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The pattern of mortality in Dar es Salaam
O Nyongole
Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: To assess mortality in Dar es Salaam by using data from the grave yards. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional grave yard based study. Setting: Kinondoni grave yard (Kinondoni), Msimbazi grave yard (Ilala) and Chang’ombe grave yard (Temeke) in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Results: The study involved 1462 graves with 741 (50.7%) being of males. Mortality in underfives (0-4) was 11.1%, 7.7% in 5-19 years, 55.1% in 20-49 years while 12.5% comprised of above 65 years age group. Mortality trend was high among underfives then decreased at 5-19 age groups and again increased up to 30-34 years then decreased gradually. The age group 30-34 years made the peak value with 12.3% of all deaths. The study also showed that mortality is increasing with time as 1.7% of deaths occurred in 1980-1984 while 55.8% occurred in 2000-2004. Comparative analysis showed that there was concordant increase in numbers of reported AIDS cases as well as of mortality in Dar es Salaam from the year 1985 onwards. Before 1990’s more males were dying compared to females but gradually the situation has reversed with time despite the constant general population ratio in Dar es Salaam. Conclusion: Mortality was found to be high in underfives and people aged 20 to 49 years. The distribution pattern of deaths tally with the distribution pattern of deaths caused by Malaria and HIV/AIDS. Moreover both sex are similarly affected. That method of assessing mortality by studying graveyard data might be reliable to conclude that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of death.
Financing of sanitation services in the slums of Kampala and Dar es Salaam  [PDF]
John Bosco Isunju, Samuel Etajak, Beatrice Mwalwega, Richard Kimwaga, Peter Atekyereza, William Bazeyo, John C. Ssempebwa
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54104

This paper presents an assessment of the extent and conditions under which private financing can be a realistic approach for sanitation in slums. It is based on a cross-sectional study comparing two slum communities in East Africa, where 250 households from Bwaise III in Kampala, Uganda and 379 households from Temeke in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were interviewed in 2010. Also, 10 key-informant interviews and 8 focus group discussions were conducted in addition to field observations. Findings show that majority (85%) of households used unimproved, private-shared pit latrines. These privately owned latrines had many structural shortfalls besides poor operation and maintenance while the public latrines provided by third-party were structurally sound but were under-utilized in residential slum neighorhoods. This is attributed to the presence free or at least cheaper alternatives which the community members preferred instead of paying per-visit user-fees. For the few who were willing to pay, willingness to pay was positively associated with the presence of a facility User committee and having been sensitized. In this context, a combination of these factors made cost recovery as well as operation and maintenance very minimal. The poor status of privately owned shared pit latrines matched the limited income levels of households. Similarly, cost recovery for public facilities was dependent on the number of users who were willing to pay: the more the users, the more the cost recovery. A combination of private and public financing is thus necessary to fund different but complementary aspects of sanitation in slums.

Masese Chuma Benard,Kebande Rigworo Victor
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: With limited data and information, this paper aims to examine the growth of women entrepreneurs in Dar es Salaam city Tanzania on strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats. Well-functioning business sectors are crucial driving forces for economic growth. In developing countries, entrepreneurship can function as a tool to fight poverty as well as to strengthen the growth of women entrepreneurs in Tanzania. This study used the sample size of 130 women entrepreneurs from the three districts in Dar es Salaam city; Simple random sampling was used in sampling the women entrepreneurs in Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. A descriptive statistics analysis was made, comprising the generation of mean and standard deviation. SPSSv16.0 software was used to generate the mean and standard deviation. The findings however reflected as, a major strength was the need for financial independence is an attractive feature to women entrepreneurs. The major opportunity was the desire to own boss leads to women entrepreneurship. The weakness was most women lack entrepreneurs fail because they lack of education and the major threat was most women entrepreneurs have pressure of child care in the family.
Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to Recommended Environmental Quality Targets for the Western Indian Ocean
JF Machiwa
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2010,
Abstract: Pollution surveys were undertaken during 2007 and 2008 in the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam and the remote Ras Dege Creek. The objective was to determine the levels of microbial contamination, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants and compare these with the recommended environmental quality targets (EQTs) for the West Indian Ocean (WIO). Levels of microbial pollution in urban coastal waters off Dar es Salaam were excessive, indicating that water within the port channel was not safe for contact recreation. Seafood from areas adjacent to Msimbazi Creek and the Ocean Road sewer outfall was unfit for human consumption. Conversely, the water quality of Ras Dege Creek was excellent for contact recreation as well as for the collection of seafood. Concentrations of heavy metals, even in the coastal marine environment off Dar es Salaam, were not significantly high compared with the recommended EQTs. Although some persistent organic pollutants exceeded the recommended EQTs in sediment and oysters along the coast of Dar es Salaam, this was not the case at Ras Dege. The lack of sufficient wastewater treatment facilities is the main cause of current levels of some pollution in the coastal marine environment off Dar es Salaam. The implementation of industrial and municipal wastewater management would greatly improve this situation. The results show that the proposed EQTs would constitute appropriate standards for coastal marine water quality in Tanzania.
