oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
An assessment of the health care system for diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yeweyenhareg Feleke, Fikre Enquselassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: During the past decade, diabetes mellitus has emerged as an important clinical and public health problem through out the world. WHO estimated the number of cases of diabetics in Ethiopia to be about 800,000 in 2000, and projected that it would increase to about 1.8 million by the year 2030. Care for diabetic patients may require close and sustained support from a health care team, adequate financial resources, and advanced patient knowledge and motivation. In this respect, there is lack of information in the country. Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the characteristics of the health care system for diabetic patients, how diabetic patients are cared for including medical care and adequacy of facilities for the prevention of complications and outcomes at primary health care and secondary health care levels. Methods: An assessment of the characteristics of the health care system (structure) for diabetic patients was conducted in 21 health centres (primary health care level) and 5 regional hospitals (secondary health care level) in Addis Ababa. Furthermore, a total of 106 diabetic patients drawn from six out of the 21 health centres and another 123 diabetic patients drawn from three of the six hospitals were consecutively interviewed. Results: All the Regional hospitals and one of the health centres were running established diabetic referral clinics. Similarly, a lack of professionals was observed in all the health institutions in general and the health centres, in particular. Only 21% of patients had access for blood glucose monitoring at the same health institutions. The emphasis given for diabetic education (24%) was less than expected. Only 11 (5%) of diabetic patients were able to do self blood glucose monitoring at home. Fifty one percents of patients didn't have urine analysis, BUN, creatinine and lipid profile in the previous 1-2 years. None of diabetic patients had haemoglobin Alc (HbA1c) determination. Nearly 75% of the patients required admissions directly or indirectly due to uncontrolled diabetes. About 87% of the diabetics had regular follow ups at their respective health centres and hospitals. Hypertension (34%), diabetes related eye disease (33%) and renal disease (21%) were the major associated illnesses observed among the diabetics. Sixty-six patients (23%) had a total of about 131 admissions. Conclusion: Although there is a well-established health infrastructure for diabetics care in Addis Ababa, the diabetic care is below the acceptable standard. The finding of this study may, thus, help to clarify issues related to potential changes in the health care system dealing with diabetes and for strengthening the referral system for diabetes health care. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 203-210
Fertility awareness and post-abortion pregnancy intention in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yilma Melkamu, Fikre Enquselassie, Ahmed Ali, Hailemichael Gebresilassie, Lukman Yusuf
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Abortion related complications are known to be among the leading causes of maternal mortality and disabilities in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of post-abortion patients, regarding return of fertility and pregnancy intentions. Methods: Cross sectional study was undertaken in four government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from November 2001 to February 2002. Four hundred post-abortion cases were interviewed at the point of their discharge to get information on their fertility awareness and future pregnancy intentions. Results: Seventeen percent of the respondents who reported that the pregnancies were unwanted admitted some kind of interference with the pregnancy. Thirty six percent reported that they were assisted at clinics for inducing the abortion. Overall about 82% of them reported not having a plan to become pregnant in three months period following the abortion. Seventy three percent of them were not able to tell the time at which they could become pregnant if involved in sexual intercourse after the present abortion. Conclusion: This study revealed the urgent demand for quality services that should include education and provision of family planning counseling and methods. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):167-174
Mass concentrations and elemental composition of urban atmospheric aerosols in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
G. Gebre, Z. Feleke, E. Sahle-Demissie
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: Aerosol samples were collected from 22 February 2008 to 15 April 2008 and 17 June 2008 to 23 July 2008 in urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the aim to assess the spatial and temporal aspects of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and their composition in terms of metallic elements. Sixty six filter samples were collected from seven distinct sites using I.O.M. multi fraction dust samplers and fiber glass filter papers. The mass of each particulate matter sample was measured gravimetrically and the composition of PM10 samples was analyzed using ICP-OAES and SEM-EDAX. The concentration of TSP was in the range of 17-556 μg/m3 and that of PM10 was in the range of 17-285 μg/m3. The highest TSP and PM10 peak values were observed in February 2008 at two sites, whereas the lowest TSP and PM10 values were observed in June and July 2008 at two sites. The mean TSP concentration surpassed the WHO safe guideline value of 150 μg/m3 and 79 % of the PM10 values were below the WHO guideline value. The PM10 to TSP mass ratio was in the range 0.26-0.59 and PM10 mass contributed about 39% to the TSP mass. The average element concentration in PM10 filter sample was in the order of Ca > Na > K > Zn > Sb > B > Al > V > Mg > S > Fe. All the analyzed elements contributed about 0.1% to the PM10 mass. SEM-EDAX analysis of PM10 samples showed that Si, Al, Na, Zn, Ba, K and C were the predominant species. Crustal materials contributed 76-95% of the filter mass, and C and Cu represented 5-24%. The size distribution of aerosol particles as derived from SEM analysis was in 0.43-9.3 μm range. KEY WORDS: TSP, PM10, Metal analysis, Atmospheric aerosol, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010, 24(3), 361-373.
