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A Study of Water Resources Development and Utilization and Management Cooperation across the Nile River Basin
尼罗河流域水资源开发利用与流域管理合作研究

HU Wenjun,YANG Jianji,HUANG Heqing,
胡文俊
,杨建基,黄河清

资源科学 , 2011,
Abstract: The Nile River is an international river going across the most countries in Africa, covering 10 countries. Most parts of the Nile River basin are located in an arid and semi-arid region with high pressure on water resources utilization. Since late 1980s, with the regional political context gradually easing up and the population rapidly rising, competition and conflicts on Nile water development and utilization between downstream and upstream countries are becoming increasingly serious. Under aids from some international institutions and developed countries, the Nile riparian countries initiated Nile River basin management cooperation, established the Nile Basin Cooperative Initiatives organization (NBI), launched basin wide dialogue and relevant joint activities, mobilized the process of negotiating and singing of the Nile River Basin Cooperative Framework Agreement since late 1990s. This paper systematically examined and analyzed the basin water resources situation, historic Nile water allocation, current basin water resources development & utilization and the consequent inter-national interests confrontation, and the basin wide water management cooperation initiation and development. Finally, some lessons and conclusions were put forward: 1) the improved regional political context played a key role in promoting Nile River basin management cooperation; 2) the increasing common interests between riparian countries serve as the critical inner driving force for Nile River basin management cooperation; 3) establishment of the basin management cooperative institutions provides critical enabling conditions to realize peaceful and sustainable river basin development; 4) the third party plays an active role in promoting and influencing the development of river basin management cooperation; and 5) the challenges and dilemmas faced in river basin management cooperation need to be resolved in innovative approaches. The lessons and conclusions drawn from the Nile River basin have positive reference to reasonable development and utilization of water resources and sustainable river basin development in international river basins in the world.
From Tenuous Legal Arguments to Securitization and Benefit Sharing: Hegemonic Obstinacy – The Stumbling Block against Resolution of the Nile Waters Question
DZ Mekonnen
Mizan Law Review , 2010,
Abstract: Resolution of the Nile waters question has proved, once again, to be an elusive task. Identifying the major hurdle which has bedeviled past cooperative initiatives and rendered current efforts mere Sisyphean ones is thus of paramount importance. The main thrust of this article is to identify this challenge which has thus far stifled almost all efforts at resolution of the Nile waters question in a fair and equitable manner. The consistently obstinate position Egypt has taken over the years to maintain its poignantly inequitable “share” of Nile waters forever is the heart of the problem which makes any settlement of the Nile waters question a virtual impossibility. Relying on its status as the basin’s hydro-hegemon, Egypt has so far been able to not only defend the indefensible but has also been able to effectively hoodwink and contain the non-hegemonic riparians by engaging them in “cooperative initiatives” and a “benefit sharing” scheme it effectively is using as stalling tactics while aggressively pursuing giant hydraulic projects as instruments of resource capture. A real transformation and a breakthrough in this stalemate requires, of necessity, a change in the malign, oppressive nature of Egyptian hydro-hegemony into a benign, cooperative one, at least. The non-hegemonic riparian states have thus to adopt effective counter-hegemonic strategies in order to force Egypt back to the negotiation table, developing, in the mean time, the resource and technical capability that would enable them to resist and overcome the multifaceted pressure and influence the hydro-hegemon will inevitably exert to keep them in line; failure to do so would surely condemn them to live, ad infinitum, with the grotesquely inequitable status quo.
Globalization, values, interests  [PDF]
Radoji?i? Mirjana S.
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/fid0323133r
Abstract: The nature of the international politics, after the Cold War directed by the U.S. as the only current super-power, are considered in the text. The author’s intention is to stress the main points of divergence between moralistic-valuable rhetoric and the foreign policy practice of the U.S. In that sense, the examples of the American stand, i.e. the active treatment of the Yugoslav crisis, on the one hand, and the crisis in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, is considered. The author’s conclusion is that the foreign policy of the only current super-power is still directed by interests rather then by values. In the concluding part, the author presents an anthropologic argument in favor of reestablishing "balance of power" as the only guarantee for peace and stability of the world.
Strategic interests of the European Union
Anna Antczak
Journal for Perspectives of Economic Political and Social Integration , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10241-012-0001-y
Abstract: Main challenges for the European security policy are caused by the creation of new states, nationalisms and ethnic problems, enforcement of religious fanatics, globalisation of economy as well as a threat of huge migration from poorer parts of the world to Europe. The most important issue, from the perspective of the European role in the world, is the "shift of gravity" - towards Asian countries and new economic powers. The importance and interest in Europe diminishes and floats towards so called Asian Tigers, and Europe seems helpless facing the changes. The article aims at presenting the EU's strategic interests as well as show difficulties in creating common foreign and security policy. Identification of strategic fields of interest of the EU may seem easy and obvious, but the realization of common policy appears to be problematic or even impossible due to too distant objectives of the member states and their particular national interests. Nevertheless, the article discusses specific EU interests in the Middle East, Asia and Africa as well goes into the analysis of EU-NATO (USA) relations and importance of this cooperation.
