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Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Southern Sudan  [PDF]
Jeremiah Ngondi ,Francis Ole-Sempele,Alice Onsarigo,Ibrahim Matende,Samson Baba,Mark Reacher,Fiona Matthews,Carol Brayne,Paul M Emerson
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030477
Abstract: Background Blindness and low vision are thought to be common in southern Sudan. However, the magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of blindness and low vision, identify the main causes of blindness and low vision, and estimate targets for blindness prevention programs in Mankien payam (district), southern Sudan. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey of the population aged 5 y and above was conducted in May 2005 using a two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size. The Snellen E chart was used to test visual acuity, and participants also underwent basic eye examination. Vision status was defined using World Health Organization categories of visual impairment based on presenting visual acuity (VA). A total of 2,954 persons were enumerated and 2,499 (84.6%) examined. Prevalence of blindness (presenting VA of less than 3/60 in the better eye) was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–4.8); prevalence of low vision (presenting VA of at least 3/60 but less than 18/60 in the better eye) was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.7–8.7); whereas prevalence of monocular visual impairment (presenting VA of at least 18/60 in better eye and VA of less than 18/60 in other eye) was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.6–5.3). The main causes of blindness were considered to be cataract (41.2%) and trachoma (35.3%), whereas low vision was mainly caused by trachoma (58.1%) and cataract (29.3%). It is estimated that in Mankien payam 1,154 persons aged 5 y and above (lower and upper bounds = 782–1,799) are blind, and 2,291 persons (lower and upper bounds = 1,820–2,898) have low vision. Conclusions Blindness is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and there is urgent need to implement comprehensive blindness prevention programs. Further surveys are essential to confirm these tragic findings and estimate prevalence of blindness and low vision in the entire region of southern Sudan in order to facilitate planning of VISION 2020 objectives.
Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Khuzestan Province, Iran  [cached]
Mostafa Feghhi,Gholamreza Khataminia,Hossein Ziaei,Mahmood Latifi
Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research , 2009,
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in Khuzestan province, Iran in 2006. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study included residents of Khuzestan province during the year 2006. The study was designed according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Multi-stage proportionate clustered random sampling was employed. Sample size was calculated according to the latest national census and estimated rates of blindness. Initially data accumulation including general information and optometrists' findings was performed at local health centers, followed by referral of subjects with best-corrected visual acuity less than 20/60 for a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. Categorization of blindness and low vision was based on WHO criteria and causes of visual impairment were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10. RESULTS: Overall, 6,960 subjects with mean age of 24.7±18.3 years (range 3 months to 87 years) participated in the study (74.5% response rate). The prevalence of bilateral blindness and low vision in subjects older than 5 years was 1.3% and 2.6%, respectively; a significant positive trend was observed with increasing age (P < 0.001) but no significant correlation was noted with sex and domicile. The leading causes of visual impairment included cataracts (39.0%), refractive errors (37.9%) and amblyopia (23.6%). A minority of cases were due to surgical complications (1.9%) and trauma (1.3%). CONCLUSION: Blindness and low vision in Khuzestan province occurred at an average rate as compared to similar countries. It is estimated that there are 28,537 and 105,995 cases of bilateral blindness and low vision respectively in this province.
The prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in Ogun state, Nigeria
FO Fasina, AI Ajaiyeoba
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2003,
Abstract: The prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment were determined in Yewa-North local government area of Ogun state, Nigeria between May 15 and June 22, 2001. A population - based survey using a random cluster sample of 1,964 persons representing usual residents of the local government area was examined. The survey revealed that 1.22% of the populations were blind, 1.43% unilaterally blind and 2.09% were bilaterally visually impaired. Blindness and visual impairment were found in persons aged 45yrs and above. Blindness was found to be 2.43 times commoner in men, which was statistically significant. Cataract was the commonest cause of blindness accounting for 37.5% of blindness and 36.6% of visual impairment. Another important cause of visual impairment and blindness in this study was pterygium accounting for 23% and 19% of unilateral and bilateral visual impairment and 7% and 4% of unilateral and bilateral blindness respectively. The report showed that 87.5% of the blindness and 75.7% of the bilateral visual impairment were avoidable. These largely agreed with the pattern and causes of blindness in other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