Lead pollution in urban roadside environments of Dar es Salaam city
GB Luilo, OC Othman
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2006,
Abstract: Lead is among the most toxic elements in nature. It is non-biodegradable and its toxicity does not change with time. Use of leaded gasoline in motor vehicles is known as the major source of lead pollution in cities in the world. Dar es Salaam, the main city of Tanzania, has thousands of cars traveling along its roads. The lead contaminating urban roadside environments of Dar es Salaam was determined. Soil and vegetation samples were collected at various distances from the road edges of the New Bagamoyo, Sam Nujoma and Mandela roads in Dar es Salaam and analyzed for lead using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric methods. The results show that the soils and grasses along these major highways of Dar es Salaam were contaminated with lead. The highest lead contents (152.5 ppm in soil and 35.7 ppm in couch grass) were found in soils and vegetation within 1 to 5 meters from the road edge. The background lead levels measured at 150 meters from the road side were less than 1.2 ppm in both soil and vegetation. The lead levels along these roads exhibited strong correlation with the average traffic density (r = 0.912 for soil and r = 0.88 for grass). The levels of lead decreased exponentially with increasing distance away from the road. This suggests the major source of lead contamination of these areas was emissions from automobile traffic on these highways. The high levels of lead at 0 – 10 m from the roadside edge also suggest that soil and vegetation close to the roadside were a potential health hazard to both humans and animals. Tanzania Journal of Science Vol. 32 (2) 2006: pp. 61-68
Increasing Access and Equity in Higher Education in Tanzania: A Case Study of University of Dar es Salaam
Kapinga Bernadetha Benjamin,Bie Dunrong
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.208.212
Abstract: Since the independence in 1961, gender equality and equity has become one of the country s agenda in Tanzania, various policies and programmes of action have been made for the purpose of insuring gender equity for higher education in Tanzania. This study focuses on programmes of action introduced and designed to facilitate women s participation at the University of Dar es Salaam. The results of this study found that the programmes of action have positive efforts towards increasing female students participation at the University of Dar es Salaam, although the number has not reached parity by sex. More strategies are needed to deliberately favour comparative increase in the rate of admission of females into Universities in Tanzania to ensure adequate representation of female graduates in the professional and the production sectors.
Public Spheres, Personal Papers, Pedagogical Practices: Ruth First’s Academic Postings to/ from Dar es Salaam and Maputo
B Harlow
Africa Development , 2010,
Abstract: This article proposes to consider, in particular, Ruth First’s work in her final years at the University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique (UEM), with reference to her own biographical trajectory and towards a reconsideration of contemporary and subsequent developments in the institutional history of post-independence education: public spheres (the university), personal papers (the archive), and pedagogical practices (the classroom).
Analysis of Ground Level Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides in the City of Dar es Salaam and the Rural Area of Bagamoyo, Tanzania  [PDF]
Asha Mansour Hamdun, Takemitsu Arakaki
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.44019
Abstract: From 2012 to 2015, we measured surface ozone, NOx, NO2, and NO levels at three urban sites (Mapipa, Ubungo, and Posta) and two suburban sites (Kunduchi and Vijibweni) in the city of Dar es Salaam and in the village of Mwetemo, a rural area of Bagamoyo, Tanzania. The average hourly O3 concentrations at all sites were between 9 ppb and 30 ppb during our sampling periods. O3 levels at suburban sites were generally higher than at urban sites. The average hourly concentrations in Dar es Salaam were 10 - 32 ppb, while in Bagamoyo they were 9 - 15 ppb. We observed a strong diurnal variation in Dar es Salaam while measurements from Bagamoyo showed little variation. At Dar es Salaam, the surface O3 concentrations increased from their minimum level at sunrise (around 6:00 a.m.) to a maximum in the late afternoon (around 4:00 p.m.), and then decreased toward 11:00 p.m. Another secondary ozone peak appeared between midnight and ~4:00 a.m., after which the surface ozone concentrations decreased to a minimum around 7:00 a.m. NO2 concentrations were higher at the urban sites of Ubungo and Posta, and their weekly average NO2 concentrations were 246 ppb and 118 ppb, respectively. Weekly average NOx concentrations ranged from 39.4 ppb at the Kunduchi site (suburban) to 738 ppb at the Ubungo site (urban). To our knowledge, there were few continuous measurements of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations in Tanzania. Since high NOx concentrations were observed, continuous air quality monitoring and effective air pollution control measures are required in Dar es Salaam to prevent further deterioration of air quality and limit the possible negative impacts on humans and vegetation.
