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Origin and domestication history of Peking ducks deltermined through microsatellite and mitochondrial marker analysis
LuJiang Qu,Wei Liu,FangXi Yang,ZhuoCheng Hou,JiangXia Zheng,GuiYun Xu,Ning Yang
Science China Life Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-009-0145-x
Abstract: In order to elucidate the domestication history of Peking ducks, 190 blood samples from six Chinese indigenous duck breeds were collected with186 individualsgenotyped by 15 microsatellite markers. Both the F ST and Nei’s standard genetic distances (D s) from the microsatellite data indicated high genetic differentiation between Peking duck and other Chinese indigenous breeds. The haplotype network with mtDNA data showed that most of the Peking duck haplotypes were distinctly different from those of other domestic breeds. Although the H01 haplotype was shared by all domesticated duck breeds, Peking ducks displayed 12 specific domestic duck haplotypes, including four similar haplotypes H02, H04, H08 and H22, that formed a single haplogroup (A). Both H02 and H22 haplotypes were also shared by mallard and Peking ducks, indicating that Peking ducks originated from wild mallard ducks.
Origin and domestication history of Peking ducks deltermined through microsatellite and mitochondrial marker analysis

LuJiang Qu,Wei Liu,FangXi Yang,ZhuoCheng Hou,JiangXia Zheng,GuiYun Xu,Ning Yang,

中国科学C辑(英文版) , 2009,
Abstract: In order to elucidate the domestication history of Peking ducks, 190 blood samples from six Chinese indigenous duck breeds were collected with186 individualsgenotyped by 15 microsatellite markers. Both the FST and Nei’s standard genetic distances (Ds) from the microsatellite data indicated high genetic differentiation between Peking duck and other Chinese indigenous breeds. The haplotype network with mtDNA data showed that most of the Peking duck haplotypes were distinctly different from those of other domestic breeds. Although the H01 haplotype was shared by all domesticated duck breeds, Peking ducks displayed 12 specific domestic duck haplotypes, including four similar haplotypes H02, H04, H08 and H22, that formed a single haplogroup (A). Both H02 and H22 haplotypes were also shared by mallard and Peking ducks, indicating that Peking ducks originated from wild mallard ducks.
Beyond quarantine: a history of leprosy in Puerto Rico, 1898-1930s
Levison, Julie H.;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702003000400011
Abstract: from biblical times to the modern period, leprosy has been a disease associated with stigma. this mark of disgrace, physically present in the sufferers' sores and disfigured limbs, and embodied in the identity of a 'leper', has cast leprosy into the shadows of society. this paper draws on primary sources, written in spanish, to reconstruct the social history of leprosy in puerto rico when the united states annexed this island in 1898. the public health policies that developed over the period of 1898 to the 1930s were unique to puerto rico because of the interplay between political events, scientific developments and popular concerns. puerto rico was influenced by the united states' priorities for public health, and the leprosy control policies that developed were superimposed on vestiges of the colonial spanish public health system. during the united states' initial occupation, extreme segregation sacrificed the individual rights and liberties of these patients for the benefit of society. the lives of these leprosy sufferers were irrevocably changed as a result.
Beyond quarantine: a history of leprosy in Puerto Rico, 1898-1930s  [cached]
Levison Julie H.
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2003,
Abstract: From biblical times to the modern period, leprosy has been a disease associated with stigma. This mark of disgrace, physically present in the sufferers' sores and disfigured limbs, and embodied in the identity of a 'leper', has cast leprosy into the shadows of society. This paper draws on primary sources, written in Spanish, to reconstruct the social history of leprosy in Puerto Rico when the United States annexed this island in 1898. The public health policies that developed over the period of 1898 to the 1930s were unique to Puerto Rico because of the interplay between political events, scientific developments and popular concerns. Puerto Rico was influenced by the United States' priorities for public health, and the leprosy control policies that developed were superimposed on vestiges of the colonial Spanish public health system. During the United States' initial occupation, extreme segregation sacrificed the individual rights and liberties of these patients for the benefit of society. The lives of these leprosy sufferers were irrevocably changed as a result.
Photograph Usage in History Education  [PDF]
Bülent AKBABA
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2005,
Abstract: In this study; the effect of photograph usage in history education to the students’ achievement was tried to be identified. In the study which was done with a pre-test post-test control group design, a frame was tried to be established between the experimental group and the analytical usage of the photograph, the control group’s courses were done with traditional teaching methods (lecture, question-answer). After the five weeks of application, it wasidentified that photograph usage effected the student’s achievement in history education.
On “the History of Higher Education and the Council of Higher Education in Turkey”
Bekir S. GüR
Yüksek??retim ve Bilim Dergisi , 2011,
Abstract: This article provides a critical review of lhan Tekeli's “The History of Higher Education and the Council of Higher Education in Turkey in Historical Context”.
Photo Essay: A Pictorial History of Changchun, 1898-1962  [cached]
Yishi Liu,Xinying Wang
Cross-Currents : East Asian History and Culture Review , 2012,
Abstract: This essay periodizes Changchun’s urban history from 1800 to the 1950s according to its major city functions in order to contextualize coauthor Xinying Wang’s remarkable personal collection of visual materials presented in the accompanying "Cross-Currents photo essay" (https://cross-currents.berkeley.edu/e-journal/photo-essay/392?page=0) and, in turn, to contribute to a better understanding of Changchun’s urban transformation between the turn of the twentieth century and the early years of Maoism. In each phase of Changchun’s urban development, modernity found different forms in the construction of the city, revealing that modernity is neither constant nor secluded from the larger political and cultural milieu. Influenced by both indigenous and foreign factors, modernity is constantly reinvented to fit into new contexts and to meet new needs.
History Education and Civic Education: The Bulgarian Case
Albena Hranova
Journal of Social Science Education , 2011,
Abstract: This text looks at the developments in the relationship between history education and civic education in the Bulgarian educational tradition in the 1878-1944 period and tends to finally refer to the present state of affairs. It examines the political contexts of the methods and writing of textbooks which have ensured the political longevity of the conservative nationalist model in the worldview of both school subjects. The observations are based upon more than eighty textbooks on history and civic education published since 1878 (of which only those that are typical and representative of the dominant trends in the Bulgarian educational tradition are cited here) as well as upon some works in didactics. The main features in the texture of the conservative model are identified on the basis of a discourse analysis of history and civic education textbooks, and they concern the disciplinary, spatio-temporal, and conceptual homologies found in them.
Questioning-Based Learning in History Education
Rüstü YE??L
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2010,
Abstract: Learning approach based on questioning which could be applied in history teaching is stressed in this study. History learning based on questioning is an approach which includes the efforts of learning history by questioning and asking questions as a historian. The studies on education sciences and history education are searched; and principles which could guide history teachers to make use of the students’ questions and questioning in history and bringing in the students, are tried to be determined. At the end of this study,to make the students acquire these skills, eight principles were determined to guide the history teachers. To be able to make this approach applied in history education, history teachers should structure history education applications in accordance with modern and scientific developments by reflecting the determined principles on the applications.
The History of Aviation Education and Training  [PDF]
Jorge M. M. Barata, Fernando M. S. P. Neves
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2017.74017
Abstract: Aviation education and training began early in the 20th century just after the first successful powered flight of the Wright brothers. In the present paper, the types of aviation education and training around the world are reviewed. Its developments were distinct in many different countries, and in some cases evolved from the military needs while in others from the dedication of a few enthusiasts. In the 21st century aeronautical and aerospace engineering is taught at the most advanced engineering schools in the world providing skills and competences that integrate advanced disciplines.
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