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Microcredit–nutrition education link: A case study analysis of ghanaian women’s experiences in income generation and family care
LM Butler, GY Kobati, NA Anyidoho, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, O Sakyi-Dawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, part of the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program (GLCRSP), integrated a microcredit and savings program with entrepreneurial and nutrition education to strengthen women’s income- generation activities with the intent of increasing women’s (caregivers)abilities to purchase more Animal Source Foods (ASF) for family meals. The model stressed the integration of research, community development and capacity strengthening and the full participation of partners. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of how the microcredit, entrepreneurship and nutrition education program impacted the daily lives of the women who participated in the interventions. Three questions were addressed: What factors lead to success in a microcredit and nutrition education program? What are the obstacles to women’s successful participation and what strategies are employed to overcome these obstacles? What are the lessons learned for future programs? The qualitative analysis was based on case studies of 12 women considered by their peers to be ‘successful’ ENAM participants, and six case studies of women considered to be ‘less successful’ ENAM participants. The qualitative methodology complimented knowledge gained through quantitative investigations as reported by other authors in this supplement. Data were collected through focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and observations. The findings suggested that the greatest benefit to participants from the ENAM experience was its translation into opportunities for obtaining microcredit, which in turn, helped increase women’s business success. Women who were doing well in business before the ENAM interventions did even better as a result of their participation in the ENAM project. Successful women employed multiple strategies to overcome business challenges. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the microcredit-education link in this particular situation did positively impact women’s lives with respect to their small businesses, their personal development, and the health of their families.
Microenterprise development coupled with nutrition education can help increase caregivers’ incomes and household accessibility to animal source foods
PA Homiah, O Sakyi-Dawson, AM Bonsu, GS Marquis
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Low income and lack of knowledge about child nutrition have been identified as key constraints to the use of Animal Source Foods (ASF) in the diets of young Ghanaian children. To improve ASF consumption among children in Ghana, the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project introduced an intervention that combined women’s microenterprise development activities with nutrition education on the importance of ASF in children’s diets. The present study assessed the effects of the intervention on the participants’ enterprise performance, their contribution to key household and child-related expenditures as well as their households’ purchases of ASF. Additionally, household ASF consumption was assessed in monetary terms (measured in Ghana cedis (GH¢):1GH¢ = US$ 0.92).A structured questionnaire was used to interview 80 caregivers who participated in the ENAM project activities in four intervention communities and 80 non-participant caregivers in four control communities. Information solicited included household characteristics, profits from microenterprises and contributions to household food and non-food expenditures. Significantly more participant caregivers expanded (P=0.004) and diversified (P=0.004) their enterprises and, as a result, tended to have higher average enterprise profits (GH¢19.3 ± 2.2 vs. GH¢12.2 ± 1.9; P=0.08) and significantly higher savings (GH¢62.9 ± 2.2 vs. GH¢26.3 ± 1.9; P<0.05) than non-participant caregivers. In addition, the intervention was associated with significantly higher percentage of monetary contributions by caregivers towards children’s health expenses (P<0.05), school expenses (P<0.01) as well as expenses on clothing and footwear (P<0.01). Caregivers’ mean percentage contribution to household food expenses also tended to be higher (P<0.1) for participants (50.8 ± 3.5%) then for non-participants (41.8 ± 4.1%). Participant households also tended to spend more money (P<0.10) and consumed significantly more amounts (in monetary value) of ASF (P<0.01) than non-participant households. Being a participant in the ENAM project’s microenterprise development and nutrition education activities was associated with higher enterprise profits, savings deposits, contributions to householdand children-related expenditures, and ASF consumption at the household level.
Relationship between caregivers’ income generation activities and their children’s animal source food intake
AK Christian, A Lartey, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, O Sakyi-Dawson, B Ahunu, LM Butler
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project provided financial and technical support for caregivers’ Income Generation Activities (IGA) with the aim of increasing their access to Animal Source Foods (ASF) for improved child nutrition. Using baseline data from the ENAM project, this study assessed the relationship between the type of caregivers’ IGA -whether it is related to ASF [ASF-R] or unrelated [ASF-U] - and the quantity and diversity of ASF consumed by their children. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and children’s ASF consumption in the past week from 530 caregivers of children 2-to5 years old in 12 communities in three agro-ecological zones of Ghana. A weighed food record of children’s dietary intakes was also completed during two 12-hour home observations on a randomly selected sample of 117 children. Approximately 6% (n=32) of caregivers were not engaged in any IGA. Of the caregivers who were involved in an IGA (n=498), approximately one-third of them were engaged in an ASF-R IGA, such as selling smoked fish, selling eggs and the selling cooked food that included ASF. Caregivers (67%) were engaged in ASF-U IGA, such as crop farming, petty trading in non ASF items and artisanal work. The quantity and diversity of ASF consumed by the children did not differ (p=0.988 and p=0.593, respectively) by the type of caregiver IGA. However, after accounting for agro-ecological zone, being involved in an ASF-R IGA positively predicted children’s ASF diversity (p<0.001). The number of children in the household negatively predicted children’s ASF diversity (p=0.011) whereas high/medium household wealth status tended to be positively associated with ASF diversity (p=0.064).The study suggested that there is need to promote ASF-R IGA among caregivers to increase the ability to purchase more varied and nutritious food items for improving children’s growth.