Prevalence of Cataract Blindness in Rural Ethiopia
A Woldeyes, Y Adamu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Over three-quarter of all blindness worldwide are preventable and usually caused by cataract and trachoma. Objective: To assess the prevalence of cataract blindness in rural Ethiopia in order to facilitate further health care planning. Methods: A Cross-sectional, community-based study of inhabitants over 40 years of age from villages in the Abeshge and Kebena Districts, south of Addis Ababa. A total of 1100 eligible participants were identified in the study. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Snellen’s E chart at 6 metres and eye examinations were performed using torch light, 2.5 X magnifying glasses and an ophthalmoscope. Cataract was defined as lens opacity identified as the cause of blindness and low vision after ruling out other causes. Unfortunately, there was no access to a refraction set and slit lamp to conduct thorough examinations. Results: The adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract blindness (VA<3/60) was 2.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%–3.0%. Cataract is the major cause of bilateral blindness (66.7%) among the participants. The cataract surgical coverage was 28.9% for men and 18.1% for women. The adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract and VA<6/60 was 3.6% (95% CI, 1.4%–5.8%). In this last group, the surgical coverage was 41.2% (persons) and 38.5% (eyes). Of all operated eyes, 30% could not see at 6/60. Inability to afford the procedure (64.5%) and poor knowledge of cataract (29.8%) were the reasons why surgery had not been performed. Conclusions: Cataract blindness is a major health problem in the study area with low surgical uptake. There is backlog of cataract blindness in the study area that will increase with ageing. This backlog was also reflected in other developing countries. Awareness campaigns, reducing cost, and expansion of surgical services may help to increase the cataract surgical rate, and women should be offered more cataract surgery. These results will enable health managers to plan effective interventions in line with Vision 2020. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(2):156-160]
Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in the blind population supported by the Yazd Welfare Organization
MR Besharati,AM Miratashi,MR Shoja,F Ezoddini - Ardakani
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Introduction: In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there were 37.1 million blind people worldwide. It has subsequently been reported that 110 million people have severely impaired vision, hence are at great risk of becoming blind. Watkins predicted an annual increase of about two million blind worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the causes of blindness and low vision in the blind population supported by the welfare organization of Yazd, Iran. Methods: This clinical descriptive cross-sectional study was done from January to September, 2003. In total, 109 blind patients supported by the welfare organization were included in this study. All data was collected by standard methods using questionnaire, interview and specific examination. The data included; demographic characteristics, clinical states, ophthalmic examination, family history and the available prenatal information. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi square test. Results: Of total patients, 73 cases were male (67%) and 36 were female (33%). The median age was 24.6 years (range one month to 60 years). More than half of the cases (53.2%) could be diagnosed in children less than one year of age. In total, 79 patients (88.1%) were legally blind of which 23 cases (29.1%) had no light perception (NLP). The most common causes of blindness were retinitis pigmentosa (32.1%) followed by ocular dysgenesis (16.5%). Conclusion: Our data showed that more than half of the blindness cases occur during the first year of life. The most common cause of blindness was retinitis pigmentosa followed by ocular dysgenesis, cataract and glaucoma, respectively.
Visual impairment and blindness: an overview of prevalence and causes in Brazil
Salom?o, Solange R.;Mitsuhiro, Márcia R. K. H.;Belfort Jr, Rubens;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652009000300017
Abstract: our purpose is to provide a summary overview of blindness and visual impairment on the context of recent brazilian ocular epidemiologic studies. synthesis of data from two cross-sectional population-based studies - the s?o paulo eye study and the refractive error in school children study is presented. 3678 older adults and 2441 school children were examined between july 2004 and december 2005. prevalence of blindness in older adults using presenting visual acuity was 1.51% decreasing to 1. 07% with refractive correction. the most common causes of blindness in older adults were retinal disorders, followed by cataract and glaucoma. in school children, the prevalence of uncorrected visual impairment was 4.82% decreasing to 0.41% with refractive correction. the most common cause of visual impairment in school children was uncorrected refractive error. visual impairment and blindness in brazil is an important public health problem. it is a significant problem in older brazilians, reinforcing the need to implement prevention of blindness programs for elderly people with emphasis on those without schooling. in school-children cost-effective strategies are needed to address a readily treatable cause of vision impairment - prescription and provision of glasses.
