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Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater in Irrigated Perimeters under Arid Climate (The Case of Souss-Massa Aquifer, Morocco)
Tarik Tagma,Youssef Hsissou,Lhoussaine Bouchaou,Latifa Bouragba,Said Boutaleb
Environmental Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to clarify, the current status of alluvial aquifer in the Souss-Massa basin, where, the nitric pollution of groundwater is being increasing along the last decades. A multi-approach methodology using hydrogeology, nitrate concentrations, irrigation mode and Oxygen-18 and Deuterium isotopes data, was carried out to identify the sources of this pollution. According to the spatial distribution of nitrate contents, nitric pollution occurs mainly in the Chtouka-Massa plain. More than 36% of the sampled wells exceed the value of 50 mg L-1 which, constitutes the threshold value of nitrate concentrations for drinking water Moroccan standards. The groundwater in Souss plain is less polluted comparing to Chtouka-Massa. Only 7% of wells exceed the permitted level. The widespread distribution of high nitrate contents agrees with the distribution of irrigated areas, which can explain the major origin from agricultural fertilizers. High nitrate levels are associated with high δ18O values, clearly indicating that significant quantities of evaporated (isotopically enriched) irrigation water infiltrate along with fertilizer nitrate to the groundwater system. Different δ18O-NO3- trends suggest isotopically distinct, non-point source origins, which vary spatially and temporally, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge and amounts of fertilizer applied.
Medical Waste Management: A Case Study of the Souss-Massa-Drâa Region, Morocco  [PDF]
Adnane Mbarki, Belkacem Kabbachi, Abdelkarim Ezaidi, Mohamed Benssaou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49105
Abstract:

Medical waste management is of major concern due to the potentially high risks to both human health and the environment caused by inadequate waste management practices. In Morocco, as in many developing countries, little information is available regarding generation handling, and disposal of medical waste. The specific objective of this study was to analyse the medical waste management practices in the Souss-Massa-Draa region, Morocco. The study was carried out in seven of the twelve hospitals in the region, covering 66.2% of the bed capacity. A total of 219 healthcare personnel and their assistants were included: 35 doctors, 98 nurses, and 86 housekeepers. Site visits, interviews, and survey questionnaires were implemented to collect information regarding different medical waste management aspects, including medical waste generation, separation, collection, storage, transportation, and disposal. The results indicated that the medical waste generation rate ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Kg/bed-day with a weighted average of 0.53 Kg/bed-day. The percentage of infectious and hazardous wastes in the total medical waste stream was about 30.5%. The remaining 69.5% was general wastes similar in properties to municipal wastes. Concerning waste separation, housekeepers demonstrate a slightly higher knowledge about waste separation, with 49.4% of correct answers, with nurses at 45.7%, and doctors the lowest value at 38.6%. The results about other management aspects indicated that practices in most surveyed hospitals did not comply with the principles stated in Moroccan legislation. Based on the findings, some measures are suggested to improve the present conditions and ensure that potential health and environmental risks of medical waste are minimized.

Determination of recharge modes of aquifers by use of chemical and isotopic tracers. Case study of the contact zone between Western High-Atlas Chain and Souss Plain (SW Morocco)  [cached]
Boutaleb, S.,Bouchaou, L.,Hsissou, Y.,Tagma, T.
Estudios Geologicos , 2008, DOI: 10.3989/egeol.08641459
Abstract: Determination of the origin of recharge of the unconfined aquifer in the right side of the Souss wadi between Agadir and Taroudant (South-western of Morocco) was based on the use of hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater, surface water and springs of the contact zone between the High-Atlas Chain and the Souss plain. The correspondence in the space evolution of the various chemical elements of evaporitic origin (SO42-, Cl-, Sr2+) in groundwater, piedmont springs, and surface water reveals the existence of recharge water from the adjacent High-Atlas Chain. The various recharge modes of the different aquifers (High Atlas and Souss plain) determined by isotopic analysis, shows that the source of groundwater for the unconfined Souss aquifer seems to be composite between a direct infiltration on the High-Atlas tributaries and a remote recharge from the bordering High Atlas aquifers. La determinación del origen de los aportes de agua de la capa freática de la ribera derecha del rio Souss entre Agadir y Taroudant (Suroeste de Marruecos) se ha basado en la hidroquímica y el análisis isotópico de las aguas subterráneas, aguas superficiales y manantiales de la zona de contacto entre el Alto Atlas y la llanura de Souss. La correspondencia en la evolución espacial de los diferentes elementos químicos de origen evaporítico (SO42-, Cl-, Sr2+) en las aguas subterráneas, manantiales de pie de monte y aguas superficiales, revela la existencia de una recarga de agua procedente de la cadena del Alto Atlas. El análisis de los modos de recarga de los diferentes acuíferos (Alto Atlas y llanura de Souss) determinado por análisis isotópico, demuestra que la alimentación de la capa freática de Souss a partir del Alto Atlas parece ser mixta, compuesta por una infiltración directa de los afluentes del Alto Atlas y una alimentación lejana desde los acuiferos que limitan con el borde del Alto Atlas.
