) calcified and 94 (8.0 %) contained pus. A greater proportion of fertile cysts were found in the lungs than in other organs. It was concluded that these zoonotic cestodes deserve due attention to safeguard public health, and that further studies are needed on genotyping, epidemiology and public health importance of Echinococcus granulosus in the study area.
Prevalence and Susceptibility Assay of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms of Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia
Tariku Sori,Jemal Hussien,Molalegne Bitew
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.745.749
Abstract: Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected aseptically and California Mastitis Test (CMT) was carried out to identify subclinical mastitis from dairy cows. All CMT high scored and clinically positive samples were investigated microbiologically. Rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was determined and susceptibility of 11 antibiotics against S. aureus was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and the result was expressed as sensitive, intermediate and resistant. From total of 218 milk samples collected, 164 CMT high score milk samples were cultured of which 86 (52.4%) of pure strains of S. aureus were isolated. Out of 86 pure isolates of S. aureus resistance was detected for Penicillin (87.2%), Nalidixic acid (92%), Amoxicillin (46%), Chloramphenicol (16%), Clindamycin (4%) and Vancomycin (3%). The study also revealed that S. aureus was found to be sensitive for Norfloxacilin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline and Bacitracin. The present finding indicates that these isolates exhibited the highest degree of resistance to Nalidicic Acid, Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol of among the tested anti microbial agents in comparison to previous studies reported. Furthermore, resistance follow-up, appropriate selection and use of antibiotic is recommended in the treatment of mastitis.
Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants among Health Workers in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
A Yami, L Hamza, A Hassen, C Jira, M Sudhakar
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human power is the back bone for the provision of quality health care for the population. High level of professional satisfaction among health workers earns high dividends such as higher worker force retention and patients satisfaction. There is limited amount of literature in the areas related to factors affecting job satisfaction and retention. The objective of this study was to determine the job satisfaction of health professionals working in Jimma University Specialized Hospital and factors affecting their level of satisfaction. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the level and factors affecting job satisfaction and retention of health professionals working in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted from March to October 2009 and included all categories of health professionals working in the hospital during the study period. Data was collected using self administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. After the data was collected, it was entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 windows statistical software. Chi-square tests were made to evaluate association of different variables with job satisfaction, and P-value < 0.05, at 95% CI was taken as cut off point for statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 145 health professionals have responded for the self administered questionnaire. The result showed that sixty seven (46.2%) of the health workers are dissatisfied with their job. The major reasons reported for their dissatisfaction were lack of motivation, inadequate salary, insufficient training opportunities and inadequate number of human resources. Only sixty (41.4%) health professionals were satisfied with their job, the major reasons given were getting satisfaction from helping others and professional gratification. Suggestion given by the respondents to improve job satisfaction and increase retention rate included motivation of staff through different incentives such us bonus, house allowance, salary increment, establishing good administration management system and improving hospital facilities and infrastructure. CONCLUSION: Job satisfaction of health professionals in Jimma University Specialized Hospital was found to be low. Responsible bodies should devise mechanisms to improve job satisfaction and retention of health professional so as to improve the healthcare services of the hospital. KEYWORDS: Job satisfaction, Health Workers, Jimma University Specialized Hospital
Predictors of refusal of provider initiated HIV testing among clients visiting adult outpatient departments in Jimma town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: unmatched case control study
Lemu YK, Koricha ZB, Gebretsadik LA, Roro AG
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S33122
Abstract: edictors of refusal of provider initiated HIV testing among clients visiting adult outpatient departments in Jimma town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: unmatched case control study Original Research (1747) Total Article Views Authors: Lemu YK, Koricha ZB, Gebretsadik LA, Roro AG Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 103 - 115 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S33122 Received: 19 April 2012 Accepted: 08 June 2012 Published: 02 August 2012 Yohannes Kebede Lemu, Zewdie Birhanu Koricha, Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik, Ameyu Godesso Roro Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Currently, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing (PIHT) in health facilities is one of the strategies to advance HIV testing and related services. However, many HIV infected clients are missing the opportunities. This study intends to identify predictors of refusal of PIHT among clients visiting adult outpatient departments (OPDs) in Jimma town. Methods: An unmatched case control study was conducted among 296 clients: 149 cases refusing HIV testing and 147 controls accepting HIV testing. The study recruited clients from OPDs of four public health facilities between March 6 and April 8, 2011 using consecutive sampling. The study instrument was adapted mainly considering health belief model (HBM). Jimma University ethical committee reviewed the study protocol. Data were collected by face-to-face interview and analyzed using SPSS Statistics (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY) software, version 16.0. Data were subjected to factor and reliability analysis. For prediction analysis, the study used logistic regression and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). To see the effects among HBM constructs, the study used standardized beta (β) coefficients at P < 0.05. Results: The study findings showed adjusted protective effects on refusal of PIHT for residence outside study town [adjusted OR (AOR) (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.22–0.79)] and higher scores of perceived benefit of early testing [AOR (95% CI)] = 0.86 (0.69–0.99)], self efficacy to live with HIV [AOR (95% CI) = 0.79 (0.66–0.93)], nondisclosure agreement [AOR (95% CI) = 0.74 (0.58–0.93)], perceived explicitness of opt-out right during initiation [AOR (95% CI) = 0.74 (0.56–0.98)] and clients’ perceptions of selective initiation of HIV suspected [AOR (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.41–0.73)]. On the other hand, report of recent testing [AOR (95% CI) = 3.82 (1.71–8.55)] and perceived unpreparedness for testing [AOR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.57–2.21)] aggravated refusal of PIHT. Exposure to cues to testing significantly reduced perceived barriers [β (P) = –0.05 (0.037)]. Conclusion: Clients’ perceived barriers: feeling of unpreparedness for testing strongly aggravated refusal of test. Enhanced self-efficacy to live with HIV and presence of cues to HIV testing would reduce unpreparedness and protect from refusing PIHT.
Utilization of Health Information System at District Level in Jimma Zone Oromia Regional State, South West Ethiopia
S Abajebel, C Jira, W Beyene
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Information systems are increasingly important for measuring and improving the quality and coverage of health services. Reliable and timely health information is vital for operational and strategic decision making that save lives and enhances health. In Ethiopia information quality and use remain weak, particularly at district health offices and primary health care facilities to facilitate decision making. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the utilization of health information systems at District level in Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in all health institutions by interviewing heads/ units/departments of District Health Office, Health Center and Health Post from January to February, 2009. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using structured questionnaires, check lists, observation and interview guide by trained data collectors. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive and logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The finding of the study revealed that utilization of health information was 119(32.9%) in all the study units/departments. The major source of data was routine and vertical program report from public institutions. The utilization of information was affected by many factors but from variables studied only documentation of data, catchment population profile charts presentation and quarter plan performance monitoring was found significant at 95 % level of significance. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified that the implementation of health data/information and utilization of health information system was found to be far below the national expectation. Activities are poorly coordinated at the districts and primary health units where data was generated initially. Therefore, in-service training and updating of staff involved in health information system (HIS) at district, strengthening health information system inputs, timely and concrete feedbacks with establishment of functional health management information system (HMIS). KEY WORDS: Health Management Information System, utilization of health information at Districts
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