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No Demonstrable Relationship Was Found between Alcohol Dependence and Concomitant Drug Abuse amongst Detainees in Police Custody in West Yorkshire, England  [PDF]
Remy Bahl, William P. Tormey
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.55057

The behavioural effects of alcohol and drug abuse may lead to arrest by the police. Individuals who abuse one substance may be at risk of developing multiple drug dependencies. Using the forensic records, data were collected on 50 successive subjects detained in police custodies across West Yorkshire, England who had gave history of alcohol addiction to a single practitioner. The degree of correlation between alcohol dependency and illicit drug usage was assessed by calculating the Spearman’s Rank coefficient. Thirty three subjects in this study did not use any illicit drugs. There was no correlation between alcohol dependency and concomitant drug abuse in this group. Spearman’s coefficient was statistically insignificant (p = 0.230). Kruskal’s Gamma, which is used for comparing ordinal data, also failed to show a significant link between the alcohol and drug group (p = 0.185). As the degree of alcohol dependency increased, co-use of other drugs decreased. Conversely as the use of stronger drugs increased, co-use with alcohol and other drugs increased. Alcohol dependency is a distinct disorder. Once alcoholism had set in, the use of other drugs falls. The forensic behavioural patterns linked alcohol with “violent disorder” and Class A drug abuse with “organised crime”. This study does not support the contention that most alcohol dependent individuals will also abuse illicit drugs.

The Professional Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Drug abuse is one of the major problems facing the worldtoday. Care providers and clinicians are faced with ever changing patterns of drug abuse and hence need to stayabreast of the latest developments. Research in this area in Pakistan is direly needed. Aims: This study wasundertaken with an idea of collecting basic data to assess the extent and variety of drug abuse in patients presentingto the researchers, and to assess the changes during a five-year interval. Design of study: Non-interventionalcomparative study. Setting: Department of Psychiatry, District Headquarters Hospital, Faisalabad Period: From1996to 2001. Materials & Methods: The sample consisted of patients admitted for treatment in the years 1996 & 2001.Statistical analysis was carried out using the software package SSPS utilizing tests such as the chi square andstudent’s t-test. Results: In this department, drug abuse is more frequently reported among urban, literate, marriedmales during young adulthood. Tobacco and cannabis are most frequently reported. Sex, curiosity and peer pressureare the main motivations involved in starting drug abuse. Besides these stable findings, some changes have occurredduring five years; polydrug abuse has become more frequent and the socioeconomic status of this patient group isdeteriorating. Conclusions: The problem of drug abuse is still rampant, if not increasing with time. The patterns of drugabuse are becoming more complicated, posing new challenges for health care planners and providers. More researchneeds to be undertaken in this area.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The social consequences, disadvantage and sub-ordination of women on the one hand, and the rapid socio-cultural and economic changes on the other have significantly altered traditional structures and institutions within society. Such changes are invariably associated with social upheaval, and drug abuse is a known outcome of such change. Clearly, drug abuse impacts women dually- male drug abuse creates enormous burden for the affected women, and drug abuser has even graver problems for women. From another perspective, urban settings appear to be associated with patterns of drug abuse in women mirroring that of men, with probably higher risk behaviours associated with unsafe injecting and sexual practices which causes transmission of Hepatitis and HIV. Use of drugs causes domestic violence, which magnifies the physical and emotional distress of the family. Women who misuse of drugs commonly reported serious diseases like as ARI, gastrointestinal, genitourinary liver problems and sexually transmitted infections. Women also suffered psychological problems included insomnia, depression and anxiety etc. The Approaches of treatment and prevention therefore need to consider the problem of drug abuse impact on women from all these angles, as well as from the context of empowerment, support and attention to the special needs of women.”
Reviews of Progress , 2013,
Abstract: Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in thecrime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impairjudgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assaultand impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability,addiction increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family.With most drug users being in the productive age group of 18-35 years, the loss in terms ofhuman potential is incalculable.
Role of the family in drug abuse.  [cached]
Kartikeyan S,Chaturvedi R,Bhalerao V
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1992,
Abstract: A simple random survey of 9863 population out of the total 70,000 population is one slum pocket of Bombay revealed drug dependence in 104 persons. Out of 104, 83.65% smoked ′brown sugar′ 10.68% used cannabis and 5.77% opium. Most of the addicts (95.2%) belonged to large families. Family history of alcoholism and drug abuse was present in 41.35%. Parental deprivation was additional contributing factor in 30.7%.