Prevalence and causes of blindness in Merhabete, North Shoa, Ethiopia
Tiliksew Teshome
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(1): 71-76]
National Survey on Blindness, Low Vision and Trachoma in Ethiopia: Methods and Study Clusters Profile
Y Berhane, A Worku, A Bejiga, L Adamu, W Alemayehu, A Bedri, Z Haile, A Ayalew, W Adamu, T Gebre, T D Kebede, E West, S West
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2007,
Abstract: Background: The magnitude and causes of eye diseases in Ethiopia has been derived from small scale studies. This information became no longer useful in tracking the success of intensified efforts in preventing and controlling avoidable causes of blindness and eye diseases in line with the goals of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight. Objective: The national household survey was conducted primarily to provide national and regional state level estimates of low vision, blindness and trachoma. The secondary aims include describing the major causes of low vision and blindness. Methods: The national survey utilized cross sectional epidemiological study design with multistage sampling strategy. All nine regional states and two city administrations of the country were involved in the survey. Sample size and sampling strategies were developed taking into account population size of the regional states. Visual acuity was tested using the LogMar chart and trachoma grading was done following the WHO grading system. The cause of low vision and blindness were determined by ophthalmologists. Results: A total of 174 clusters, 6056 households and 30022 individuals were involved in the survey. Of the total 30022 individuals 25650 (85.4%) were present and examined by the survey team. Implementing quality control supervision in the very remote clusters was a major challenge. About 55% of the survey clusters were within 10 Km of health facility that stock tetracycline; 18.3% within 10 Km of health facility that provides Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT) surgery and 18.6% were within 10Km of health facility that provides cataract surgery. Only 29.4% of the survey clusters were fully accessible by car. The majority of survey household head were farmers (70.8%) and illiterate (64.5%). About 48% of the households obtain their water from either a protected well/spring or piped distribution. Only 40.4% of the households reported that no animal is kept around the living quarter. Most households dispose garbage in open field (84.6%) and have no latrine (60.3%). Conclusion: The survey was conducted on a representative sample and provides reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. However, careful interpretations of results from remote and inaccessible areas are warranted. Access to eye care facilities are limited and need expansion in order to reduce the blindness and low vision load. Sanitation conditions favoring fly breeding are rampant and trachoma control program need to emphasize a more integrated approach. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 21 (3) 2007: pp. 185-203
Prevalence and causes of blindness in a tropical African population
Caroline O Adeoti
West African Journal of Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: A population based survey of Egbedore Local Government area (LGA), a tropical African population in Osun State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in the community, Osun State, one of the new states created on 27th August, 1991 is situated in the southwest region of Nigeria. It has a population of about 2, 654, 244 using the population growth rate of 3.0 percent per year. Egbedore LGA has a population of 49,555 being the projected estimate of the local census done in 1991. Study design: The study was in accordance with World Health Organisation recommendations. 3204 rural dwellers were examined. The survey team was divided into: 1. Registration team 2. Retrieval team 3. Visual acuity team 4.Ocular examination team. The survey candidates, once registered were asked to go to a nearby school or health center where visual acuity and ocular examination teams completed the assignment. The retrieval team consisted of an ophthalmic nurse and a local escort who persuaded and brought to examination site registered individuals who failed to appear voluntarily. Ocular examination team performed the eye examination. Analysis of data was done using personal computer AT model and systat package for analysis. Result:- It is found that 1.18% of the population was blind by WHO standard. Cataract alone accounted for 47.4% of the blind, uncorrected aphakia 18.4%, glaucoma 15.8%, phthisis bulbi 5.3%, uveitis, optic atrophy, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and refractive error all accounted for 2.6% each. Conclusion:- More than half of the burden of blindness is potentially curable. About a third is preventable through health education, early diagnosis and prompt treatment. A cataract outreach programme with provision of low cost aphakic glasses will go a long way in reducing blindness in this community and Osun State in general. Key Words: Prevalence, Causes, Blindness, Osun state. Résumé Introduction:- Une étude basée sur la population du government Local du milieu d'Egbedore (LGA), une population africaine tropicale dans l'Etat d'Osun, au Nigeria a été effectuée afin de décider la fréquence et les causes de la cécité dans la communuaté. L'état d'Osun, un des nouveaux états crée le 27 a ut 1991 est situé dans la région du sud ouest du Nigeria compte environ 2,654,244 habitants tout en utilisant le taux de croissance de 3, 0 pourcent par an. Egbedore LGA compte 49,555 habitants d'après le recensement de la population locale fait en 1991. Plan d'étude:- L'étude était comforme aux recommendations de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante. 3204 habitants rural ont été étudiés. Le groupe d'étude s'était reparti ainsi: (1) Groupe d'inscription (2) Groupe de récupération (3) Groupe d'acuité visuelle (4) Groupe d'examen oculaire. Aussi t t qu'on inscrit les sujets, ils vont directement a une école où au centre de soins, tout près, où les groupes d'acuité visuelle et examen oculaire achevent le travail. Le groupe de récupération
Correction: Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Southern Sudan  [PDF]
Jeremiah Ngondi,Francis Ole-Sempele,Alice Onsarigo,Ibrahim Matende,Samson Baba,Mark Reacher,Fiona Matthews,Carol Brayne,Paul M Emerson
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040227
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