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 Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/9/1/036 Abstract: Several experimental groups have reported evidence for baryons with flavor exotic quantum numbers that cannot be explained as $qqq$ bound states but require a minimum of five quarks -- $qqqq \bar q$. These pentaquark states include the $\theta^{+}$, the $\Xi^{--}$ and the $\theta_{c}$. The reported widths of these new states are consistent with experimental resolution and may be as narrow as a few MeV/$c^2$ or less. Prior to 2003, experimental searches for flavor exotic baryons spanning several decades yielded negative results. There have also been a number of searches carried out since the reports of these new pentaquark states that do not confirm their existence. This review of both the positive and negative reports seeks to understand the current situation regarding the experimental evidence for pentaquarks.
 Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000700010 Abstract: this paper discusses the reasons for skill mix among health workers being important for health systems. it examines the evidence base (identifying its limitations), summarizes the main findings from a literature review, and highlights the evidence on skill mix that is available to inform health system managers, health professionals, health policy-makers and other stakeholders. many published studies are merely descriptive accounts or have methodological weaknesses. with few exceptions, the published analytical studies were undertaken in the usa, and the findings may not be relevant to other health systems. the results from even the most rigorous of studies cannot necessarily be applied to a different setting. this reflects the basis on which skill mix should be examined - identifying the care needs of a specific patient population and using these to determine the required skills of staff. it is therefore not possible to prescribe in detail a "universal" ideal mix of health personnel. with these limitations in mind, the paper examines two main areas in which investigating current evidence can make a significant contribution to a better understanding of skill mix. for the mix of nursing staff, the evidence suggests that increased use of less qualified staff will not be effective in all situations, although in some cases increased use of care assistants has led to greater organizational effectiveness. evidence on the doctor-nurse overlap indicates that there is unrealized scope in many systems for extending the use of nursing staff. the effectiveness of different skill mixes across other groups of health workers and professions, and the associated issue of developing new roles remain relatively unexplored.
 Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, Abstract: This paper discusses the reasons for skill mix among health workers being important for health systems. It examines the evidence base (identifying its limitations), summarizes the main findings from a literature review, and highlights the evidence on skill mix that is available to inform health system managers, health professionals, health policy-makers and other stakeholders. Many published studies are merely descriptive accounts or have methodological weaknesses. With few exceptions, the published analytical studies were undertaken in the USA, and the findings may not be relevant to other health systems. The results from even the most rigorous of studies cannot necessarily be applied to a different setting. This reflects the basis on which skill mix should be examined - identifying the care needs of a specific patient population and using these to determine the required skills of staff. It is therefore not possible to prescribe in detail a "universal" ideal mix of health personnel. With these limitations in mind, the paper examines two main areas in which investigating current evidence can make a significant contribution to a better understanding of skill mix. For the mix of nursing staff, the evidence suggests that increased use of less qualified staff will not be effective in all situations, although in some cases increased use of care assistants has led to greater organizational effectiveness. Evidence on the doctor-nurse overlap indicates that there is unrealized scope in many systems for extending the use of nursing staff. The effectiveness of different skill mixes across other groups of health workers and professions, and the associated issue of developing new roles remain relatively unexplored.
 Physics , 2013, Abstract: We review Foyle et al. (2011) previous results, by applying a Fourier intensity phases method to a nine object sample of galaxies. It was found that two of the objects (NGC 628 and NGC 5194), with strong two-arm patterns, present positive evidence for long-lived spirals. Only one of the objects (NGC 3627) shows the contrary evidence. As determined by an analysis of resolved mass maps, the rest of the objects can not be included in the analysis because they belong to flocculent and multi-arm type of spiral arms, which are not described by density wave theory.
 BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-401 Abstract: A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria.The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner.We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand.Since the introduction of the universal health insurance coverage policy in 2001, Thailand has sought to further ensure efficient resource allocation in the health sector [1]. Evidence-based decision making requires that decisions about health and health care are based on best available information. To use such an approach it is necessary to appraise what constitutes evidence in relation to health-enhancing interventions. While the use of effectiveness information alone to justify health care resource allocation is still common practice, decision makers, academics and health care professionals are increasingly interested in cost-effectiveness data to guide policy making. Such evaluation are designed to guide ex
 Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2017.51001 Abstract: Electricity plays a crucial role in the economic development of most economies. The causality nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth is important in enacting energy consumption policy and environmental policy. Many researchers have studied the causality between energy consumption and economic growth yet no consensus has emerged. Irrespective of the numerous researches conducted between these two variables, less evidence has been recorded in Ghana. Studies establishing the direction of causality between economic growth and energy consumption have concluded mixed result posing stern threat to Ghana’s energy policy. It is therefore viable to investigate the direction of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in Ghana. This study uses the Cobb-Douglas growth model covering time series data from 1970 to 2014. Vector Error Correction Model was also conducted in order to empirically ascertain the error correction adjustment. Granger Causality test was used to determine the direction of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth and the empirical findings obtained herein reveals that there exists a unidirectional causality running from GDP to electricity consumption. This line of causality obtained from the data supports Growth-Led-Energy Hypothesis. Therefore, it is evident that Ghana is a less energy-dependent economy.
 KF Asiedu Business and Economics Journal , 2012, Abstract: This study estimates the efficiency levels of firms in the manufacturing sector of Ghana using a single-stage stochastic frontier technique. A five-year panel data of 135 observations made between 2005 and 2009 are considered. The results show that the frontier model instead of the traditional average response (OLS) function is an adequate representation for the data. Findings reveal that employment, capital, corporate governance, ownership, and years of firm operation/experience have reasserting influence on the productivity of the firms. However, research and development and time which are used as a proxy for technological progress are found to have negative influence on the firm’s output. The combined effects of factors involved in the technical inefficiency model are responsible in explaining the level and variations in the production of the firms in Ghana, although individual effects of some variables are not significant. Over all, private firms fared better. However, the predicted mean technical efficiency is estimated to be 38 percent. This finding indicates that there is high potential for increasing firm’s output by an average of 62 percent in the short-run without anyadditional resource by adopting the practices of the best firm.
 Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.714145 Abstract: For decades, researchers of tax systems and taxation as a whole are in a dilemma on the factors affecting taxpayers’ noncompliant behaviors. Numerous experimental and survey results concluded by tax researchers have identified characteristics of noncompliant taxpayers because tax revenues are seen as a major source of income in funding government expenditures. Globalization has called for a huge demand for numerous public services thereby forcing governments into increasing tax revenues to finance these projects. The demand of public service by government and taxpayers shifts the burden of taxes to taxpayers. The gap between tax revenues and tax expenditures are swelling thereby ensuring unbalanced government budgets due to taxpayers’ noncompliance. Understanding the causes of tax evasion calls for research into taxpayers’ reasons for evading taxes. The main aim of the study is investigating factors that have a detrimental effect on tax evasion in Ghana. In coming out with such factors, this research employed multiple regression techniques and factor analysis. The empirical results obtained from the analysis revealed that taxation and fiscal factors, demographic factors, administrative factors and economics factors are the main factors that have a significant effect on the evasion of taxes.
 European Journal of Oncology Pharmacy , 2010, Abstract: Pharmacogenetics deals with the factors regulating drug disposition and drug effects due to genetics. In oncology, genetic variations affect response to cytotoxic drugs and may be useful as a guide to treatment.
 Serbian Journal of Management , 2011, Abstract: This study explores the relationship between financial market development and choice of finance(debt-equity) of listed firms in Ghana in a panel data framework.The core concern of this study is totest whether debt and equity finance are complements or substitutes. The study used panel data whichinvolves pooling of twenty-one listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) over the period1995-2005. The study finds evidence of complementarity between banking and stock marketdevelopments in financing decisions of listed firms in Ghana. The stock market development isindicated to have a positive effect on the capital structure decisions of listed firms. However,substitution effect between debt and equity mainly in favour of equity financing sets in as thefinancial landscape develops further. This finding emphasises the important role equity markets indeveloping countries play in capital structure of listed firms.
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