Factors Associated with Choice of Post-Abortion Contraception in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
N Prata, S Bell, M Holston, C Gerdts, Y Melkamu
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2011,
Abstract: The high demand for abortion related services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicates a reliance on abortion to control fertility and highlights an opportunity to increase access to contraceptives and improve post-abortion care. We analyzed the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion related services. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with use of modern or long-acting contraceptive post-abortion. Multivariate results illustrate that women aged 40-44, students, employed women, receipt of services in private clinics, number of children, and number of previous abortions were significantly associated with the odds of adopting any modern contraceptive post-abortion. The odds of choosing a long-active contraceptive method were significantly and positively associated with being age 25-29, attaining secondary or higher education, and number of children. Improved services and information along with reliable access to modern and long-acting contraceptives can reduce the need to use abortion to control fertility among women in Addis. La demande augmentée des services relatifs à l'avortement à Addis Abéba, Ethiopie, montre une indépendance de l'avortement pour contr ler la fertilité et souligne une opportunité pour augmenter l'accès aux contraceptifs et améliorer les soins du post-avortement. Nous avons analysé les dossiers des 1200 femmes qui recherchaient des services liés à l'avortement. Nous nous sommes servis de la régression logistique pour déterminer les facteurs liés à l'utilisation du contraceptif du post-avortement modern ou à action prolongée. Des résultats ont montré que les femmes agées de 40-44 ans, les étudiantes, les femmes employées, fréquentation des cliniques privées pour les services, nombre d'enfants et nombre d'avortements antérieurs, ont été significativement liés à la possibilité d'adopter n'importe quel contraceptif du post-abortion modern. La possibilité de choisir une méthode contraceptive à action prolongée a été considérablement et positivement liée au fait d'avoir 25-29 ans, ayant acquis l'éducation du niveau secondaire ou tertiaire et le nombre d'enfants. L'on peut réduire le besoin de contr ler la fertilité chez les femmes à Addis si les services et l'information ainsi que l'accès fiable aux contraceptifs modernes et à action prolongée sont améliorés.
Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amsale Cherie, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23021
Abstract: Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6%) of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
The Law and Practice of Administrative Courts in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal  [PDF]
Abate Ayana
International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance , 2011,
Abstract: Addis Ababa city administration established an administrative tribunal based on proclamation No. 6/2008. Thus, the city administrative tribunal would revise administrative measures taken by the concerned city offices. In other words, it hears and decides on appeals which are brought to it by the civil servants. The study which adopted the survey research design mainly through personal interview with court administrators revealed that the city administrative tribunal has performed its function in proper manner and base on the laws. Besides, it is observed that in rendering decision the tribunal carefully followed the laid down procedures. Speedy trial was also one quality of the administrative tribunal. It was therefore concluded that the administrative tribunal operated in a legal and procedural sound manner. Nevertheless, for enhanced productivity, professional trainings for the staff of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal in particular and Administrative Courts in Ethiopia in general should be taken seriously.
Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Emmanuel Rudatsikira, Abdurahman Abdo, Adamson S Muula
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-176
Abstract: Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents.Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p < 0.01). Having smoking friends was strongly associated with smoking after controlling for age, gender, parental smoking status, and perception of risks of smoking (OR = 33; 95% CI [11.6, 95.6]). Male gender and having one or both smoking parents were associated with smoking. Perception that smoking is harmful was negatively associated with being a smoker (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.5)Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents.Smoking, which is the major single known cause of non-communicable diseases [1-5], is widespread around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 30% of the adult male global population smokes [6]. National smoking prevalence among men in sub-Sahara Africa vary from 20% to 60% and the annual cigarette consumption rates are on the rise for both men and women [7]. Among sub-Saharan African youth, rates of smoking range from 1.4% in Zimbabwe and 1.5% in Nigeria to 34.4% in Cape Town, South Africa, which is cause for concern [8]. In Kenya, 7.2% of school-going adolescents smoke cigarettes while 8.5% use other forms of tobacco products [9]. The prevalence of smoking among young Ethiopian (15–25 years of age) living in Addis-Ababa was 11.8% for males and 1.1% for females in 1995 [10].As the life expectancy improves in developing countries, non-communicable chronic diseases, many of which are associated with smoking, are expected to gain greater prominence. It is estimated that 50% of adolescents who start smoking become regular smokers [6]. About 50% of those who continue to smoke during adulthood die
