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Fumonisins, Trichothecenes and Zearalenone in Cereals  [PDF]
Selma Yazar,Gülden Z. Omurtag
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9112062
Abstract: Fumonisins are phytotoxic mycotoxins which are synthesized by various species of the fungal genus Fusarium such as Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (ex F.moniliforme Sheldon) and Fusarium proliferatum. The trichothecene (TC) mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produce by species that belong to several fungal genera, especially Fusarium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Trichoderma, Memnoniella and Myrothecium. Fusarium mycotoxins are widely dispersed in cereals and their products. Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic compound produced by Fusarium spp. such as F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Fumonisins, the TCs and ZEA are hazardous for human and animal health. Contamination with TCs causes a number of illnesses in human and animal such as decrease in food consumption (anorexia), depression or inhibition on immune system function and haematoxicity. The purpose of this paper is to give a review of the papers published on the field of fumonisin, TC and ZEA mycotoxins in cereals consumed in the world.
Nature of Gene Action in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
M.M. Rohman,R. Sultana,R. Podder,A.T.M. Tanjimul Islam
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A 6 x 6 diallel cross (excluding reciprocal) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) dictated both additive and non-additive components were important but dominance components were more predominant than additive components in controlling the inheritance of all the characters under study. The asymmetric distribution of dominant and recessive alleles at loci was found for all the characters. At least 3 groups of genes were found in controlling the dominance in yield. The highest heritability (89%) in narrow sense was observed in 1000 grain weight. Vr-Wr graph indicated over dominance and genetic diversity among the parents.
Hordein variation in Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wild barley (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.)
Echart-Almeida, Cinara;Cavalli-Molina, Suzana;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572000000200031
Abstract: sds-page was used to analyze the hordein polypeptide patterns of brazilian barley varieties (hordeum vulgare l.) and of two native species of hordeum from southern brazil (h. euclaston steud. and h. stenostachys godr.). forty different hordein polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 30 to 94 kda were found in the seeds of the three species studied. twelve of the 14 varieties examined showed intravarietal polymorphism. the number of bands ranged from 10 to 17, depending on the variety, and from 3 to 13 among individual seeds, with a total of 26 bands in h. vulgare. phenograms using each seed as an operational taxonomic unit (otu) showed that the seeds from most varieties did not form distinct clusters. seeds from different plants of the native species varied considerably. the molecular weights of the hordein polypeptides of the two native species were quite different from those of h. vulgare. there was a greater similarity between the native species than with h. vulgare, although h. stenostachys was slightly closer to the cultivated species than h. euclaston.
Hordein variation in Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wild barley (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.)  [cached]
Echart-Almeida Cinara,Cavalli-Molina Suzana
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2000,
Abstract: SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the hordein polypeptide patterns of Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of two native species of Hordeum from southern Brazil (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.). Forty different hordein polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 30 to 94 kDa were found in the seeds of the three species studied. Twelve of the 14 varieties examined showed intravarietal polymorphism. The number of bands ranged from 10 to 17, depending on the variety, and from 3 to 13 among individual seeds, with a total of 26 bands in H. vulgare. Phenograms using each seed as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) showed that the seeds from most varieties did not form distinct clusters. Seeds from different plants of the native species varied considerably. The molecular weights of the hordein polypeptides of the two native species were quite different from those of H. vulgare. There was a greater similarity between the native species than with H. vulgare, although H. stenostachys was slightly closer to the cultivated species than H. euclaston.
Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Z Mut, A Gülümser, A Sirat
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Analysis of multienvironment trials (METs) of crops for cultivar evaluation and recommendation is an important issue in plant breeding research. Evaluating both stability of performance and high yield is essential in MET analyses. The objectives of this study were to assess interrelationship among these measures and to identify high-yield and stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in 11 environments during 2001 - 2003 in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Significant differences were observed among barley cultivars for grain yield, thousand-grain weight, hectoliter weight, plant height and heading date. In this study, high values of TOP (proportion of environments in which a genotype ranked in the top third) was associated with high mean yield, but the other methods were not positively correlated with mean yield and instead characterized a static concept of stability. The results of principal component (PC) analysis and correlation analysis of parametric and nonparametric stability statistics and yield indicated that only TOP method would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and stability. This method recommended Fahrettinbey and Sladoran as stable and Balkan 96 and Erginel as unstable genotypes. A biplot of the first two PCs also revealed that the stability statistic methods grouped as three distinct classes that corresponded to different dynamic (agronomic) and static (biological) concepts of stability.
Transcriptome Analysis of the Vernalization Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings  [PDF]
Aaron G. Greenup,Sharyar Sasani,Sandra N. Oliver,Sally A. Walford,Anthony A. Millar,Ben Trevaskis
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017900
Abstract: Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals.
Rhizobial Lipo-Chitooligosaccharides and Gibberellins Enhance Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seed Germination
M. Miransari,D. Smith
Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Gibberellins are plant hormones, enhancing seed germination. The bacterium-to-plant signal, lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) or Nod factors, are of great importance for roots organogenesis and hence, nodule formation and N fixation. Hence, we hypothesized that LCOs like gibberellins may also enhance barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germination. The objectives were to test the effects of gibberellins on barley germination and to test the hypothesis that LCOs may increase seed germination in barley. The concentrations, tested were 10-5 M for gibberellins and 10-6 M and 10-7 and 10-8 M LCOs. Although, gibberellins were able to numerically increase barley germination (up to 18%), the LCOs seemed to be more effective on barley germination as they significantly increased seed germination (up to 44%). Hence, the novel finding indicates that for LCOs may also be very effective on barley seed germination, through inducing morphogenesis and physiological changes in seeds. This finding can have very important agricultural implications.
Cell Division and Chromosome Behavior of Hordeum vulgare Seedlings under Salt Stress
NaCl胁迫对大麦细胞分裂及染色体行为的影响 Cell Division and Chromosome Behavior of Hordeum vulgare Seedlings under Salt Stress

YI Hui-lan,ZHANG Zi-Li,
仪慧兰
,张自立

遗传 , 2001,
Abstract: The effects of NaCl solution on chromosome behavior and sister chromatid exchanges(SCE)of barley were studied.Abnormal chromosome behavior including chromosome fragmentation,micronuclei,anaphase bridges and unequal split was found in root tip cells of Hordeum vulgare seedlings.Mitotic index decreased but SCE frequency increased significantly when barley incubated with NaCl solution.The effects of NaCl solution depended on its concentration and treatment duration.The higher the treated concentration was,the higher the ratio of chromosomal aberration was.The longer the treatment duration was,the higher the degree of the effects was.The results showed that NaCl solution was genotoxic when the concentration was higher and the treated time was longer.
The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts  [cached]
Ioana Daciana Mierlici,Elena Ciornea,Gogu Gheorghita
Analele ?tiin?ifice Ale Universit??ii Alexandru Ioan Cuza din Ia?i,Sectiunea II A : Genetica si Biologie Moleculara , 2010,
Abstract: This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase) in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.) after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50%) of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (EHR). The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.
STUDY OF CHLOROPHYLL a AND b IN ETIOLATED AND ANDROGENIC PLANTS OF BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
Asakavi?iūt? R.,Jacquard C.,Clement C.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2006,
Abstract: In order to characterize the occurrence of albino plantlets during the androgenetic process in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), chlorophyllous content of microspore derived structures were analyzed in various cultivar. The dynamics of quantities of a and b chlorophylls and their relations within etiolated and androgenic plants of the contrasting cultivars of Igri and Cork have been compared.Research on chlorophyll content dynamics showed that the androgenic plants of cv. Igri accumulated a higher content of chlorophyll compared to the regenerants of cv. Cork. This deficiency of chlorophyll in regenerants may be directly related to a high number of albinos in the anther culture of cv. Cork
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