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Prevention of Football Injuries  [PDF]
Donald T. Kirkendall,Astrid Junge,Jiri Dvorak
Asian journal of Sports Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury.In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods: MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results: A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion: The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective.
Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur football players
Ramin Kordi, Farajollah Hemmati, Hamid Heidarian, Vahid Ziaee
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2555-3-3
Abstract: A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43) in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40) in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football.The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05).Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7%) and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%). The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration) and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise.Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91%) and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%).Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild.There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.Football (soccer) matches traditionally take place on natural grass, although different playing surfaces are used including sand, dirt, clay, concrete, asphalt, and hardwood. In dray counties maintaining a natural grass surface is expensive; therefore in this area especially in parts of Asian and Africa most football fields are dirt fields (DFs) (bare earth) and many football players, especially amateur ones, play on DFs in these regions. Another substitute in this area could be artificial turf field (ATF). In recent years the playing surfaces of amateur football players have begun being replaced by artificial grass
Mechanical injuries of the eye: Incidence, structure and possibilities for prevention  [PDF]
Jovanovi? Milo?,Stefanovi? Ivan
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1012983j
Abstract: Background/Aim. Despite technological advances used in everyday clinical practice, injuries of the eye caused by various agents still produce blindness and poor vision in a significant number of people. The aim of this study was to analyze factors leading to occurrence of mechanical injuries of the eye. Methods. Mechanic injuries of the eye in patients treated at the Institute for Eye Diseases of the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade, in an eight-year period were analyzed. Investigated parameters were: sex and age of patients, their profession, time of injury (months, days and hours), place and way of injury and a visual acuity on admission and dismiss, as well as further follow-up. Type of injury (closed or opened injuries of the eyeball), with all the complications that followed were carefully noted and monitored. The time of primary surgical repair was noted and analyzed, whenever necessary. Results. In the period of eight years, 2701 patients (2 257 males and 444 females) were treated in the hospital due to mechanical injury of the eye. Almost equally, both the right (50.5%) and the left eye (49.5%) were injured, while in 39 (1.4%) patients both eyes were injured at the same time. The injuries occurred in all age groups, but mostly in adults, employed persons, aged from 16 to 65 (70%). Among injured children, 18.8% were beyond the age of 15. Most frequent injuries occurred in workers (39%), and then in pupils (16.3%). Wood was the mean of injury in 23.7% of cases, sharp and pointed objects in 16.1%, hammering and metal particles in 14.4%, glass in 10.1%, and other different objects in the rest of 35.7% of all injured persons. There were other very serious means or mechanisms of eye injuries, like hair band, dog bite, rooster’s beak, rubber bullet, etc. Considering months in the year and days in the week, the injuries were almost equally distributed, and related to the time of day even 75% occurred between 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. Most injuries (38.2%) occurred while doing some work out of professional working place, while only 25.4% injuries occurred at the working place. Most of the patients (30.3%) had visual acuity L+P+ (light perception with correct projection) only, on attendance, but it varied from complete blindness to 1.0. There were 1 282 blunt injuries (contusion) (47.5%) and 1 373 penetrating eyeball injuries (50.8%), while the rest (1.7%) were injuries of ocular adnexa. Most of the primary surgical treatments (63.7%) were done in the first 24 hours from the moment of the injury. At dismiss, visual acuity was normal in 53.2%, the eye was b
The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial
Wayne Hoskins, Henry Pollard
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-64
Abstract: Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition.After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01).This study demonstrated a trend towards lower limb injury prevention with a significant reduction in primary lower limb muscle strains and weeks missed due to non-contact knee injuries through the addition of a sports chiropractic intervention to the current best practice management.The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000533392).Australian Rules football is a unique body contact sport. It is playe
Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595]
Martin H?gglund, Markus Waldén, Isam Atroshi
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-75
Abstract: In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season.Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee injury, it can have a major impact by reducing the future knee injury burden in female football as well as the negative long-term disabilities associated with knee injury.NCT00894595Football is the most popular sport worldwide. Unfortunately, football-related knee injuries are common and constitute a serious problem regardless of the playing level. The injury that draws most attention is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This injury usually causes long absenc
Effect of a prevention programme on the incidence of rugby injuries among 15- and 16-year-old schoolboys
H Erasmus, EJ Spamer
South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Objective. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of an injury prevention programme on the incidence of rugby injuries (overall, intrinsic and extrinsic injuries) among 15- and 16-year-old schoolboys, over a 2- year period. A secondary aim was to identify the percentage of intrinsic rugby injuries associated with a previous injury history. Design. A non-equivalent experimental-control group design with multiple post-tests. Subjects. A- and B-team rugby players (N =120) from 2 secondary schools in the North West province of South Africa. Intervention. The injury prevention programme was planned according to the physical, motor, biomechanical and postural status of all players. Players in the experimental group received exercises to improve biomechanical and postural deficits identified, as well as drills to address shortcomings in speed, agility, and explosive power. Main outcome measures. Rugby injuries were screened and injury data collected through the use of weekly sportsmedicine clinics. Results. Differences and changes in extrinsic injury incidence in this study could not be attributed to the effect of the prevention programme, and as a result injury trends related to overall injury incidence were inconsistent when the matching experimental and control groups were compared. However, the prevention programme did have a positive effect on the intrinsic injury incidence of both the 15- (d = 1.61) and 16-year-old (d = 0.83) groups during the study period. During the second season there were no intrinsic injuries of a previous nature among both the experimental groups (0%), while in contrast intrinsic injuries of a previous nature still amounted to a significant fraction in both the control groups. Conclusion. The present intervention programme did not have a practically significant effect on the incidence of overall rugby injuries and extrinsic rugby injuries in 15- and 16-year-old schoolboys over a 2-year period. However, in practice the prevention programme did have a significantly positive effect on the incidence of intrinsic rugby injuries among 15- and 16-year-old schoolboys over a period of 2 years. Timely introduction of this programme during the off-season is advised. South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 19 (2) 2007: pp. 46-51
