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ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF GARCINIA KOLA (LEAF)  [PDF]
Oloyede O.I,Afolabi A.M
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Garcinia kola leaves have long been regarded as pharmacologically potent plant in folk medicine for their medicinal properties in tropical Africa. . In the present study, the ability of ethanolicextract of Garcinia kola leaves at concentrations (3.3-40ìg/ml) to prevent 60ìì Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain and liver homogenate was assessed using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS) invitro . Fe2+ chelating ability of the extract was a;sodetermined. (1mM FeSO4). The inhibitory effect of Garcinia kola leaves on lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate and the iron chelating activity were concentration - dependent exhibiting an antioxidant activity against free radicals. The extract showed its highest inhibition at the same concentration (26.7ìg/ml) in both liver and brain homogenate with %inhibition of 64.1% and 38.2% respectively. Therefore, the leaves of the plant could be considered to have significant natural antioxidant activity against the initiation of some prevalent diseases.
Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola
A.O. Adesuyi,I.K. Elumm,F.B. Adaramola,A.G.M. Nwokocha
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola were Investigated. The Nutritional Analyses involves Proximate analyses; Anti-Nutrient composition and Mineral composition. The Phytochemical parameters carried out were Flavonoids; Phenol; Alkaloids; Saponin and Tannin. The proximate Analyses showed that the sample has high level of Carbohydrate 88.30%, little amount of Crude Fibre and Protein 1.23 and 1.86%, respectively and negligible amount of Ash content 0.47% and Crude Fat 0.19%. Also a considerable level 7.6% of moisture was shown. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of Carbohydrate, dietary fibre and Protein. The Anti-Nutrient composition presents are in negligible amount. The Parameters are Oxalate (0.423 g/100 g), Phytate (0.57 g/100 g) and Trypsin Inhibitor (0.37 g/100 g). The Mineral content show a high level of calcium (2200 ppm),Potassium (968 ppm) and Sodium (852 ppm). Other mineral analysed were found to range from moderate to negligible. Garcinia Kola could be a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of Anti-Nutrients found that could prevent the absorption of these minerals. The result also show a high level of Saponin (2.471%), Flavonoids (2.041%) and Cardiac Glycosides (3.421%). Alkaloids and Tannins were present in Considerable amount 0.647 and 0.34%, respectively. But Phenol is present in negligible amount (0.147%). With the high level of Cardiac glycosides, Garcinia kola can be used as anti-inflammatory and as active components of drugs derived from plants.
Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity for development of a biological product
FD Babalola, BO Agbeja
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2010,
Abstract: The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of production with the view to improving the trade. Farmers have Garcinia trees on their farm and these were spared during land preparation for farming. Marketing of Garcinia nuts generated appreciable income to the producers and intermediaries. Unfortunately, Garcinia trees are currently on the decrease as a result of deforestation; this therefore calls for urgent attention on the establishment of Garcinia plantation. Diversification of the products should be encouraged to create more market opportunities and accrued benefits.
Antibacterial Activity of Garcinia kola and Cola nitida Seed Extracts
II Indabawa, AH Arzai
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) and Cola nitida (Kola nut) against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied. Results showed that alcohol extract of Garcinia kola was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae at various concentrations, with the latter displaying the lowest sensitivity. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were completely resistant. Hot water extract of the same plant was however, active against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The other organisms showed sensitivity to the alcohol extract of Cola nitida, but higher sensitivity was observed with the hot water extract of the plant. Some of the results provided scientific evidence for the use of the plants by traditional herbalists in the treatment of microbial infections. Key word: Garcinia kola, Bitter Kola, Cola nitida, Kola nut, Antibacterial, extracts.
Optimization of ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter kola) pulp agrowaste
HC Nzelibe, CU Okafoagu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Optimization options for production of ethanol from bitter kola (Garcinia kola) pulp wastes were investigated. The methods are degumming, saccharification, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis. Degumming was effectively achieved at 96 h of saccaharification. The concentration of reducing sugar for the treated sample (acid hydrolysed and saccharification) and control sample (saccharification) was maximum at 144 h (86.2 g/100g) and 96 h (31.5 g/100 g), respectively. Ethanol yield from treated sample and control sample using baker’s yeast was maximum at 120 h (70.7 g/L) and 192 h (29.3 g/L), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide has no significant effect on concentration of reducing sugar and ethanol yield. Acid hydrolysis with 2.5 M sulphuric acid and saccharification using Aspergillus niger are better methods for optimizing ethanol production from bitter kola pulp waste. Solar drying of the bitter kola pulp waste significantly enhanced ethanol production.
Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis
Olayinka O Adegbehingbe, Saburi A Adesanya, Thomas O Idowu, Oluwakemi C Okimi, Oyesiku A Oyelami, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1749-799x-3-34
Abstract: Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking).143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on
Histopathologicaltudies on the Effects of the Ethanolic Extract of the fruits of Garcinia kola on Selected Organs of the Dog
Nottidge,H. O; Omobowale,T. O; Taiwo,V. O; Omotoso,M. A;
International Journal of Morphology , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022008000400044
Abstract: the ethanolic extract of garcinia kola was administered to dogs to investígate the possible effects on selected organs of the dog. two doses of the extract (500mg/kg and looomg/kg) were daily administered to the test animals for a period of 6 weeks. a dose related response was observed in the severity of histopathological changes observed in the testes, liver, kidney and small intestine of animals in the test groups. despite the reported potentially beneficial effects of garcinia kola, its use as a medicinal plant should be with great caution.
Perfomance and Egg Quality Parameters of Laying Hens Fed Different Dietary Inclusion Levels of Bitter Kola (Garcinia kola)
O.S. Adedeji,G.O. Farinu,T.B. Olayeni,S.A. Ameen,G.M. Babatunde
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The effects of different inclusion levels of Garcinia kola on performance and egg quality parameters of layers were investigated for 8 weeks. A total of 40 Issa brown point-of-lay birds at 20 weeks of age were assigned randomly into 5 treatments, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 with 8 birds/treatment and 4 birds/replicate. Birds on each treatment were fed different diets containing Garcinia kola at 0 g/1000 g, 10 g/1000 g, 20 g/1000 g, 40 g/1000 g and 80 g/1000 g/kg weight of feed. The control diets did not contain Gracinia kola. The trial lasted for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in egg weight, yolk weight, yolk index, yolk length, yolk colour, yolk albumen ratio, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh unit of the eggs. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in performances, albumen weight and yolk height. This study showed that Garcinia kola did not pose any deleterious effects to the birds even at 80 g/1000 g/kg inclusion level but performance and egg quality were best at 10 g/1000 g/kg of dietary inclusion.
Gastroprotective potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia kola in rats
Ige S.F,Akhigbe R.E,Olaleye S.B,Adeyemi J.W
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Background: There is a claim in the folklore medicine of the use of Garcinia kola (GK) seeds in the management of gastritis and gastric ulcer. However, there has not been any scientific evidence in the literature that substantiated or refuted this with regards to the management of gastritis and gastric ulcerations in association with gastric morphological damage and cytoarchitectural changes. Aim: This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of the methanolic extract of GK (mGK) in the management of gastritis and gastric ulcerations in rat model. Methods: Adult albino rats with comparable weight were randomized into six groups. Group A was administered 1ml/kg bw of distilled water three times daily. Group B and C were administered ethanol (0.2ml/23g bw of 80% v/v) two hours prior termination of experiment and 150mg/kg bw of mGK daily for three weeks respectively. Group D was pre-treated with mGK and then ethanol as in groups B and C. Group E was administered ethanol as in group B and post-treated with mGK as in group C. Group F was concomitantly treated with mGk as in group C and ethanol as in group B. Results: Ethanol induced gastritis and gastric ulceration. Treatment with mGK abrogated ethanol-induced gastric damage: it reduced the morphological damage score, ulcer score, gastric wall thickness, and lipid peroxidation (p<0.05), and also improved the cytoarchitecture of the gastric mucosa. Conclusion: This study substantiated the gastroprotective potentials of mGK. The mechanism of action could be associated with the anti-oxidative activities of the flavonoid constituents.
Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and standard antibiotics.
O E Adeleke, O P Ojo, P A Idowu
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2007,
Abstract: The methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and eight standard antibiotics were tested in-vitro for comparative activity against 10 isolates of each of six bacterial species: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, all from throat infections. The methanolic extract exerted activity against all the bacteria tested almost in similar manner as gentamicin. Of the remaining seven standard antibiotics, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and tetracycline showed activity against one organism or the other. Remarkably, augmentinR, cloxacillin and cotrimoxazole had no activity against any of the bacterial isolates. Amoxycillin was able to affect only 2 of the 8 isolates of Esch. coli. This has lent credence to the ethnopharmaceutical claims of the curative affect of raw-chewed Garcinia kola seeds on throat infections as well as highlighting the bacterial resistance to standard antibiotics, particularly, the β-lactams. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 68-76
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