The nutrition-microcredit synergy: A case for multiple interventions and strategies
GS Marquis, EK Colecraft
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Poor diet quality is the primary determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. In this West African country, young children’s diets primarily consist of cereals and roots which have both low energy and nutrient density and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. A 2008 national survey reported that over one-third of children consumed no nutrient-rich Animal Source Foods (ASF) on the previous day. An intervention to enhance children’s diet and nutritional status was developed based on the assumption that improving knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of caregivers would lead to increased use of ASF for young children only if ASF availability (presence in the communities) and accessibility (families’ ability to obtain ASF through purchase, trade, hunting, or raising animals at home) were also improved. The Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project introduced an integrated approach of microcredit and weekly sessions of nutrition education and entrepreneurship training among rural women to increase the use of ASF in the diets of their 2- to 5-year-old children. Although the project may have not reached the poorest women in the community, the integrated activities benefited many households in diverse ways – directly through increased income and improved productivity that improved purchasing power and made foods available in the home, as well as indirectly through the empowerment of women participants. Women reported increased self-confidence, leadership skills, and social capital. Children’s diets benefited the most when caregivers were engaged in enterprises related to ASF because they facilitated sharing ASF with children and the high profits from these activities increased mothers’ ability to purchase other ASF from the market. Other family members also benefited from the project through women sharing loans for joint economic activities, improving the quality of the diet for the whole family, and sharing new knowledge. Integration of rural bank partners from an early stage of the project helped transfer activities to these permanent institutions to expand and sustain project activities. The ENAM project provided the evidence that an integrated package of microcredit and education can improve household food security and improve the diet and growth of young children living in rural communities.
Reena Kulkarni
Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: Nutrition is one of the most important and highly discussed topics in medical community. It determines the quality of health in young citizens as well as the future of the nation. Infant and child nutrition, especially in the first few years of life is crucial; lest ends up in malnutrition. Policies on nutrition and health education of mothers on infant and young child feeding as well as efforts to trigger appropriate behavioural changes among mothers are being considered as direct interventions for reducing malnutrition in children.India evidences major concern regarding child malnutrition despite enormous efforts. Proper knowledge of nutrition, blended with traditional and scientific comprehension will enhance better adaptation and community participation, hence will aid in improving nutritional status. Ayurveda emphasizes good nutrition at every stage of life, season, as well as daily routine, in order to preserve health of mother and offspring. Nutritional aspects of Ayurveda, care of pregnant lady, infant nutrition, breast feeding, complementary foods and proper weaning; with due applied aspects; and current guidelines are the highlights of this write up.Keywords: Ayurveda, nutrition, Ahara, fetal nutrition, infant nutrition, Shishu Prashana, Ayushman Kumara Lakshana
Microfinance with education in rural ghana: Men’s perception of household level impact
LL Hagan, R Aryeetey, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, AC Nti, AO Danquah
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Microcredit schemes have been shown to enhance women’s Income Generation Activities (IGA), household food security, and child nutrition. However, spouses or Male Household Heads (MHH) can influence how women’s loans are invested and how incomes ensuing from the investments are expended. This study describes how MHH perceived and experienced the participation of female caregivers from their household in the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project. The ENAM project was designed as an integrated intervention providing microcredit, entrepreneurship and nutrition education to women in rural communities in Ghana. Eighty-five MHH of ENAM project caregivers in two regions of Ghana were interviewed about their awareness of the microcredit and education intervention, their involvement in the IGA that the caregivers’ loans were invested in, and their perceptions of the impact of the project on the caregivers’ IGA as well as household and child nutrition. The majority of MHH indicated that they had been consulted by the caregivers about the decision to participate in the ENAM project. The most common reasons given for consenting to the caregivers’ decision to participate in the program were expectations that the caregiver would receive business capital (30.6%), education on optimal child feeding (36.5%), and income to enable caregivers to contribute more to household expenses (31.8%). With respect to the project’s impact, MHH perceived that the caregivers’ project participation had a positive impact on their business practices, particularly with respect to improved customer relations. The MHH perceived that caregivers’ incomes increased because of their participation in ENAM as evidenced by regular income savings and increased contributions to household food and non-food expenditures. However, MHH reported decreases in their own contributions to almost all household expenditure categories in response to the perceived increase in caregivers’ incomes. The MHH also perceived improvements in home meal quality. In summary, MHH credited the ENAM project with improved caregiver’s incomes and increased share of household expenses. However, this outcome resulted in unanticipated declines in MHH contribution to household expenses. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of empowering women through social experiments on households.
The Effect of Income on Child Nutrition in China  [cached]
Haibin Qiu,Yu Qiu
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study examines the determinants of child nutritional status in China, focusing specially on the household income effect. Data are drawn from China Health and Nutrition Survey, including 4 waves from 1991 to 2000. The empirical relationship between nutritional status and income, on the one hand and other effect factors like mother's height, maternal education, location (urban vs. rural, north vs. south) is investigated. Ordinary Least Squares, Random Effects, Fixed Effects and Instrumental Variables models are used, respectively. In the preferred model, a fixed effects model where income is instrumented, we find that the household income per capita shows no significant impact on the height-for-age z-scores.
Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition  [PDF]
Marta Botrán Prieto,Jesús López-Herce Cid
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8114353
Abstract: Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed.
An Integrated Mobile Application for Enhancing Management of Nutrition Information in Arusha Tanzania  [PDF]
Neema Mduma,Khamisi Kalegele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Based on the fact that management of nutrition information is still a problem in many developing countries including Tanzania and nutrition information is only verbally provided without emphasis, this study proposes mobile application for enhancing management of nutrition information. The paper discusses the implementation of an integrated mobile application for enhancing management of nutrition information based on literature review and interviews, which were conducted in Arusha region for the collection of key information and details required for designing the mobile application. In this application, PHP technique has been used to build the application logic and MySQL technology for developing the back-end database. Using XML and Java, we have built an application interface that provides easy interactive view.
Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Bruno F. Sunguya,Krishna C. Poudel,Linda B. Mlunde,Junko Yasuoka,Masamine Jimba
Frontiers in Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00037
Abstract: Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers’ nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices.
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