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Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Ilorin, Nigeria
OM Kolawole, AA Jimoh, AA Babatunde, OR Balogun, IG Kanu
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: A Seven months (March-September 2006) study on the prevalence of congenital malaria was carried out at the labour unit of three different hospitals within Ilorin metropolis: Eyitayo Hospital, Surulere Medical Hospital and Children Specialist Hospital Centre Gboro Ilorin. A total of 130 blood samples were collected from the mothers and their newborn babies and examined for malaria parasite using both thin and thick films. Maternal packed cell volume (PCV), and genotype was also determined using haematocrit method and cellulose acetate electrophoresis respectively. The prevalence rate of maternal, fetal, placental and cord parasitaemia were 37(28.46%), 29(22.31%), 33(25.38%) and 30(23.08%) respectively. Malaria infected maternal blood had a mild reduction in PCV level (p<0.05). Genotype showed strong correlation with maternal, fetal, placental and cord parasitaemia (p<0.05). However, the effect of malaria prophylaxis was shown to be more protective for the placental parasitaemia (p<0.05). Finally maternal age and parity did not show strong correlation with Maternal, fetal, placental and cord parasitaemia (p>0.05).
Thirty years after Alma-Ata: a systematic review of the impact of community health workers delivering curative interventions against malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea on child mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa
Jason B Christopher, Alex Le May, Simon Lewin, David A Ross
Human Resources for Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-9-27
Abstract: We searched databases of published and unpublished studies for RCTs and non-randomised studies evaluating CHW programmes delivering curative treatments, with or without preventive components, for malaria, diarrhoea or pneumonia, in children in sub-Saharan Africa from 1987 to 2007. The impact of these programmes on morbidity or mortality in children under six years of age was reviewed. A descriptive analysis of interventional and contextual factors associated with these impacts was attempted.The review identified seven studies evaluating CHWs, delivering a range of interventions. Limited descriptive data on programmes, contexts or process outcomes for these CHW programmes were available. CHWs in national programmes achieved large mortality reductions of 63% and 36% respectively, when insecticide-treated nets and anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis were delivered, in addition to curative interventions.CHW programmes could potentially achieve large gains in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa if these programmes were implemented at scale. Large-scale rigorous studies, including RCTs, are urgently needed to provide policymakers with more evidence on the effects of CHWs delivering these interventions.In 1978, the Declaration of Alma-Ata presented Primary Health Care (PHC) as the means of achieving Health for All and community or lay health workers (CHWs) became a distinguishing feature of PHC implementation as it was rolled out. Several reviews of national CHW programmes in the late 1980s and early 1990s came to similar conclusions: quality of care from large-scale programmes was poor, generally because of a lack of ongoing training and supervision and poor logistical and financial support [1-3]. It has been argued that where national CHW programmes have failed, this has not been due to a failure of the concept of CHWs or PHC but because the support and supervision necessary to make them effective were too often missing. With the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and increasing acknowledge
Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda
Richard Ndyomugyenyi, Pascal Magnussen, Sian Clarke
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-39
Abstract: The study had two components: 1) passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2) a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases.Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment.In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.Effective case management (ECM) remains a cornerstone for reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa [1]. However, ECM depends on early recognition of symptoms and signs, which are interpreted as a malaria episode and the clinical skills of a peripheral health care worker as there are often no resources for laboratory diagnosis in most malarious endemic areas [2,3]. Perceived fever is the sign most health workers use to diagnose clinical malaria. However, studies in areas of intense transmission have found reported fever or a history of fever to be an unreliable indicator of clinical malaria [4] Nevertheless, in areas of low or unstable transmission, clinical signs and symptoms might be more useful in diagnosing malaria amongst populations with low immunity. Although studies conducted in ar
The economic burden of malaria on the household in south-central Vietnam
