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Communal Conflict- Related Ocular Trauma
AO Adeoye, S.O. Olateju, E.O. Soetan
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2002,
Abstract: [Nig J Clinical Practice Vol.5(1) 2002: 1-4]Purpose: To determine the cause, morbidity and visual outcome of ocular injuries sustained during the Ife/Modakeke communal conflict which occurred between A9ugust 1997 and December 1998. Method: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with eye injuries resulting from the conflict, treated at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospital, Ile-Ife and 2 private eye clinics in Ile-Ife and Modakeke. Results: Fifty-five eyes of 54 patients were injured. The mean age was 32 years with a male preponderance of 96.3%. Forty-two eyes (76.4%) were injured by gunfire through direct impact, backfire or stray bullet. Thirty-one eyes (56.4%) sustained closed-globe injuries while 24 (43.6%) had open-globe injuries. Thirty-five eyes (63.6%) were blind, out of which 9 eyes (16.4%) required primary enucleation. Conclusion: Civilian conflict with the use of firearms is associated with severe ocular morbidity. Maintenance of peace is essential. KEYWORDS: Conflict, ocular trauma, gunshot injury, blindness [Nig J Clinical Practice Vol.5(1) 2002: 1-4]
Exhuming Trends in Ethnic Conflict and Cooperation in Africa: Some selected states
J Cocodia
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2008,
Abstract: The world-wide surge in the number and violence of open conflicts revolving around ethnic or religious identities towards the end of the 20th century is a powerful reminder that communal identities are not a remnant of the past but a potent force in contemporary politics. After three decades of independence, ethnicity is more central than ever to the political process of many African countries. Africa has had more than its fair share of ethnic dissent which has sometimes plummeted states into civil war as was experienced in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and reached frightening proportions in Rwanda and now Sudan. Political openings and multiparty elections have led to the formation of innumerable overtly or covertly ethnic political parties, which serve more often to increase civil strife of which the most recent addition to the long list in Africa is Kenya. Africa's ethnic disturbances have occurred more within national borders, thus giving rise to unstable domestic systems. This paper attempts to address these ethnic issues by assessing certain conflict spots as opposed to areas of relative calm in Africa. The assessment of states on both sides of the divide (i.e. cooperation and conflict) is done in the hope that trends that lead to conflict as well as those that lead to cooperation can be identified. In order to establish these patterns of cooperation and conflict, it became pertinent to use a broad range of case studies, notably, Tanzania, Botswana, South Africa, Uganda and C te d'Ivoire. The result of this study tells that the lack or presence of equity and justice (components of good governance), high literacy levels and an external threat, are factors which strengthen or diminish possibilities of ethnic conflict. African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol. 8 (3) 2008: pp. 9-26
The Civil War in Southern Sudan and Its Effect on Youth and Children
Biel, Melha Rout
Social Work and Society , 2003,
Abstract: The Civil War in Sudan, which began in June 1983, has caused a numbers of social, cultural and economical problems for Sudan. Many social changes took place, not only in the southern Sudan, where the war has been fought since its inception, but also in the Sudanese Nation as a whole. In this contribution, I would like to give a short summary about the effect of the war on the Sudanese society, in general, and on youth and children, in particular. This is important, because youth and children are the future of every nation. Because the youth and children in southern Sudan are gravely affected by the current war, this article will specifically address these effects. Youth and children in the North of the country are, however, almost equally affected by the conflict. After discussing historical background of Sudan and its political and developmental condition, I will briefly summarize the social situation and the role of social work in Sudan during and after the conflict.
The aperiodic complexities and connections to dimensions and Diophantine approximation  [PDF]
Viktor Schroeder,Steffen Weil
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In their earlier work (Ergodic Th. Dynam. Sys., 34: 1699 -1723, 10 2014), the authors introduced the so called F-aperiodic orbits of a dynamical system on a compact metric space X, which satisfy a quantitative condition measuring its recurrence and aperiodicity. Using this condition we introduce two new quantities $\cal{F}$, $\cal{G}$, called the `aperiodic complexities', of the system and establish relations between $\cal{F}$, $\cal{G}$ with the topology and geometry of X. We compare them to well-know complexities such as the box-dimension and the topological entropy. Moreover, we connect our condition to the distribution of periodic orbits and we can classify an F-aperiodic orbit of a point x in X in terms of the collection of the introduced approximation constants of x. Finally, we discuss our results for several examples, in particular for the geodesic flow on hyperbolic manifolds. For each of our examples there is a suitable model of Diophantine approximation and we classify F-aperiodic orbits in terms of Diophantine properties of the point x. As a byproduct, we prove a `metric version' of the closing lemma in the context of CAT(-1) spaces.
Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan
Bayard Roberts, Eliaba Damundu, Olivia Lomoro, Egbert Sondorp
BMC Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-9-7
Abstract: A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events.Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events.This study provides evidence of high levels of mental distress in the population of Juba Town, and associated risk-factors. Comprehensive social and psychological assistance is urgently required in Juba.The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the 20 year civil conflict in Sudan between the Government of Sudan in the north and rebel movements in southern Sudan led by the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement. This conflict marked a continuation of the 1955–1972 war between the south and north and was rooted in long-term political, economic and cultural grievances between the south and the Government of Sudan.Approximately 1.9 million people were killed during the 20 year conflict by violence, disease and starvation. Up to four million people were forcibly displaced from their homes as int
The Darfur Crisis in Sudan: Challenge to International Peacekeeping Missions
Soetan Stephen Olayiwola
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Darfur Crisis in Sudan has continue to pose a great challenge to International Peacekeeping mission and humanitarian intervention in politics of other states since 1983 when the most recent Sudanese civil war broke out, the Organisation of African Unity (now African Union) has made series of attempts to ensure peace and put an end to reckless killings and wanton destruction of properties in the country. She had gone to the extent of stationing a peacekeeping force in the Sudan to maintain peace of recent, the U.N. had offered military assistance to the A.U. peacekeeping mission in the Sudan.The role of International Organisation at maintaining peace in the Sudan with its attendant difficulties form the tenets of discussion in this study.
Communal Land Conflict and Food Security in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Francis Abul Uyang, Eucharia Nwabugo Nwagbara, Veronica Akwenabuaye Undelikwo, Rosemary Ine Eneji
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.34027

