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ENUM: The Collision of Telephony and DNS Policy  [PDF]
Robert Cannon
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: ENUM marks either the convergence or collision of the public telephone network with the Internet. ENUM is an innovation in the domain name system (DNS). It starts with numerical domain names that are used to query DNS name servers. The servers respond with address information found in DNS records. This can be telephone numbers, email addresses, fax numbers, SIP addresses, or other information. The concept is to use a single number in order to obtain a plethora of contact information. By convention, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ENUM Working Group determined that an ENUM number would be the same numerical string as a telephone number. In addition, the assignee of an ENUM number would be the assignee of that telephone number. But ENUM could work with any numerical string or, in fact, any domain name. The IETF is already working on using E.212 numbers with ENUM. [Abridged]
Research on ENUM and Its Performance

WEN Hong-guan,MAO Wei,

计算机应用研究 , 2006,
Abstract: ENUM is one of the network resource addressing technologies.It plays an important role in the inter-infiltration of Internet and PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network),for carrying out the addressing between different communication protocols.It has many problems to resolve while using DNS technology on PSTN,because DNS is usually used on the Internet.The performance and security are two serious aspects of ENUM.The ENUM's update and query are primary problems of the performance.It is influenced by networks,protocols and configurations of system.Load balance and anycast are the new techniques that can impove the performance.The ENUM system can sustain many normal communications.
Measurement and Evaluation of ENUM Server Performance  [PDF]
Charles Shen,Henning Schulzrinne
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: ENUM is a DNS-based protocol standard for mapping E.164 telephone numbers to Internet Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). It places unique requirements on the existing DNS infrastructure, such as data scalability, query throughput, response time, and database update rates. This paper measures and evaluates the performance of existing name server implementation as ENUM servers. We compared PowerDNS (PDNS), BIND and Navitas. Results show that BIND is not suitable for ENUM due to its poor scaling property. Both PDNS and Navitas can serve ENUM. However, Navitas turns out to be highly optimized and clearly outperforms PDNS in all aspects we have tested. We also instrumented the PDNS server to identify its performance bottleneck and investigated ways to improve it.
Research and implementation of ENUM-based VoIP authentication system

CHEN Liang,FENG Tao,WANG Feng,MAO Wei,

计算机应用研究 , 2007,
Abstract: This paper introduced ENUM, the key technology of promoting network convergence, and discussed the security thread of VoIP, then gave out a solution to resolve the VoIP security and authentication.
Project on Handle-based ENUM Technology
基于Handle名字解析系统的 ENUM技术解决方案*

