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A Quarter Century of Economic Reforms of India (1991-2016)  [PDF]
Gouher Ahmed
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.75074
Abstract: The paper is a critical review of India’s progress of economic reforms (1991-2016). The relative failures of the past quarter century are considered, and the ways in which the reforms could be strengthened are suggested.
The exhaustive genome comparison effort. A quarter-century later  [PDF]
Steven A. Benner,Kevin M. Bradley,Stephan G. Chamberlain
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.424v1
Abstract: A quarter century after the Benner and Gonnet groups began their collaboration in evolutionary bioinformatics, evolution-based functional genomics is a field with considerable scope. Even with the remarkable advances in computing power over this period, the explosion of data derived from genomic and protein sources have required more and more sophisticated approaches be developed and utilized. We describe here new software combined with data organization techniques and illustrate how we are harnessing these to place physiological function of protein sequence data using natural history.
Female sterilization by tubal ligation at caesarean section in Makurdi, Nigeria
TZ Swende, TS Hwande
Annals of African Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Female sterilization is an important tool in reducing unplanned pregnancy and maternal mortality in our environment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, sociodemographic characteristics, technique, effectiveness and complications associated with female sterilization by bilateral tubal ligation at caesarean section. Method: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 78 clients who had female sterilization out of 1,346 acceptors of contraceptive methods at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, over a 5-year period between November 2002 and October 2007. Results: Of the 1,346 acceptors of family planning methods, 78 clients had bilateral tubal ligation. The majority of the clients (37 [47.4%]) had sterilization at caesarean section, representing 2.7% of all acceptors of family planning methods. The mean age and parity of the clients were 34.3 years and 5.5, respectively. The majority of the clients (36 [97.3%]) had sterilization using the modified Pomeroy’s technique. Contraceptive effectiveness was 100%. No complication specific to tubal ligation was noticed. Conclusion: Majority of female sterilization were performed at caesarean section. The procedure was found to be safe and effective.
Female sterilization by tubal ligation at caesarean section in Makurdi, Nigeria  [cached]
Swende T,Hwande T
Annals of African Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background : Female sterilization is an important tool in reducing unplanned pregnancy and maternal mortality in our environment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, sociodemographic characteristics, technique, effectiveness and complications associated with female sterilization by bilateral tubal ligation at caesarean section. Method : This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 78 clients who had female sterilization out of 1,346 acceptors of contraceptive methods at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, over a 5-year period between November 2002 and October 2007. Results : Of the 1,346 acceptors of family planning methods, 78 clients had bilateral tubal ligation. The majority of the clients (37 [47.4%]) had sterilization at caesarean section, representing 2.7% of all acceptors of family planning methods. The mean age and parity of the clients were 34.3 years and 5.5, respectively. The majority of the clients (36 [97.3%]) had sterilization using the modified Pomeroy′s technique. Contraceptive effectiveness was 100%. No complication specific to tubal ligation was noticed. Conclusion : Majority of female sterilization were performed at caesarean section. The procedure was found to be safe and effective.
Argentina?s quarter century experiment with neoliberalism: from dictatorship to depression
Cooney, Paul;
Revista de Economia Contemporanea , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-98482007000100001
Abstract: argentina set a new historical mark in 2002, having experienced the largest debt default by any country ever. in order to understand how argentina could go from one of the most developed countries of the third world, to experiencing the crisis of 2001 and then enter a depression in 2002 with over half the population living in poverty, requires an evaluation of the last quarter century of economic policies in argentina. the shift toward neoliberalism began during the dictatorship of 1976, deepened during the menem administration, and was supported throughout by the imf. this paper aims to identify why the crisis occurred when it did, but also to understand how the underlying shifts in the political economy of argentina over more than two decades led to two waves of deindustrialization, an explosion of foreign debt and such a marked decline in the standard of living for the majority of argentinians.