Characterization of groundwater in the Souss upstream basin: Hydrochemical and environmental isotopes approaches
L Bouragba, MJ Jacques, L Bouchaou, Y Hsissou, T Tagma
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The hydrochemistry of major ions and environmental isotope compositions (18O, 2H) of water samples have been used to identify the chemical characteristics and the origin of groundwater in the Souss upstream basin. The total dissolved solids (TDS) did not exceed 1000 mg.L-1 with an average of 635 mg.L-1. Two chemical water types were observed: A calcium and magnesium bicarbonate type (Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3-), forming the dominant water type generally observed in the plain along the Souss river and towards the piedmont of the Anti-Atlas Mountains; and a calcium sulphate type (Ca2+-SO42-), from the northwest of the study area, linked to the presence of phosphatic gypseous marls and limestone marls (Upper Cretaceous). The calculations of saturation indexes versus the main mineral phases have been carried out, using the PHREEQC program. The groundwater is saturated and slightly oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals and under saturated with respect to evaporite minerals; surface waters show an oversaturation with respect to carbonate mineral phases, mainly dolomite. The groundwater composition is largely controlled by the dissolution of carbonate rocks known in this part of the basin. Stable isotope contents of groundwaters ranged from -7.96 to -6.26‰ for δ18O and from -49.47 to -39.28‰ for δD. The hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope signatures indicate a low evaporation of precipitations during infiltration and that the aquifer is highly influenced by the contribution of recharge water recharge from the High Atlas Mountains.
As a Human Factor, the Attitude of Healthcare Practitioners is the Primary Step for the e-Health: First Outcome of an Ongoing Study in Morocco  [cached]
Az-Eddine Bennani,Mounim Belalia,Rachid Oumlil
Communications of the IBIMA , 2008,
Abstract: In the healthcare area, information and communication technologies (ICT) cannot improve performance of the involved stakeholders if they aren’t completely accepted and used. The resistance to end-user ICT by professionals in this area is a well-known matter. To help raise their acceptance in Morocco, we have to better appreciate why a number of practitioners adopt a positive attitude toward ICT use, while others are still reluctant. The study conducted in Souss Massa Draa province, located in south of Morocco, attempts to understand the attitude of healthcare professional, especially those who are directly involved in the process of patient care. This communication examines especially the intention of physicians to better appreciate the interaction between them and ICT. It highlights the first finding as far as physicians concern in terms of attitude which is the first step to e-health when it is positive. The main purpose is to communicate the progress of the research work conducted currently in Morocco.
Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater in Isfahan Province  [cached]
A. Jafari Malekabadi,M. Afyuni,S. F. Mousavi,A. Khosravi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2004,
Abstract: In recent decades, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased irrespective of their effects on soil properties, agricultural products and, particularly, on environmental pollution. Nitrate easily leaches from soils into groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine temporal and spatial nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural, industrial and urban regions in some parts of Isfahan Province. Water samples were collected monthly from 75 agricultural, industrial, and urban wells of Isfahan, Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Natanz and Kashan during January-May 2001. The results indicated that NO3-N concentrations in most of the regions studied were higher than the standard level (10 mg/l) and nitrate pollution must be reckoned among the most serious problems of sustainable agriculture and exploitation of groundwater resources. Average NO3-N concentration in different wells ranged from 1.03 to 50.78 mg/l (4.64 to 228.5 mg/l as nitrate). The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Isfahan and Natanz-Kashan was 17.56, 14.6, 16.04, and 8.24 mg/l and 95.5, 100, 84 and 33.3 % of total wells in these regions had nitrate concentrations above the standard level, respectively. Maximum NO3-N concentration was detected in the agricultural region south of Najaf-abad (64.6 mg/l). Nitrate pollution in most of the sampling areas was mainly linked to agricultural activities. The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of all agricultural, industrial, and urban regions, except for urban regions of Natanz and Kashan, were above the standard level. Generally, nitrate concentration level in groundwater increased with time and was maximum in March and April.