Incidence Rate of Needlestick and Sharps Injuries in 67 Japanese Hospitals: A National Surveillance Study  [PDF]
Toru Yoshikawa, Koji Wada, Jong Ja Lee, Toshihiro Mitsuda, Kiyoshi Kidouchi, Hitomi Kurosu, Yuji Morisawa, Mayumi Aminaka, Takashi Okubo, Satoshi Kimura, Kyoji Moriya
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077524
Abstract: Background Determining incidence rates of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) using data from multiple hospitals may help hospitals to compare their in-house data with national averages and thereby institute relevant measures to minimize NSIs. We aimed to determine the incidence rate of NSIs using the nationwide EPINet surveillance system. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were analyzed from 5,463 cases collected between April 2009 and March 2011 from 67 Japanese HIV/AIDS referral hospitals that participated in EPINet-Japan. The NSI incidence rate was calculated as the annual number of cases with NSIs per 100 occupied beds, according to the demographic characteristics of the injured person, place, timing, device, and the patients’ infectious status. The NSI incidence rates according to hospital size were analyzed by a non-parametric test of trend. The mean number of cases with NSIs per 100 occupied beds per year was 4.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.1–5.6) for 25 hospitals with 399 or fewer beds, 6.7 (5.9–7.4) for 24 hospitals with 400–799 beds, and 7.6 (6.7–8.5) for 18 hospitals with 800 or more beds (p-trend<0.01). NSIs frequently occurred in health care workers in their 20 s; the NSI incidence rate for this age group was 2.1 (1.6–2.5) for hospitals having 399 or fewer beds, 3.5 (3.0–4.1) for hospitals with 400–799 beds, and 4.5 (3.9–5.0) for hospitals with 800 or more beds (p-trend<0.01). Conclusions/Significance The incidence rate of NSIs tended to be higher for larger hospitals and in workers aged less than 40 years; injury occurrence was more likely to occur in places such as patient rooms and operating rooms. Application of the NSI incidence rates by hospital size, as a benchmark, could allow individual hospitals to compare their NSI incidence rates with those of other institutions, which could facilitate the development of adequate control strategies.
Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports
Wayne T Hoskins, Henry P Pollard
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-13-4
Abstract: Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football [1,2]. This may be possibly due to the unique physical demands of the game requiring rapid acceleration, endurance and agility running, kicking and bending to pick up the ball. Hamstring injuries are not confined strictly to Australian Rules football but are also seen in soccer [3], athletics [4], hurling [5], cricket [6] and touch football [7]. This makes hamstring injuries the most prevalent muscle injury in sports consisting of rapid acceleration and maximum speed running. Such injuries can and do result in significant financial consequences to players and clubs alike.It is agreed that hamstring injuries have a complicated multi-factorial etiology, including muscle weakness and balance, lack of warm up, decreased flexibility, previous injury history and fatigue [8]. The only conclusive risk factors for future injury is a current hamstring injury or a previous history of hamstring injury [1,9]. This makes prevention of the initial injury a primary focus in management efforts. The purpose of this paper is to present two cases of hamstring injury that were effectively managed with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. Prevention of re-injury may have been due to ongoing maintenance type care.Some authors have listed a separate category of hamstring injury known as a 'back related hamstring injury' which is classified as having both local hamstring signs and positive lumbar signs [9,10]. It is known that referred myotomal pain from lumbar-pelvic structures, the sciatic nerve and the gluteal or piriformis muscles can mimic hamstring strains [9]. The world's longest serving injury surveillance, performed by the elite Australian Football League (AFL) uses an umbrella term for hamstring injury which fails to differentiate the potential diagnoses. This means the true prevalence of back-related hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers is unknown
Unintentional injuries in the rural population of Twiserkan, Iran: A cross-sectional study on their incidence, characteristics and preventability
Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai, Mohsen Naghavi, Mohammadreza Shokouhi, Lucie Laflamme
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-269
Abstract: An interview-based investigation was undertaken that comprised all unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization (more than 6 hours) or death that had occurred within a twelve month period and that were identified in the files of the 62 "health houses" of the Twiserkan district. For each case, semi-structured interviews were conducted at the households of the injured people (134 injuries affecting 117 households were identified).The incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries were respectively 4.1 and 17.2 per 10 000 person-years and, as expected, men were more affected than women (77.6% of all injury cases). Traffic injuries (in particular among motorcyclists) were as common as home-related injuries but they were far more fatal. Among common suggestions for prevention, people mentioned that the authorities could work on the design and engineering of the infrastructure in and around the village, that the rural health workers could contribute more with local information and education and that the people themselves could consider behaving in a safer manner.Not only domestic injuries but also those in traffic are an important cause of severe and fatal injury among rural people. Health workers may play an important role in injury surveillance and in identifying context-relevant means of prevention that they or other actors may then implement.Injuries constitute an important health problem worldwide and they are one of the major causes of death among people under 45 years old [1,2]. The majority of all injury-related deaths occur in low and middle-income countries [1-4] where knowledge is scarce regarding injury distribution, pattern and prevention [5]. Epidemiological studies have been conducted in some low and middle-income countries but, most often, traffic-related injuries and those occurring in urban settings have been in focus [6-8]. Yet, studies in rural areas have been conducted in countries in various continents, including Asia (Pakistan [9], Bangladesh
Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments  [cached]
Kelly SP,Reeves GMB
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children), and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention
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