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The Complexity of Environmental Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa and Reduction of Poverty
K Mwambazambi
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2011,
Abstract: The principal purpose of this article is to draw attention to the growing threat to human health and the environment posed by the increased generation of and the complex problems attending hazardous wastes in sub-Saharan Africa, and the need to protect this region. This subject is vitally linked to the need to reduce poverty and to achieve socio-economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is an implicit determination of the people to protect the human health of the sub-Saharan population and the environment from the adverse effects of pollution and degraded ecosystems. It is essential to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, and all humanity should make a permanent individual and collective commitment to protect the environment and reduce the poverty that all too often puts the environment and public health at risk.
Determinants of the right of access to food in sub-Saharan Africa.
SI Adeyemi, GT Ijaiya, MA Ijaiya, BL Ijaiya
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Food is one of the most important basic needs of human beings since it provides the energy for the physiological functioning of the body. The right to food is thus the right of all individuals alone or in community with others to enjoy physical and economic access to adequate food or the means for its procurement. Adequate food also implies the availability of food in sufficient quantity and quality to satisfy the dietary needs of all individuals and the accessibility of food in ways that are sustainable. Generally, a number of factors are considered important in the determination of the right of access to food. Key among these factors are availability of agricultural resources such as land, water, energy and fertilizer; increase in the demand for food as a result of the increase in population, increase in personal income, development of transportation and storage facilities, macroeconomic stability, sociopolitical stability; seasonal fluctuation in availability of food due to natural disaster, access to safe water, access to health care services, access to sanitation facilities and many others. This paper examines the extent to which these factors have impacted on the ability of the people in Sub-Saharan Africa to have access to food, using a set of cross-country data and a multiple regression analysis. The results obtained indicate that factors like the increase in population, access to sanitation facilities, access to safe water, access to health care services, access to information and increase in the price of food have to some extent impacted on the right of the people to have access to food in the sub-region. Food supply, income of the people, the presence of democratic values, access to education and access to transport play little or no significant role in determining the right of the people to access food. Given these results, measures, such as, the provision of stable macroeconomics policies, reduction in income poverty, provision of basic social services and good governance were suggested as possible solutions to the right of access to food in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Challenges of Economic Growth, Poverty and Development: Why Are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) not Fair to Sub-Saharan Africa?  [cached]
Kanayo Ogujiuba,Fadila Jumare
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n12p52
Abstract: Sub-Saharan African countries report high levels of growth and GDP per capita and yet they are unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) such as quality education and health. The paper argued that GDP might not be sufficient for measuring development because the funds obtained may not necessarily be used to improve the quality of life of worse off communities. Even with a constituent level of GDP, the problem of poverty and underdevelopment is becoming more intractable in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focused on the Challenges facing Sub-Saharan African countries in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This was discussed after revealing growth in GDP and inequality trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using examples from countries like Nigeria, it is evident that many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are unlikely to achieve their MDG targets due to persistence of poverty and other challenges such as corruption and mal-administration of funds. Moreover, the required growth to substantially reduce poverty is too high by international standards. The paper concluded by concurring with the view that redistribution of the growth increment of income is more likely to be effective in reducing poverty than growth in GDP alone. Therefore while growth in GDP may be prone to poverty reduction, it should be complemented with policies to ensure investment and broad participation, reduce violence, root out corruption and increase investment in infrastructure. The paper recommends that countries’ development strategies must take into consideration national realities in each country rather than adopting targets and policies from the western world.
