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Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) in the Southern Benin (West Africa)  [cached]
Houessou Laurent G,Lougbegnon Toussaint O,Gbesso Fran?ois GH,Anagonou Lisette ES
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-8-40
Abstract: Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber) were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term survival of the species and local communities’ livelihoods.
SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL FROM AFRICAN STAR APPLE (CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM) SEEDS  [PDF]
Adebayo, Segun Emmanuel,Orhevba, Bosede Adelola,Adeoye, Peter Aderemi,Musa, John Jiya
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is one fruit of great economic value in tropical Africa due to its diverse industrial, medicinal and food uses. Its seeds have also been found tohave a number of beneficial uses. In this study, oil was extracted from the seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum using normal hexane as extracting solvent. The extraction was carried out at a temperature of 650C at 3 – 4 hours extraction time. Solvent extraction isknown to be the best method of extracting oil from low oil bearing seeds. The method used is aimed at determining the percentage oil yield. At a range of 3 - 4 hours extraction time and atemperature of 650C, the average oil yield obtained was 10.71%. The characterization was conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the extracted oil shows that the oil was deep red in colour, liquid at 280C with a characteristics smell, density of 0.89kg/m3, solidification temperature of -20C, boiling point of 620C, saponification value of 177.30 mg/KOH/gram, acid value of 5.20% free fatty acid value of 2.60%, peroxide value of 1.65 meq/kg, refractive index of 1.4672 at 31.20C. These results suggest that Chrysophyllumalbidum seeds may be a viable source of oil going by its oil yield. Furthermore, the studied characteristics of the oil extracted shows hat it may be used for many domestic and industrial purposes in Nigeria.
CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM (AFRICAN STAR APPLE) FRUIT EXTRACT AS ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY INHIBITOR ON THE CORROSION OF ALUMINIUM IN ACIDIC MEDIUM
I. C. Madufor,U. E. Itodoh,M. U. Obidiegwu,M. S. Nwakaudu
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 0.1M H2SO4 in the absence and presence of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit extract (CAFE) at temperature range of 30 60oC was studied using weight loss and thermometric techniques. The fruit extract acts as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase ininhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in temperature. The inhibiting effect of the CAFE could be attributed to the presence of some phytochemical constituents in the fruit extract which is adsorbed on the surface of the aluminium. The CAFE was found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorptionprocess is spontaneous.
Pre and Post-Emergence Damping-Off of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don and C. delevoyi Dewild in Port Harcourt
GE Omokhua, MI Godwin-Egein, VC Okereke
African Research Review , 2011,
Abstract: A nursery experiment on pre- and post-emergence damping off of Chrysophyllum species was conducted in the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria in 2010. The study assessed the fungi associated with seed and seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum and C. delevoyi in the nursery. A sample of thirty seeds each were collected randomly from the seed lot for both species and germinated in trays using a completely randomized design with three replicates. The germinants were observed over a period of 28 days. Disease incidence, germination percentages and seedlings damaged were observed and data recorded respectively. The t-test was used to separate the means. Fusarium oxysponum, Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma species were implicated as causal agents of damping off in the two species. The fungal pathogens strongly impacted on the mean percentage germination percentage of the species in the unsterilised/medium with 34% and 7.33% for C. albidum and C. delevoyi respectively. Similarly the mean seedling survivals for the species were 28% and 6% for C. albidum and C. delevoyi respectively. Chrysophyllum species are highly susceptible to fungal pathogens in the nursery.
Anti-Hyperglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum Seed Cotyledon in Alloxan Induced-Diabetic Rats
O.S. Olorunnisola,S. Amao,L.O. Ehigie,A.F. Ajayi
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The present study evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in model of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed that the daily treatment of diabetic rats with ethanolic extract of Chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon twice daily for 7 days (100 and 200 mg kg 1 orally) significantly decreased (p<0.001) the blood glucose levels by 11.92 and 12.10%, respectively in the treated induced diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control rats. The 100 mg kg 1 dose of the extract showed insignificant decrease in the hepatic lipids (except HDL-cholesterol) concentrations, while the 200 mg kg 1 of the extract showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the hepatic lipids (except HDL-cholesterol) in the treated diabetic rats and treated non-diabetic rats. However, the various doses of the extract significantly increased (p<0.001) the HDL-cholesterol in treated diabetic rats while, there was no significant effect on the hepatic HDL-cholesterol in the treated non-diabetic rats. The results justify the popular use of Chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon, pointing out to the potential benefit of the plant ethanolic extract in alternative medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Male Albino Rats  [cached]
A C Onyeka,A U Aligwekwe,T S Olawuyi,A A Nwakanma
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2012,
Abstract: Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A) received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C) of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm morphology was observed compared with the control. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone were measured and C. albidum extract also caused a dose related significant reduction (p<0.05) of serum testosterone, Luteinizing hormones and FSH concentrations in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The result showed that ethanol extract of the root bark of C. albidum suppresses the hormonal levels and sperm production in rats and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male contraceptive agent. Industrial relevance: The unique advantages of this antifertility option is that they are safer, reliable, affordable, long-lasting, acceptable and can be taken without consulting a health worker in comparison to pharmaceutical drugs that are expensive and have negative side effect. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum; Infertility; testosterone; gonadotrophin; testis
Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on Serum Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Malondialdehyde in Rat  [PDF]
Onyeka C.A,Aligwekwe A.U,Nwakanma A.A,Bakare A.A
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: The ethanolic root bark of Chrysophyllum albidum were evaluated for their effect on antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) activities in rats. Methods: Eighteen male Wister rats weighing 100-200g were divided into three groups of six animals each. Two treated groups received a daily dose of ethanolic root bark of Chrysophyllum albidum at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight respectively via gastric gavage, while equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group for 3 weeks. Result: All the in vitro models showed dose dependent activity. However the weight gain was dose related with a decrease activity of SOD and CAT (p<0.05) in 100mg/kg treated rats, indicating an altered oxidative statues inthe animals but as the dose increase, SOD and CAT activity increase. MDA concentration was reduced (p<0.05) in the treated rats.Conclusion: The result suggests that the root bark extract of C. albidum has evidence of scavenging and antiperodative properties.
Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. on biochemical and haematological parameters of albino Wistar rats
AH Adebayo, AO Abolaji, TK Opata, IK Adegbenro
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The effect of oral administration of the leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. on biochemical and haematological parameters were investigated in albino rats for 16 days. The extract did not show any significant effect (p > 0.05) on the plasma concentrations of total bilirubin, albumin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), reticulocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). The concentration of the platelets was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) at 1000 mg/kg body weight, while white blood cell (WBC) was significantly increased at 500 mg/kg body weight. The doses significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma levels of AST, ALT, total protein, glucose and creatinine while urea was significantly increased. While the extract significantly increased the lung, brain and liver-body weights, the kidney, heart, testis, spleen and epididymis-body weights were not significantly affected. The result suggests that the leaf extract of C. albidum contains antiplatelet and hypoglycemic properties and exhibited selective organ toxicity to the rats.
Antinociceptive, Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant activities of Eleagnine: An alkaloid Isolated from Chrysophyllum albidum Seed Cotyledons  [PDF]
T.O. Idowu,E.O. Iwalewa,M.A. Aderogba,B.A. Akinpelu
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Eleagnine, an alkaloid isolated from Chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon was investigated to evaluate its potential antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antinociceptive effects were carried out using flick, hot-plate tests and acetic-acid induced writhings in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity and the pain threshold were assessed on the oedematous right hind paws of rats using plethysmometer and analgesiometer respectively. The antioxidant effect was carried out in vitro using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The compound demonstrated potent analgesic (in all the four models used both peripheral and central sites), anti-inflammatory and a very weak antioxidant properties Naloxone (an opiod antagonist) showed that the analgesic effect was mediated through opiod transmission in both central and peripheral sites while its anti-inflammatory effect involve the inhibition of histamine, 5-HT, prostaglandins in carrageenan induced oedema. Antioxidant activity of the eleagnine ranges between 46.1 and 15.1% for the tested concentrations. This was far less than what observed for ascorbic acid. At much lower concentration. These pharmacological effects of this alkaloidal compound described here may suggest that eleagnine is one of the constituents of Chrysophyllum albidum responsible for the ethnomedical uses as antimicrobial agent through anti-inflammatory property.
Citric Acid Production Potential of Aspergillus niger Using Chrysophyllum albidum Peel  [PDF]
Blessing Nteimam Dienye, Ihuoma Ahaotu, Obioma Kenechukwu Agwa, Ngozi Nma Odu
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.94013
Abstract: The production of citric acid using Chrysophyllum albidum an indigenous under-utilized fruit waste peel and genetically characterized strains of Aspergillus niger was carried out. The Chrysophyllum albidum peel was dried, sieved to remove dirt, dry milled and the powder used as substrate for citric acid production. Thirteen fungal isolates were obtained from soil samples and decayed agricultural waste by spread plate technique and screened for citric acid producing capabilities on Czapek dox agar. Citric acid producing capability of the isolates revealed a wide yellow zone around the inoculated colonies. Two (F1 and F3) out of the thirteen isolates exhibited positive reactions and were identified based on their cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics. The fungal species were identified using PCR as Aspergillus niger DTO: 133-E8 and Aspergillus niger DTO: 131-H5. Their cultural/growth optimal conditions were determined through Solid State Fermentation of the substrate using two species of the test organism. The effects of fermentation period examined revealed, Aspergillus niger DTO: 133-E8 which produced the highest amount of citric acid 15.7 ± 0.08 g/l, lower reducing
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