US Interests in the Post – Soviet Space
Svetlana CEBOTARI,Irina COJUHARI,Ion XENOFONTOV
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2011,
Abstract: The collapse of the USSR and the emergence of newly independent states in the post-Soviet space brought about new geopolitical metamorphoses, which due to their dimensions cannot avoid researchers’ attention.Today the United States remains to be one of the most powerful states in the world. As a rule, it is defined as a superpower, whose foreign policy and more exactly geopolitical and geostrategic interests are present almost everywhere on the globe and have great influence. The post-Soviet space does not make an exception. That’s why the analysis of US interests in this zone seems to be worthwhile and arousing great curiosity.
The Global Interests in the Process of Globalization  [cached]
Yue Yang
Journal of Politics and Law , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v3n1p121
Abstract: Global interests are products of globalization. It is also an important subject in globalization studies. For human being, interests are vital as the basic factor determining the living conditions and happiness. Interest relations hold the core position in amounts of social relations. In the process of globalization, we should recognize and build global interests in the world. This paper the issues concerning how to understand global interests, who can stand for global interests, challenges for global interests, opportunities for global interests, and how to improve and maintain global interests.
What Do Riparian Landowners Know and Want? Survey Results from the Headwaters of the Potomac River  [cached]
Maribel N. Mojica-Howell,Alan R. Collins
Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v2n1p10
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine riparian owner concerns, land uses, and interests in protecting river/stream quality. In collaboration with local watershed organizations, mail surveys were used to collect information from riparian landowners. Descriptive statistics and probit models were utilized to analyze survey data. Study findings revealed that trash is a consistent concern of riparian owners and that owner interest in watershed organization activities is high. Furthermore, results showed that there is generally a low interest in stream improvement projects among the surveyed individuals. Respondent characteristics that increased improvement interests included agricultural or idle land uses, higher education level, concern about stream pollution, and expressed interest watershed organization activities. Availability of government cost share was found to increase landowner interest in conducting more than one stream improvement project.
A Short Introduction to NILE  [PDF]
Sheng Yu,Tianxi Cai
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, we briefly introduce the Narrative Information Linear Extraction (NILE) system, a natural language processing library for clinical narratives. NILE is an experiment of our ideas on efficient and effective medical language processing. We introduce the overall design of NILE and its major components, and show the performance of it in real projects.
Conflict of interests in biomedicine
Vu?kovi?-Deki? Ljiljana
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/sgs0401038v
Abstract: All parties in publication enterprise - author, reviewer and editor - have shared interests - to publish good science in good journals. However, in the biomedical arena, the interests (financial or nonfinancial) of each of these parties may conflict with the interests of any of the other parties. Dealing with potential or real conflict of interests that might bias biomedical literature is the important part of both the institution's and the journal's policies. Strict adherence to the highest possible standards of science is the core of ethical regulative of the profession - code of ethics called Good scientific Practice.
Power and Conflict in Adaptive Management: Analyzing the Discourse of Riparian Management on Public Lands  [cached]
Jennifer S. Arnold,Mirka Koro-Ljungberg,Wendy-Lin Bartels
Ecology and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.5751/es-04636-170119
Abstract: Adaptive collaborative management emphasizes stakeholder engagement as a crucial component of resilient social-ecological systems. Collaboration among diverse stakeholders is expected to enhance learning, build social legitimacy for decision making, and establish relationships that support learning and adaptation in the long term. However, simply bringing together diverse stakeholders does not guarantee productive engagement. Using critical discourse analysis, we examined how diverse stakeholders negotiated knowledge and power in a workshop designed to inform adaptive management of riparian livestock grazing on a National Forest in the southwestern USA. Publicly recognized as a successful component of a larger collaborative effort, we found that the workshop effectively brought together diverse participants, yet still restricted dialogue in important ways. Notably, workshop facilitators took on the additional roles of riparian experts and instructors. As they guided workshop participants toward a consensus view of riparian conditions and management recommendations, they used their status as riparian experts to emphasize commonalities with stakeholders supportive of riparian grazing and accentuate differences with stakeholders skeptical of riparian grazing, including some Forest Service staff with power to influence management decisions. Ultimately, the management plan published one year later did not fully adopt the consensus view from the workshop, but rather included and acknowledged a broader diversity of stakeholder perspectives. Our findings suggest that leaders and facilitators of adaptive collaborative management can more effectively manage for productive stakeholder engagement and, thus, social-ecological resilience if they are more tentative in their convictions, more critical of the role of expert knowledge, and more attentive to the knowledge, interests, and power of diverse stakeholders.
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