Information and Communication Technologies and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries : the Case of Sub Saharan Africa countries
Lot Tcheeko,Marcellin Ndong Ntah
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2006,
Abstract: There is a growing interest in using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to support poverty reduction efforts and strategies in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These interest ended up revealing how much the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) of many african nations have underestimated the importance of ICTs as a development tool. The fact that so little was mentionned about the use of ICTs for poverty alleviation and creation of employment highlighted the confusion, and uncertainty of decision makers. At the country level, ICT is still to be effectively integrated into national poverty alleviation and development strategies. The question then is how ICTs can help achieve those objectives. How can ICTs be used as tools to fight against poverty? Poverty is widely recognized as multidimensional, encompassing food security, health, education, rights, security and dignity, amongst others as stressed by Bachelor and al in a model showing the intricate linkages between ICTs and most PRSP goals. The link between ICTs and poverty reduction strategy is therefore not that obvious. Although, researchers and development partners involved in poverty alleviation recognize more easily the linkage between ICT and poverty reduction strategies. In any case, it is a prerequisite to have a conducive environment and country readiness for ICTs implementation. Unfortunately, in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries, there is not yet a clear and effective policy and strategy for the use of ICT.
The Millennium Development Goals, Poverty Reduction and Future of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Prognostic Analysis
Chijioke Kelechi Iwuamadi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100610
Abstract: The advent of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) coincided with a transition period from Structural Adjustment to Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and a general focus on Human Development. The paper critically reviewed extant literature on the MDGs as it affects Africa. The trend analysis shows that the state of MDGs in sub-Saharan Africa is worrisome especially as we are approaching the terminal 2015 expected year of achieving most of these goals. Based on this, the paper argues that, despite the persistent increase of external funds and aids targeted at making sure Africa achieves the MDGs, the region is yet to transform these gestures into tangible sustainable development. The paper examined the policy constraints and bottlenecks that frustrate achieving the MDGs. It also attempts to identify key areas where policy coherence and harmonization is required if progress towards MDGs achievements is to be accelerated. The paper further concludes that effective collaboration and commitment between governments and civil society and other relevant stakeholders is crucial and timely in creating the necessary synergy that will redefine the development priorities and strategies in a way that works for the majority of Africans.
Urban Health and Welfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: Population Growth, Urbanisation, Water/Sanitation Services, Slumisation and Poverty
RICHARD INGWE
Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Spatio-temporal analysis was applied on data representing urbanisation, slumisation, poverty, safe water/ sanitation in urban sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The findings include: rapid rates of national population growth and urbanisation throughout SSA from 1980 to 2005, averaging 93.8% (range: 90.5% points), lowest and highest rates being 40% (Lesotho) and 130.5% (Niger), respectively; high national poverty rates, widespread in SSA: (>50% in about seven countries; it might have been similar in more countries if a large number of SSA countries had reported their 1993 poverty rates; high urban/rural poverty ratios (1.05-1.79 points range) between Nigeria and Benin Republics. High average rate (73%) of slumisation in SSA in 2001 (range: 96%), lowest and highest rates being in Zimbabwe (3%) and Chad/Ethiopia (99%), respectively. SSA’s 2000 health adjusted life expectancy was generally low: 38.8 years (<40 years in 24 countries). Use of safe/improved water/sanitation services were poor almost throughout SSA: declined rapidly and ubiquitously from 72% (2000) to 55% (2002), minus 17% points decrease in three years within individual countries with alarming declines up to minus 69% points in Guinea. The policy implications of the findings include the urgent and imperative need to massively implement urban improvement programmes designed to provide health-inducing services/facilities across SSA.
Determinants of Rural Poverty in Africa: The Case of Small Holder Farmers in Kenya
G. Owuor,M. Ngigi,A.S. Ouma,E.A. Birachi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa is likely to hold large numbers of very poor rural people in the near future unless sustainable intervention measures are undertaken. Although both history and theory point to the important role of agriculture in poverty reduction, such growth today faces even more difficulties. This study uses a probit model on a sample of 600 smallholder farmers to establish factors that influence probability of households’ escaping chronic poverty. Results show that access to micro-credit, education, participation in agricultural seminars, livestock assets and location in high potential areas significantly influence the probability of households exiting chronic poverty. On the other hand, female gender and distance to the market increases the probability of persistence in chronic poverty. Present findings reveal that micro-credit access, gender, education and market access are key determinants of exit from rural poverty. Therefore through intensified micro-credit provision, education, women empowerment via legal rights to property and improvement of rural access roads, the poverty status could be ameliorated.
Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model
Olatunde Aremu, Stephen Lawoko, Tahereh Moradi, Koustuv Dalal
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-37-13
Abstract: Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to Demographic and Health Survey data conducted in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The unit of analysis were the 12,988 caregivers of children who were reported to have had diarrhoea two weeks prior to the survey period.There were variability in selecting treatment options based on several socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel-multinomial regression analysis indicated that higher level of education of both the caregiver and that of the partner, as well as caregivers occupation were associated with selection of medical centre, pharmacies and home care as compared to no treatment. In contrast, caregiver's partners' occupation was negatively associated with selection medical centre and home care for managing diarrhoea. In addition, a low-level of neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage was significantly associated with selection of both medical centre and pharmacy stores and medicine vendors.In the light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving on care seeking for managing diarrhoea episode and other childhood infectious disease should jointly consider the influence of both individual SEP and the level of economic development of the communities in which caregivers of these children resides.Diarrhoea remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children aged five and below in most developing regions of the world. According to an estimate, diarrhoea is reported to be responsible for close to 2 million deaths annually in this age-group[1]. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the occurrence of diarrhoea like other infectious disease has been associated with poverty [2-4]. Timely administration of oral rehydration salt (ORS), and more recently Zinc tablets have proved to be both more cost effective and efficacious as primary interventions for preventing diarrhoea morbidity [5-11]. Despite the availability of these interventions; there have been no decline to diarrhoea i
Determinants of male involvement in maternal and child health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  [cached]
Ditekemena John,Koole Olivier,Engmann Cyril,Matendo Richard
Reproductive Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-9-32
Abstract: Introduction Male participation is a crucial component in the optimization of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services. This is especially so where prevention strategies to decrease Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are sought. This study aims to identify determinants of male partners’ involvement in MCH activities, focusing specifically on HIV prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Literature review was conducted using the following data bases: Pubmed/MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; COCHRANE; Psych INFORMATION and the websites of the International AIDS Society (IAS), the International AIDS Conference and the International Conference on AIDS in Africa (ICASA) 2011. Results We included 34 studies in this review, which reported on male participation in MCH and PMTCT services. The majority of studies defined male participation as male involvement solely during antenatal HIV testing. Other studies defined male involvement as any male participation in HIV couple counseling. We identified three main determinants for male participation in PMTCT services: 1) Socio-demographic factors such as level of education, income status; 2) health services related factors such as opening hours of services, behavior of health providers and the lack of space to accommodate male partners; and 3) Sociologic factors such as beliefs, attitudes and communication between men and women. Conclusion There are many challenges to increase male involvement/participation in PMTCT services. So far, few interventions addressing these challenges have been evaluated and reported. It is clear however that improvement of antenatal care services by making them more male friendly, and health education campaigns to change beliefs and attitudes of men are absolutely needed.
Social class and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa
D Buor
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2005,
Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to test hypotheses on social class variables as determinants of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to structure a schematic model for the relationship on the impact of social class on HIV/AIDS prevalence. World Bank data, 2002 World Development Indicators, are used for the analyses. Interactive graphs, with a combination of regression lines, are used as the main instruments of analysis. The indicators of social class used for the analysis are education, women's education, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, level of poverty, urbanisation and contraceptive usage. Inbound tourist movement is included in the analysis, though not directly linked with social class, due to it being an emerging factor in the spread of the pandemic. Education has turned out to be the main determinant of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Inbound tourism movement has emerged as an important factor in the prevalence of the disease, after education. Defects of quality of data would not be far fetched, given the lack of logistics and financial resources of most governments for the exercise, possible political manipulations and ideological biases. It is recommended that primary research at individual country levels be carried out on the effectiveness of the use of condoms, and the social class and tourist movement factors on HIV/AIDS prevalence to confirm the sub-regional findings. Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 25(2) 2005: 66- 79
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