Chantal M Morel, Ngo Thang, Nguyen Xa, Le Xuan Hung, Le Khan Thuan, Pham Van Ky, Annette Erhart, Anne J Mills, Umberto D'Alessandro
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-166
Abstract: Two-hundred fifty-one malaria patients were identified and interviewed in an exit survey at Community Health Centres. The same patient sample was then re-interviewed in a household survey two to four weeks later. Survey data were complemented by approximately 40 informal discussions with health workers, vendors, patients, and community leaders.Each episode of malaria was estimated to cost the patient's household an average of 11.79 USD (2005 prices), direct costs for travel and treatment representing 6% of the total while the remainder was loss in annual income.Whilst government provision of malaria treatment keeps the direct costs relatively low, the overall loss in income due to illness can still be significant given the poverty amongst this population, especially when multiple cases of malaria occur annually within the same household.Thousands of cases of malaria occur each year in the mountainous and forested provinces of south-central Vietnam [1,2]. Whilst few of these cases are fatal, the ensuing morbidity may have an economic impact on the population. The burden of malaria can be felt both in terms of the direct costs of seeking treatment as well as the indirect costs of reduced household productivity [3-6]. Between 2004 and 2006, the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology of Vietnam, in collaboration with the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Belgium and with the financial support of the Belgium Cooperation and the UBS Optimus Foundation, piloted a cluster-based randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIH) for the control of forest malaria in the province of Ninh Thuan. Ten intervention clusters received free LLIHs and were followed over two years, together with 10 control clusters (total 20,000 inhabitants), using bi-annual malariometric surveys and passive case detection. The latter was carried out at Commune Health Centres (CHC) and at the homes of village health workers (VHW) who were trai
Causes and Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity among Primary School Children in Ilorin, Nigeria
A.A Ayanniyi, A.O Mahmoud, F.O Olatunji
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the causes and prevalence of ocular morbidity among primary school children in Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey of primary school children in 10 randomly selected primary schools within Ilorin, Nigeria was carried out between July 2005 and January 2006. Relevant ocular history and basic ocular examinations were carried out on the children that were selected from a multi-stage sampling process. Results: One thousand three hundred and ninety three pupils were surveyed. There were 689 (49.4%) boys and 704 (50.6%) girls. The age range was between 4 and 15 years. The mean and modal ages were 10.16 SD 2.5 and 10 respectively. Two hundred and seventy seven pupils had ocular pathology giving a prevalence of 19.9%. The two most common ocular disorders found among the pupils were refractive errors and vernal conjunctivitis with prevalence of 6.9% and 6.7% respectively. Others included genetic / congenital / developmental ocular disorders 39 (2.8%), glaucoma / glaucoma suspect 20 (1.4%), ocular infections 18 (1.3%), and ocular trauma 11 (0.8%). More than three-quarters (86.7%) of the causes of visual impairment and blindness among the pupils were avoidable (preventable or treatable). Conclusion: The sheer magnitude of avoidable causes of visual impairment and blindness in the study underscores the need for effective school eye-health programmes in developing countries. Key Words: Ocular morbidity, childhood blindness, school eye health, Nigeria.
Some Biochemical and Haematological Studies on the Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Ilorin, Nigeria
OM Kolawole, AG Jimoh, SA Babatunde, OR Balogun, IG Kanu
Biokemistri , 2007,
Abstract: A seven month study (March-September 2006) on the prevalence of congenital malaria was carried out at the labour unit of three different hospitals within Ilorin metropolis: Eyitayo Hospital, Surulere Medical Hospital and Children Specialist Hospital Centre Gboro Ilorin. A total of 130 blood samples were collected from the mothers and their newborn babies and examined for malaria parasite using both thin and thick films. Maternal packed cell volume (PCV) and genotype was also determined using haematocrit method and cellulose acetate electrophoresis respectively. The prevalence rate of maternal, fetal, placental and cord parasitaemia were 37(28.46%), 29(22.31%), 33(25.38%) and 30(23.08%) respectively. Malaria infected maternal blood had a mild reduction in PCV level (p<0.05). Genotype showed strong correlation with maternal, fetal, placental and cord parasitaemia (p<0.05). However, the effect of malaria prophylaxis was shown to be more protective for the placental parasitaemia (p<0.05). Finally maternal age and parity did not show strong correlation with Maternal, fetal, placental and cord parasitaemia (p>0.05).