Morphogenesis and Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in the High Atlas Morocco: A Geomorphological Model of the Fans of the Wadi Beni Mhammed, Souss Valley  [PDF]
Lahoucine Chakir,Ali At Hssane,David Bridgland
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i3.11090
Abstract: Morphosedimentary study of alluvial fans formed by the Wadi Beni Mhammed, on the southern piedmont of the western High-Atlas, has indicated three main generations of deposits. Their ages range from ancient (Plio-Pleistocene) to Holocene and recent formations. The first generation, comprising small boundary fans, was deposited prior to lateral migration and subsequent entrenchment of the drainage pattern (the combination of the Wadis A?t Mekhlouf and Ida Ou Merouane). The confluence of these powerful streams gave birth to the principal fan that extends to the Souss valley. The third generation of fans was constructed after the incision of the principal fan, by the re-activation of a high secondary fan that was formed from downstream progradation. The morphological characteristics of the fans, such as their area, shape and gradient, are determined from catchment data and, in particular, from the lithology of their provenance areas, which defines the nature of gravel material, sedimentation processes and, finally, the distribtion of constituent materials. Fan shape also depends on the available accommodation space on the piedmont. The Wadi Beni Mhammed fans are elongated, because they are constrained by the mega fans of Wadis Irguitene and Aoukourta. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11090 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 293-311
A Continuous Electronic Nose Odor Monitoring System in the City of Agadir Morocco  [PDF]
Ahmed Chirmata, Ihya Ait Ichou, Thierry Page
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.61007
Abstract: The city of Agadir is one of the best tourist destinations in Morocco, considered as one of the most beautiful bay in the world, which has a port infrastructure and strong industry based on the processing of seafood which often implicated as the source of odors. In order to identify in real time the sources responsible for the odors experienced in the city center and to act quickly in conjunction with industry, the Wilaya of Souss Massa Draa Region has implemented a continuous odor monitoring and tracking system using electronic noses. The treatment of meteorological data and data sent by electronic nose enables atmospheric dispersion modeling, which allows to follow instantly the odor level in the study area and to identify the sources responsible for odors with receiving warning of incidents odors, data analysis system generated every four minutes allowed to have results confirmed by companions of questionnaires to nearby residents. To reduce odors, recommendations have been suggested, which is to set up affordable and efficient practices.
Health Risk of Maamora’s Groundwater Pollution in Morocco  [PDF]
Imane Kherrati, A. Alemad, M. Sibbari, H. Ettayea, K. Ezziani, Y. Saidi, M. Benchikh, S. Alzwi, H. Chiguer, Z. Zgourdah, A. Bourass, H. Daifi, O. Elrhouat, K. Elkharrim, D. Belghyti
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.64026
Abstract: The problem of pollution affects the whole world groundwater. The purpose of our present study is to evaluate the impact of contamination from residues of industry and agriculture, and discharge of untreated domestic wastewaters on the physical, chemical, metal and bacteriological water quality of Maamora’s tablecloth (Sebou bassin, Kenitra, Morocco). The physicochemical parameters followed are: T ℃, pH, EC, NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, CI-, F-, HCO3-, CO32-, SiO2, SO42-,?Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Pb2-, Cd2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, B3+, Dry Residue, Turbidity, Total Hardness (TH), Dissolved O2, Oxidisability, total and fecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and total and faecal germs of raw water from the boreholes. The physical, chemical, metal and bacteriological quality shows that the groundwater which is used as drinking water in the city of Kenitra and adjacent towns is generally good. However, high concentrations of nitrates (over 210.8 mg/L) and other metals (185 μg/l for lead; 58.98 for nickel; 187.3 μg/L for iron; 2204 μg/L for zinc) in some wells are worrisome because of the serious health consequences.
The Source of Arsenic and Nitrate in Borrego Valley Groundwater Aquifer  [PDF]
Mohammad Hassan Rezaie-Boroon, Jessica Chaney, Bradley Bowers
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.617145
Abstract: Groundwater in California is very precious, yet what we can withdraw is often contaminated with natural and anthropogenic pollution sources. We have examined the Borrego Valley (BV) groundwater (N = 6 wells) in southern California to understand the source of arsenic and nitrate in some of its groundwater production wells. The results show that the arsenic values range from <2 ppb to 12.2 ppb and the nitrate values from <1 ppm to 10.2 ppm for different wells respectively. The results showed that the arsenic concentration increased 270% for the well # ID1-10 since 2004 and showed an increase of 63% since 2013 respectively. For other wells the results showed an increase of 147% and 72% since 2001. The nitrate concentration has jumped 42% in concentration since last year in one of the wells. The objective of this study is to understand the nature and source of arsenic and nitrate in BV groundwater aquifer as to how this change in arsenic and nitrate concentration occurs through the time. The arsenic retention in the sediments is highly variable and controlled by local processes as a result of natural weathering process of metamorphic bedrock. The second results from the development of strongly reducing conditions at near-neutral pH values, leading to the desorption of arsenic from mineral oxides and to the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides, also leading to arsenic release. The high arsenic concentrations in some groundwater wells in Borrego Valley CA require the need for reconnaissance surveys in mineralized areas of fractured crystalline basement. Net groundwater extraction values are based on an irrigation efficiency of 78 percent with 14 to 22 percent irrigation return. We believe that the return flow from irrigational activity could be one of the major sources of nitrate transferring the agricultural contaminants such as nitrate to Borrego Valley aquifer.
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