Engineering with and for light absorption and scattering: A quarter century of experimental research at RTL  [cached]
M. P. Menguc
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti : Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali , 2011, DOI: 10.1478/c1v89s1p007
Abstract: Characterization of particles requires detailed understanding of light interaction with homogeneous/inhomogeneous and regular/irregular shaped particles, or fractal-like structures, within optically thin or thick media. Even after the development of such theoretical understanding, focused experiments need to be carried out to measure scattered light intensity profiles and change in the absorption due to particles present in a given medium. Eventually, the data from such experiments are to be processed thoroughly with the help of robust inverse analyses to determine the required properties. This trilogy of particle characterization research was one of the focus areas of the Radiation Transfer Laboratory at the University of Kentucky over the last quarter century. This paper focuses only on the experimental works conducted and highlights a wide number of research papers published at the RTL for characterization purposes.
Provision of female sterilization in Ribeir?o Preto, S?o Paulo, Brazil
Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni;Ford, Nicholas John;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000500013
Abstract: forty percent of brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. the 1988 brazilian constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. this study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. the study design included: (1) an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2) a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. the survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.
Provision of female sterilization in Ribeir o Preto, S o Paulo, Brazil  [cached]
Vieira Elisabeth Meloni,Ford Nicholas John
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004,
Abstract: Forty percent of Brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. This study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. The study design included: (1) an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2) a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. The survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. Many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. Women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. Inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.
Voluntary female sterilization: a research among women in crato, ceará, brasil
Ana Erika Feitosa Justo Xenofonte, Evanira Rodrigues Maia, Eugênio Sá Xenofonte de Oliveira
Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line , 2009,
Abstract: ABSTRACT Objective: to get to know motives self-referred by women in Crato, Ceará, Brazil to undergo voluntary female sterilization. Methods: exploratory and descriptive study from quantitative approach, looking at the files of 124 women submitted to the surgical procedure from August 2005 to March 2008, attended by the Family Planning Program in Crato-CE, Brazil. A registration script was used to record valid data and were analyzed using Epi-info software, version 6.0. Results: the satisfaction with the number of alive children, associated with financial difficulties and incompatibility with the use of oral contraceptives were mentioned as the main motives for the decision to seek sterilization. A large part of the women managed to undergo the procedure within six months after enrolling in the program. Conclusion: the desire to interrupt fertility before 30 years old can indicate rejection or the inexistence of other contraception methods offered by the service, as well as personal and cultural factors and socioeconomic difficulties.
Strong decline in female sterilization rates in Norway after the introduction of a new copayment system: a registry based study
Inger J Bakken, Finn E Skjeldestad, Unni Sch?yen, Marit G Husby
BMC Women's Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-7-12
Abstract: We retrieved data on all female sterilizations 1999–2005 (N = 23 1333) from the Norwegian Patient Register, an administrative register to which it is mandatory for all hospitals to report. Sterilizations with diagnostic codes indicative of vaginal delivery, caesarean section, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and termination of pregnancy were analyzed separately. All other sterilizations were defined as "interval sterilization".An abrupt fall in female sterilization was observed after the raise in copayment. Age-adjusted incidence rates dropped from 6.3–6.8 per 1000 women in 1999–2001 to 2.2–2.3 per 1000 women during 2002–2005. Interval sterilizations dropped to 25% of the previous level after the rise in copayment while sterilizations in conjunction with caesarean section and postpartum sterilization remained constant.For many Norwegian women seeking contraception, sterilization is no longer an available alternative.A new copayment system for sterilization was introduced in Norway January 1, 2002. Copayment for outpatients increased from 33 euros to 750 euros for women and from 27 euros to 156 euros for men. No copayment is charged from inpatients. This substantial change in copayment for sterilization was part of a revision of the health care system [1]. Norwegian citizens have the right to free medical care within certain limitations. In January 2002, a system was commenced where the right to medical care was divided into three levels, with sterilization in the lowest priority group with corresponding high copayment (50% and 100% of estimated costs for women and men, respectively).The Norwegian Patient Register is an administrative database containing activity data for all public and private hospitals in Norway [2]. Reporting is mandatory and is linked to the re-imbursement system for funding of health services.The sudden change in patient copayment together with the complete record in the Patient Register presented us with a unique opportunity to study th
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