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Anthropometric and biochemical profiles of black south african women
Z Hattingh, C.N Walsh, F.J Veldman, C.J Bester, O.O Oguntibeju
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2008,
Abstract: It has been reported that the diet of rural women in most African countries differs considerably from that of their urban counterparts, with the urban diet composed of more refined carbohydrates and fatty food. This study examines anthropometric and biochemical profiles and the association between these parameters in pre-menopausal, post-pubertal black South African women. A representative sample of 500 participants, randomly selected in Mangaung, Bloemfontein in the Free State Province, using township maps obtained from the Bloemfontein Municipality were recruited to participate. Younger women were aged 25-34 years and older women 35- 44 years. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were determined according to standard methods. From the original sample of 500 women, 496 were eligible to participate. Of the younger women 30.1% and of the older women 27.7% were overweight, while 23.3% of younger women and 24% of older women had a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2, indicating obesity. Most women had a waist-hip ratio (WHR) <0.8, indicating gynoid fat distribution. The majority of women from both age groups had a body fat percentage >25% (92.5% and 94% respectively of younger and older women). Of the younger women 6.8% and of the older women 13.8% had triglyceride (TG) levels higher than the reference range. Total cholesterol levels fell within the reference range for 79.8% of the younger women and 71.3% of the older women. Glucose and insulin levels were within reference ranges for most women of both age groups. A significant association was found between insulin sensitivity and BMI and between insulin sensitivity and TG levels in both age groups. No significant association was found between waist circumference and elevated glucose levels in both age groups. A significant difference between insulin sensitivity and WHR was observed in the older group of women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity reported in this population may pose a potential risk for the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes.
Viral Gastroenteritis among Children under 5 Years in Dutsinma Local Government Area, Katsina State, North-West Nigeria, West Africa
Gnimintakpa Joseph, Adejo Godwin
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102403
Abstract: Rotaviruses and adenoviruses conjointly form the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in developed and developing countries. The prevalence of this array of human viral pathogens in under five years children of Dustin-ma Local Government Area of Katsina State, North-west Nigeria was investigated on diarrheal stool samples of 152 patients of acute viral gastroenteritis by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) as approved by the state committee on ethics after parental agreement. Analyses revealed prevalence of 54% (35/65) and 46% (30/65) for rotaviruses and adenoviruses respectively in 2013 and then 62.2% (51/82) for rotaviruses followed by 37.8% (31/82) for adenoviruses in 2014 with a total of 87 rotavirus positive samples (57.24%) while 61 samples (40.13%) were adenovirus positive. Only 4 samples (3%) were infected by other diarrheal viral pathogens.
Perception of People about Shelterbelts in Kaita Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria
SI Udofia, ES Udo
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the perception of people about the role of shelterbelts in checking the incidence of windstorm on buildings, crops, livestock and humans before and after shelterbelts establishment in Kaita Local Government Area (LGA) of Katsina State. A two-stage random sampling technique was adopted to select 300 households from six randomly selected villages in the LGA. Data on respondents’ perception of incidence of windstorm before and after shelterbelts establishment were collected using structured questionnaires, analyzed by ANOVA and tested at 5% significance level to determine whether the belts reduced the incidence of windstorm or not. There were significant reductions in the incidence of windstorm on buildings, crops and humans (p 0.05). However, there was no significant reduction in the incidence of windstorm on livestock (p 0.05), apparently because of the restrictions resulting from protective measures in the shelterbelts, which denied livestock access to fodder.
Comparison of the anthropometric and biochemical variables between children and their parents
Farias de Novaes,Juliana; Castro Franceschini,Sylvia do Carmo; Priore,Sílvia Eloiza;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2007,
Abstract: the objective of this study was to compare the anthropometry, body composition and biochemical profile between eutrophic and obese children, as well as to relate the children?s nutritional state and body composition to those of their respective parents. a control-case study was carried out with 50 eutrophic and 50 obese children paired according to gender, age, socioeconomic condition, and selected from the nutritional evaluation of 2 074 children aged 6 to 8 years, attending public and private urban schools in vi?osa, minas gerais, brazil. the measurements evaluated were weight, height, circumferences (waist and hip) and thickness skinfolds (triceps and subscapular). the serum levels of glucose, total-cholesterol, hdl, ldl, triglycerides and hemoglobin in the children were evaluated. the obese children presented a larger body size and higher percentage for total body fat as well as its accumulation in the central region, and higher serum levels for triglycerides (p < 0.05). for all biochemical parameters, except for hemoglobin and hdl, there occurred a positive correlation with the located fat in the central region as well as with the total body fat in children (p < 0.05). the obese mothers showing high percentage of body fat and its accumulation in the central region rather tend to have children with these characteristics (p < 0,05). the highest number of the close relatives who are obese and present dyslipidemia is highlighted in the obese children (p < 0.05). this study evidences the differences concerning to the distribution of the body fat and lipid profile among eutrophic and obese children, as well as the strong influence of the maternal obesity upon child?s obesity
Relationship between sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical characteristics and degree of peripheral arterial disease  [PDF]
Maksimovi? Milo?,Vlajinac Hristina,Radak ?or?e,Marinkovi? Jelena
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1010584m
Abstract: Introduction. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a severe atherosclerotic condition. The relationship between various risk factors and severity of PAD, measured by Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), has been the subject of a relatively small number of studies. Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was any relationship between severity of PAD, expressed as ABI, and anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, including inflammatory markers. Methods. The cross-sectional study, involving 388 consecutive patients with verified PAD, was performed at the Dedinje Vascular Surgery Clinic in Belgrade. The diagnosis of PAD was defined by Doppler sonography as ABI<0.9, and by symptoms. Data on cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric parameters, clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected for all participants. In the analysis, χ2 test, t-test and multivariate logistic regressions were used. Results. According to the results of multivariate analysis (the model of which included age, percentage of body fat, average value of uric acid, high sensitivity C-reactive protein - hsCRP ≥3 mg/L, fibrinogen ≥4 g/L, Baecke index of physical activity at work and Baecke index of leisure-time physical activity), the patients with more severe form of peripheral arterial disease (ABI≤0.40) had more frequently increased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (p=0.002), lower Baecke index of physical activity at work (p=0.050) and lower Baecke index of leisure-time physical activity (p=0.024). Average value of body fat was significantly higher in the patients with a less severe form of disease (p=0.006). Conclusion. According to the results obtained, the increased values of hsCRP and physical inactivity are associated with a more severe form of PAD (ABI≤0.40).