Mass concentrations and elemental composition of urban atmospheric aerosols in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
G. Gebre,Z. Feleke,E. Sahle-Demissie
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: Aerosol samples were collected from 22 February 2008 to 15 April 2008 and 17 June 2008 to 23 July 2008 in urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the aim to assess the spatial and temporal aspects of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and their composition in terms of metallic elements. Sixty six filter samples were collected from seven distinct sites using I.O.M. multi fraction dust samplers and fiber glass filter papers. The mass of each particulate matter sample was measured gravimetrically and the composition of PM10 samples was analyzed using ICP-OAES and SEM-EDAX. The concentration of TSP was in the range of 17-556 μg/m3 and that of PM10 was in the range of 17-285 μg/m3. The highest TSP and PM10 peak values were observed in February 2008 at two sites, whereas the lowest TSP and PM10 values were observed in June and July 2008 at two sites. The mean TSP concentration surpassed the WHO safe guideline value of 150 μg/m3 and 79 % of the PM10 values were below the WHO guideline value. The PM10 to TSP mass ratio was in the range 0.26-0.59 and PM10 mass contributed about 39% to the TSP mass. The average element concentration in PM10 filter sample was in the order of Ca > Na > K > Zn > Sb > B > Al > V > Mg > S > Fe. All the analyzed elements contributed about 0.1% to the PM10 mass. SEM-EDAX analysis of PM10 samples showed that Si, Al, Na, Zn, Ba, K and C were the predominant species. Crustal materials contributed 76-95% of the filter mass, and C and Cu represented 5-24%. The size distribution of aerosol particles as derived from SEM analysis was in 0.43-9.3 μm range.
The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion care in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia
Hailu Yeneneh, Tenaw Andualem, Hailemichael Gebreselassie, Mulu Muleta
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Unsafe abortion is a major contributor of maternal mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. High disease burden and underdeveloped infrastructure entail involvement of all partners in responding to health needs in the country. The private sector has apparently not been exploited to the fullest extent so far. Objective: To assess the potential of private facilities in expanding access to postabortion care (PAC). Methods: A cross-sectional study of private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia was conducted in 2001-2, using a pretested questionnaire and a checklist. Results: We assessed 88, 31 and 32 facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia, respectively. Treatment was provided by 44%, 52% and 63% of the eligible facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia, respectively. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used in treating 61% of Addis Ababa patients whereas sharp curettage was used in over 80% of those in Amhara and Oromia. About 80% of women did not get postabortion family planning methods. Patient-provider interaction was generally satisfactory. High-level disinfection (HLD) of non-autoclavable instruments needed improvement. All medium and above clinics have at least one GP and many have nurse/midwives. The vast majority of facilities not giving the service would like to provide comprehensive PAC if staff are trained and equipment made available in the market. Conclusion: Private health facilities can contribute substantially if given the necessary guidance and support with proper monitoring and evaluation. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):157-165
A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Wossenseged Lemma, Girume Erenso, Endalamaw Gadisa, Meshesha Balkew, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Asrat Hailu
Parasites & Vectors , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-60
Abstract: Active case finding surveys were conducted in 3 localities, Saris, Kality, and Akaki, which are found in and around Bulbula-Akaki river gorges. During the surveys conducted in January 2005 - May 2006, a total of 35 cases with 9 active and 26 healed skin lesions were identified. Eighteen of the cases (51.4%) were found in Saris; while 10 (28.6%) and 7 (20%) cases were from Kality and Akaki respectively.Ten colonies of rock hyraxes (Heterohyrax brucei) were identified in the vicinities of the 3 localities. Three of the 48 hyraxes (6.3%) trapped from the surroundings harbored natural infections of Leishmania aethiopica. Confirmation of the Leishmania species of the 3 isolates was achieved by PCR amplification and RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Based on sandfly species composition and proximity of resting sites to human settlements, Phlebotomus longipes is circumstantially proven to be the vector of CL in south east Addis Ababa.The study proves the existence of isolated zoonotic foci of CL in south eastern Addis Ababa, with P. longipes as the likely vector and H. brucei as the natural reservoir host.Ethiopian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ECL) is a widespread skin disease caused mainly by Leishmania aethiopica, but rarely by L. tropica and L. major; the latter two species cause ECL in the lowland regions [1-3]. The disease presents in three clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), mucocutaneous (MCL) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) [1-4]. LCL lesions are often benign and self healing; occasionally resulting in severe and persistent lesions. Persistent/severe LCL, MCL and DCL lesions are disfiguring [4-6], and often require protracted treatment schedules. In the case of DCL, definite cure is hardly ever achieved, since relapse is common. Precise figures on the numbers of ECL cases are lacking. Based on unofficial estimates, the total number of ECL cases diagnosed each year is around 20,000 [7].Two spec
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.