The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Rosana E. Norman ,Munkhtsetseg Byambaa,Rumna De,Alexander Butchart,James Scott,Theo Vos
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001349
Abstract: Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. Conclusions This overview of the evidence suggests a causal relationship between non-sexual child maltreatment and a range of mental disorders, drug use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted infections, and risky sexual behaviour. All forms of child maltreatment should be considered important risks to health with a sizeable impact on major contributors to the burden of disease in all parts of the world. The awareness of the serious long-term consequences of child maltreatment should encourage better identification of those at risk and the development of effective interventions to protect children from violence. Please see later in the article for the
Contractures and Drug Abuse  [PDF]
Srikumar V,Wadhwa S,Singh U,Yadav SL
Indian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 2009,
Abstract: Contracture is limitation of complete range of motion,active or passive, due to joint, muscle or soft-tissuelimitations. Myogenic contractures can be due to trauma,inflammation, degenerative changes, ischemia, andspasticity. A 32-year-old patient presented with complaintsof inability to sit on the floor and limitation of multiplejoint movements which progressed over the past threeyears. He had a history of multiple drug injections(pentazocine) for the past six years at multiple sitesthroughout the body. He was started on narcoticanalgesics for chronic abdominal pain followingpancreatitis. Deltoid, quadriceps, hamstring and calfmuscles were indurated and contracted. Bilateral wingingof scapula was present. Contractures are commonlyassociated with joint diseases; but normal radiographsand indurated muscles support a myogenic pathology inthis case. Myogenic contracture due to parenteral narcoticabuse is a rare entity.
The Household Survey of Drug Abuse in Kerman, Iran
Hasan Ziaaddini,Mohammad Reza Ziaaddini
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: To ascertain the prevalence of drug abuse among Iranian people a cross sectional household population based survey with census sampling was designed. The Roehampton questionnaire was used for evaluation. Opium abuse was the most frequent substance abuse (17.1%) and opioid dependency was 5.3%. Any one consumed alcohol. Only 4 person had daily use of cannabis, 3 person had daily use of heroin and 8 person had daily abuse of tranquilizers. The most common usage method was inhalation and there was no injection. There was a statistical significant difference between sex and substance abuse. In Iran like other countries drug abuse in male is more frequent than female. The most common substance abuse is opium, it should be noted that in Iran, it is very difficult to obtain LSD, cocaine, or psychedelics, specially, in rural area. Cultural attitude toward substance use quite likely affect the types and patterns of use.
The Extent and Panacea for Drug Abuse and Indiscipline in Kenyan Schools  [cached]
Alice Masese,Nasongo W. Joseph,Lewis Ngesu
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Drug abuse is indeed a menace in Kenyan schools requiring concerted efforts to overcome. This paper explores the extent of the menace, precipitating factors, effects on health and discipline of students and possible remedies to the problem. The study underscores the urgent need to address the problem so as to salvage the lives of victims and minimize incidences of abuse.
Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis  [PDF]
Nadjme Jadidi,Nouzar Nakhaee
Journal of Addiction , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/352835
Abstract: Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. 1. Introduction According to the UNODC report, approximately 5% of the world adult population have used illegal drugs at least once in 2010 and 0.6% of people are considered “problem drug users” [1]. Drug abuse will impact various aspects of one’s life including physical, mental, and social aspects. In addition to more than 200,000 deaths per annum due to heroin and cocaine abuse, drug abuse could lead to delinquency, early sexual activity, family disintegration, and increased risk of HIV [1, 2]. Although the rate of drug abuse is reported to be steady in some countries, it has shown an increasing trend in many developing societies [1]. Iran is facing an increasing number of drug abusers that have negative social and health impacts [3]. Over the past century, many theories have been proposed to describe the aetiology of drug abuse [2, 3]. These theories are categorised in 3 main subgroups of social, psychological, and biological subgroups [4]. Although multiple theories would help in better understanding of the aetiology of addiction, this multiplicity could convey the lack of consensus around aetiology of drug abuse [2] and, according to Spooner, scientific evidence in this area is inadequate [5]. The majority of studies in drug dependency have a
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