Morbidity profile of cotton mill workers  [cached]
Yerpude Pravin,Jogdand Keerti
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among cotton mill workers. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in cotton mills in Guntur District (AP) in January 2009 to May 2009. Total 474 workers were included in the study. Results: All study subjects were male. Most of the study subjects belonged to age group 30 40 years (56.96%) and lower socioeconomic status (36.09%) according to modified Kuppuswamy′s classification. The literacy status was varied with 5.70% being illiterate and 37.13% were educated up to primary school. Most of workers were working in Ring frame (41.56%) and majority (58.44%) were working for the last 5 10 years. Mean height of study subjects was 147.42 cm and mean weight was 55.11 kg. The common morbid conditions found were eosinophilia (18.35%), iron deficiency anemia (28.90%), byssinosis grade 1 (7.80%), dental stains (6.54%), refractive errors (7.80%), chronic bronchitis (4.85%), and upper respiratory tract infection (8.64%).
Survivorship Of Anopheles gambiae In Relation To Malaria Transmission In Ilorin, Nigeria  [cached]
Israel Kayode Olayemi,Adeolu Taiwo Ande
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: For the first time in Africa, an entomological study went beyond the conventional practice of determining parity and survival rates of field-collected adult anopheline mosquitoes but also related these variables to duration of Plasmodium sporogony and estimated the expectation of infective life. Blood-seeking female mosquitoes were collected in Ilorin, Nigeria, from January 2005 to December 2006, and dissected for ovarian tracheations following WHO recommended techniques. The results indicated an annual mean parous rate of 70.92%, and significantly higher parous rates in the rainy than dry season, which also had very low densities. Mean probability of daily survival of the mosquitoes was 0.80, with annual mean life expectancy of 12.24 days. The probability of surviving the sporogonic cycle was low (< 0.4) but the expectation of infective life was long, especially in the rainy season (mean = 8.31 days). The epidemiological implications of these results were discussed. The An. gambiae population in Ilorin is dominated by older mosquitoes with high survival rates thus, suggesting a high vector potential for the species in the area. These information on the survival rates of An. gambiae in relation to malaria transmission would enhance the development of a more focused and informed vector control interventions
Impact of malaria morbidity on gross domestic product in Uganda
Juliet Orem, Joses Kirigia, Robert Azairwe, Ibrahim Kasirye, Oladapo Walker
International Archives of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-5-12
Abstract: The impact of malaria morbidity on GDP of Uganda was estimated using double-log econometric model. The 1997-2003 time series macro-data used in the analysis were for 28 quarters, i.e. 7 years times 4 quarters per year. It was obtained from national and international secondary sources.The slope coefficient for Malaria Index (M) was -0.00767; which indicates that when malaria morbidity increases by one unit, while holding all other explanatory variables constant, per capita GDP decreases by US$0.00767 per year. In 2003 Uganda lost US$ 49,825,003 of GDP due to malaria morbidity. Dividing the total loss of US$49.8 million by a population of 25,827,000 yields a loss in GDP of US$1.93 per person in Uganda in 2003.Malaria morbidity results in a substantive loss in GDP of Uganda. The high burden of malaria leads to decreased long-term economic growth, and works against poverty eradication efforts and socioeconomic development of the country.Malaria is endemic in 95% of Uganda, the remaining 5% of the country, mainly the highland areas, being epidemic prone. It is estimated that 93% of the total population in the country is at risk of malaria [1]. Although all four species of the malaria parasite exist in Uganda, plasmodium falciparum, which causes severe forms of malaria, is responsible for over 95% of cases. This parasite has shown increasing resistance to commonly used antimalarial medicines particularly Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP), as monotherapy and more recently in combination. In response to this, the country changed the malaria treatment policy to use of ACTs as first line treatment in 2005, whilst maintaining quinine as the second line treatment. Currently, data on ACT resistance in Uganda is not available.Malaria contributes the major share of the disease burden with 39% of outpatient attendances and 35% of inpatient admissions being due to malaria [2]. In recent years there has been an increasing trend in clinically diagnosed malaria cases repor
Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India  [cached]
Uppal Y,Garg S,Mishra B,Gupta V
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs) among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs) among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6%) of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2%) study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3%) reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%), scabies (3.5%) and congenital anomalies (3.5%). Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2%) amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.
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