This study examined the relationship between factors in communal land conflict and food security in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the selected independent variables of boundary dispute and scramble for other scarce economic resources like oil palm and other economic trees. Using the survey research design, data were collected from 400 randomly selected respondents. The data were statistically analysed using the chi-square (X2) with probability set at the 5% level of significance. The results showed a significant relationship between boundary dispute and food security in Obudu on one hand and between scramble for scarce economic resources and food security on the other. We recommend among other things, that government at all levels should periodically mount enlightenment campaigns, seminars and symposia to sensitize the rural people on the devastating effect of communal land conflict. Also, conflict control mechanisms such as regular meetings and dialogue among neighbouring communities should be encouraged by community leaders to avert communal land conflict.

How ordinary folk became involved in the Ambonese conflict : Understanding private opportunities during communal violence
Jeroen Adam
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 2010,
Abstract: Traditional accounts of the eruption of communal conflict between Christians and Muslims on the Indonesian island of Ambon point to religiously framed struggles to access a patrimonial state and the emergence of specific threats and opportunities after the fall of Suharto in May 1998. Whilst this thesis will be upheld, it does not wholly account for why so many ‘ordinary folk’ with little chance of ever accessing the state bureaucracy became involved in this conflict, which lasted from 1999 until 2002. In order to better grasp the incentives of engaging in communal violence in Ambon, this article posits the explanation that people had exceptional opportunities to take over land when the first Christian-Muslim riots broke out in the town of Ambon. This was particularly the case in those instances where institutional arrangements to access land were already being contested before 1999. These private opportunities were not the reasons which instigated the initial riots in the town of Ambon but became a rationale during the conflict, hereby effecting the displacement of whole communities.
‘Our Darfur, Their Darfur’: Sudan’s Politics of Deviance and the Rising ‘Ethnic-Cleansing’in an African Emerging Anarchy  [PDF]
Isiaka Alani Badmus
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This article analyses the current civil war in the Republic of theSudan’s [RoS] western region of Darfur within the broad context of the country’s age-old crisis of governance at the national level; conditioned by the inequitable State’s policies of the central state and its dominant Arab elite. Using Frost’s [1996] identified ‘settled’ body of norms in international relations to probe Sudan’s conducts in domestic and international politics, this paper found Khartoum guilty of gross misconducts and violations of international humanitarian law [IHL].These deviant behaviours, rooted in its quest to establish a theocratic state and export its radical ideology overseas, have pitted the RoS with the wider international community. Drawing from Khartoum’s current military engagements in Darfur and previous similar operations, this study contends strongly that for Sudan to come out of its present political hiccup, its rulers must jettison its lopsided policies in preference for the ones that are inclusive of all ethnic formations in the country with sincerity of purpose. In the final analysis, it is argued that this can onlybecomes meaningful within the context of improved socio-economicconditions. This, stricto sensus, calls for the Africa’s development partners and the wider international community’s economic support to Sudan.
The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan
Bayard Roberts, Eliaba Damundu, Olivia Lomoro, Egbert Sondorp
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-518
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed.The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency.This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health.Armed conflict and forced displacement are recognised as important determinants of health [1]. The influence of demographic factors, living conditions, and exposure to violent and traumatic events on specific physical health conditions and mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and

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