FENG Tao,YAN Bao-ping,ZHU Xiao-lian,

计算机应用研究 , 2006,
Abstract: The issues which how to converge the resource of telecommunication network with Internet to take more effect becomes the concerns of the multitude. The key technology about the convergence of Internet and telecommunication network is introduced in this article firstly, namely ENUM. Then the study status, security and privacy of ENUM is researched in depth. At the end of this article, a solution of more security and more reliable,easier management to ENUM is recommended.
Sublethal Effects of Methanolic Extract of Raphia hookeri on the Reproductive Capacity of Clarias gariepinus  [PDF]
Adedotun O. Afolayan,Temitope I. Borokini,Gloria O. Afolayan
Advances in Zoology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/615908
Abstract: Raphia hookeri fruits are used for fishing in Nigeria due to their ichthyotoxic properties. This study investigated the toxic effects of R. hookeri on the reproductive capacity of Clarias gariepinus. The results from both short-term (96-hour test) and long-term (3-month sublethal test) bioassays revealed a linear relationship between R. hookeri extract dose and negative effects on the catfish. The percentage survival of both sexes of the catfish decreased with increasing extract concentration at short-term exposure, with LC50 values of 600?mg/L and 800?mg/L for male and female, respectively. At long-term exposure, the reproductive capacity of 10–12-month-old male and female brood-stocks diminished at relatively higher concentrations of R. hookeri fruit extract, with the gravid females producing fewer and mostly unviable eggs. The fruit extract also affected the eggs’ hatchability and fry survival when the exposed gravid females were treated with pituitary hormone and sperms from unexposed males, while the exposed males were unable to sexually stimulate female brooders. Sperms and pituitary hormone from exposed males were infertile, leading to low percentage of hatched eggs and mortality of the few hatched fries within 24 hours. These results confirmed the ethnobotanical use of this fruit extract for fishing in Nigeria. 1. Introduction Fish is one of the cheapest protein sources in sub-Saharan Africa [1], and the importance of fish in developing countries increased greatly after the Sahelian drought of 1971 to 1974, which decimated the cattle population and hence shot up the prices of beef [2]. Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) belongs to the family Clariidae, and is widely distributed in Nigerian waters [3]. The fish is known for its high tolerance and high survivability [4] and resilience in harsh habitat conditions [5]. There is a huge market value for the fish in Nigerian markets due to its taste [6], which resulted in the proliferation of fish farming business in Nigeria using different fish production methods. However, wild catch still remains important. In order to increase catch yields in traditional fishing, different toxic plants that can stupefy fish have been exploited [7, 8]. Chopra et al. [9] reported at least 112 plants with poisonous effects on fish. Seigler [10] reported the piscicidal effect of some common plants of India that are frequently used in freshwater bodies against target organism while Neuwinger [11] also observed that there is a wide variety of wild and cultivated poisonous plants available to coastal fishermen for
Analyzing ENUM Service and Administration from the Bottom Up: The addressing system for IP telephony and beyond  [PDF]
Junseok Hwang,Milton Mueller,Gunyoung Yoon,Joonmin Kim
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: ENUM creates many new market opportunities and raises several important policy issues related to the implementation and administration of the ENUM database and services. Recent World Telecommunications Policy Forum 2001 dealt with the emergence of ENUM as an important numbering issue of IP telephony. This paper prepares some important emerging issues of ENUM administration and policy by taking an empirical research approach from the bottom up. We will identify potential key ENUM services, and estimating the size of the service market opportunities created by the availability of PSTN-IP addressing and mapping mechanisms, particularly in the context of IP telephony. Also, we analyze the possible administrative models and relationship scenarios among different ENUM players such as Registry(ies), Registrars, Telephone Service Providers, ENUM Application Service Providers, etc. Then, we will assess the effects of various administrative model architectures of ENUM service by looking at the market opportunities and motivations of the players. From the empirical findings, we will draw the implications on transactions among different kinds of ENUM service providers. Finally, the results of the model analysis will be used for the discussion of policy related issues around the ENUM and IP telephony services. Keywords: IP Telephony, ENUM, Internet Policy, Numbering and Addressing System, Service and Market Study, Administration Model, Empirical Market Study.
E PLURIBUS ENUM: Unifying International Telecommunications Networks and Governance  [PDF]
Craig McTaggart
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: ENUM effectively bridges the telephone and Internet worlds by placing telephone numbers from the ITU Rec. E.164 public telecommunication numbering plan into the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) as domain names. ENUM potentially presents significant public policy issues at both the domestic and international levels. Ultimately, it should not matter whether ENUM is approached as a telecommunications issue or an Internet issue because: (1) they are becoming the same thing technically, and (2) they engage the same global public interests. For the same reasons as apply to traditional telecommunications, and even to the Internet itself, public oversight of ENUM naming, numbering, and addressing resources is justified both by technical necessity and the interests of consumer protection (particularly personal privacy) and competition at higher service layers. A single, coordinated global DNS domain for at least Tier 0 (the international level) of the ENUM names hierarchy should be designated by public authorities. Many of the technical characteristics and policy considerations relevant at the ENUM Tier 0 and 1 zones are also directly applicable to the Internet's IP address space and DNS root (or Tier 0) zone - key shared elements of the Internet's logical infrastructure. Despite the fundamentally international nature of the Internet's logical infrastructure layer, and the purported privatization of administration of its IP address space and the DNS, Internet governance is not yet truly international. The ENUM policy debate illustrates the need for authoritative international public oversight of public communications network logical infrastructure, including that of traditional telecommunications, the Internet, and ENUM.
Leprosy with HIV infection in Manipur  [cached]
Singh Th. Nabakumar,Nandakishore Th. Nandakishore,Singh K
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2000,
Abstract: A 27 -year -old unmarried male presented with typical clinical features of lepromatous leprosy which was confirmed by slit-skin smear and histopathological examinations. He also had history of intra-venous use of heroin and tested positive for HIV-I antibody by ELISA and Western blot. This is the first case report of co-infection of leprosy and HIV from Manipur.
Emergence of sporotrichosis in Manipur  [cached]
Devi K,Devi M,Singh T,Devi K
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2006,
Abstract: A retrospective analysis of all cases of sporotrichosis was conducted to examine the pattern and frequency of sporotrichosis cases in Manipur over a period of six year from July 1999 to June 2005. Seventy-three (73) cases of sporotrichosis were detected of which 30 were confirmed by culture and 43 were diagnosed by aspiration cytology only. Most of the patients belonged to the age group of 21 to 40 years (n=23; 31.5%). There were 39 females (53.4%) and 34 males (46.5%). Commonest site of infection was upper limbs (n=39; 53.4%) followed by lower limbs (n=17; 23.2%). Commonest type of infection was lymphocutaneous form (n=46; 63.1%) followed by fixed cutaneous form (n=27; 36.9%). Among these 73 cases, 2 male patients (2.7%) were found to be HIV positive. In our experience, collection of material by aspiration of pus or infected tissue was found to be a better method compared to scraping or exudate. This study revealed Manipur as a new endemic area for sporotrichosis.
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