Elemental Contents in Hair of Children from Two Regions in Dar Es Salaam  [PDF]
Najat K. Mohammed
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/495043
Abstract: The work presented in this paper is part of the study which aims at determining the levels of elements in hair of children in Tanzania as a bioindicator of their nutrition and health. In this paper, the levels of trace elements in hair from children living in Dar es Salaam have been analysed. The analysis was carried out by long and short irradiation INAA at the reactor centre of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez Czech Republic. 22 samples were collected from children living at Kiwalani about 12 km from Dar es Salaam city and 16 samples from children living at Mlimani, the main campus of University of Dar es Salaam. A total of 34 elements were found in the hair of the children. There were no big differences between the concentration levels of the essential elements in hair samples collected from the children which might indicate the same food consumption habits. 1. Introduction Trace element concentrations in human body are normally determined by the analysis of blood, serum, plasma, urine, or hair. Hair has an advantage over blood and urine as it accumulates elements in higher concentrations [1] and its collection is fast, painless, and easy [2]. Further more, the analysis of hair gives long-term information on the behaviour of the elements in the body (up to 2-3 years depending on length of hair) in contrast to blood and urine which provide short-term information [3]. Hair is also a stable biological material, which can easily be stored at room temperature for a long time without a change in its composition. A number of researchers have used hair samples to assess the nutritional and environmental exposure to humans. Othman and Spyrou (1980) reported increased levels of mercury (Hg) in hair samples collected from female adults and children in the Machakos district in Kenya, which are associated with the use of Hg compounds as cosmetics and for lightening the colour of the skin [4]. Airey [5], analysed human hair samples for Hg in relation to fish consumption. The results showed a direct relationship between mean hair Hg and the rate of fish consumption and hence to the diet of the society. Ikingura et al. (1996) reported concentrations of Hg in hair samples which were consistent to the concentration levels found in fish consumed by people living in the Lake Victoria goldfields in Tanzania [6]. Fordyce et al. (2000), reported a clear link between dietary Se intake and its concentrations in hair [7]. Hair from children has also been used in several research projects to assess their health and nutritional status [8–12]. The effect of dietary factor,
A first insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, assessed by spoligotyping
Vegard Eldholm, Mecky Matee, Sayoki GM Mfinanga, Manfred Heun, Ulf R Dahle
BMC Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-76
Abstract: One hundred forty-seven pulmonary isolates from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Dar es Salaam were spoligotyped. SpolDB4 and 'Spotclust' were used to assign isolates to families, subfamilies and variants. The CAS (37%), LAM (22%) and EAI (17%) families were the most abundant. Despite the dominance of these three families, diversity was high due to variation within M. tuberculosis families. Of the obtained spoligopatterns, 64% were previously unrecorded.Spoligotyping is useful to gain an overall understanding of the local TB epidemic. This study demonstrates that the extensive TB epidemic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is caused by a few successful M. tuberculosis families, dominated by the CAS family. Import of strains was a minor problem.In Tanzania, the tuberculosis (TB) incidence doubled between 1990 and 2004 [1]. The rate of all forms of the disease is estimated at 524/100,000 and the rate of new sputum smear positive disease is approximately 157/100,000 [1] with Dar es Salaam contributing about 26% of all TB cases [2]. The World Health Organization estimates that Tanzania has the 14th highest TB burden in the world [1]. Points of concern include the proportion of patients lost to follow-up, currently at 9%, an average diagnostic delay of 6 months, decreasing case detection rate (from 55% in 1997 to 45% in 2004) and the continuing high prevalence of HIV [3]. The high case rate in many African countries has contributed to a rise of the global TB incidence, despite stable or declining rates in the rest of the world [1]. Tanzania with its 37 million inhabitants, has 701 district laboratories diagnosing TB, three laboratories culturing M. tuberculosis and one National reference laboratory that perform drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates. Measures are undertaken to establish molecular genotyping methods such as spoligotyping [4], but currently no laboratory in Tanzania offers this service. Previous studies have described the molecular epidemiolog
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