Dietary, Anthropometric, Biochemical and Psychiatric Indices in Shift Work Nurses  [PDF]
Mahshid Naghashpour, Reza Amani, Sorur Nematpour, Mohammad Hosein Haghighizadeh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.412158
Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare nutrients intake, anthropometric, biochemical and psychiatric indices between shift working and day-time nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in which ninety eight female nurses (55 day-time workers and 43 shift workers) from six educational hospitals of Jondi-Shapour University of medical sciences, Ahvaz, Iran were participated. A questionnaire including dietary, anthropometric, disease history and lifestyle pattern questions was completed and 3-day 24-hour recalls, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were collected. Serum hs-CRP and 25(OH)D3 concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetric and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay method, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured according to World health organization standard protocol. Independent sample t and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a lower dietary intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, magnesium and iron in shift worker compared with day-time nurses (p < 0.05). No significant differences in serum hs-CRP concentrations, serum 25(OH)D3 levels, vitamin D deficiency percentage, hemoglobin and hematocrite concentrations, and also anthropometric and psychiatric variables were found between two groups. Duration of exposure to sunlight was significantly higher in shift workers than in day time nurses. Engagement time in weekly physical exercise was around 11 times greater in day-time nurses compared with the shift work nurses (p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that shift working is associated with some nutritional deficiencies and sedentary lifestyle among female nurses.

Investigation of the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita) on the biochemical and anthropometric profile of university students
Barbalho, Sandra Maria;Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi;Oshiiwa, Marie;Abreu, Marcio;Guiger, Ellen Landgraf;Tomazela, Paschoal;Goulart, Ricardo Alvares;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612011000300006
Abstract: the hypolipidemic effects of several medicinal plants have already been demonstrated, but many plants commonly used to treat diseases still need to be studied. peppermint (mentha piperita) is widely consumed by the population for different purposes, but not for the treatment of dyslipidemias. the objective of this study was to examine the effects of this plant on human biochemical and anthropometric profiles and blood pressure, based on the administration of peppermint juice twice daily for 30 days. blood samples were collected before and after the treatment in order to determine the glycemic and lipid profiles, and the body mass index (bmi) analysis was performed. results indicated that 41.5% of the subjects showed a reduction in glycemia, 66.9% in total cholesterol levels, 58.5% in triacylglycerides, 52.3% in ldl-c (low-density lipoproteins) indices, 70% in got (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) levels, 74.5% in gpt (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) levels, and that 52% presented an increase in hdl-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) indices. also, 52.5% showed a decrease in blood pressure and 48.7% in bmi. the use of peppermint by humans can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors of chronic degenerative diseases.
Constraints to Improved Cotton Production in Katsina State, Nigeria  [PDF]
O.B. Adeniji
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study aims at providing insight into the constraints inhibiting technology adoption behavior of cotton farmers in Katsina state, Nigeria. The samples comprise of 250 farmers selected from Malumfashi, Funtua and Daudawa in Katsina state Nigeria. Data collected from the respondents were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results show that the major constraints facing farmers as identified by about 80% are lack of fertilizer, frequency of spray, market opportunities. Others are inadequate knowledge of the production packages and non availability of these technologies. Given the result, it was concluded that cotton production in the study area is affected by lots of constraints. It was suggested that drastic improvement on the conditions of farmers be made through efforts on the constraints identified.
Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical and Anthropometric Parameters in Physically Active Men  [cached]
Khaled Trabelsi,Kais el Abed,John F. Trepanowski,Stephen R. Stannard
Asian journal of Sports Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose:The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on several biochemical and anthropometric parameters in physically active men by comparing fasters and nonfasters before, during, and after Ramadan.Methods:Eighteen physically active men (10 fasters and 8 nonfasters) participated in this study. Subjects visited the laboratory for a total of four sessions on the following occasions: three days before Ramadan (Bef-R), the 15th day of Ramadan (Mid-R), the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R), and 21 days after Ramadan (Post-R). During each session, subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, completed a dietary questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample.Results:Body weight and body fat percentage decreased in fasters by 1.9% (P<0.001) and 6.2% (P=0.003), respectively, but increased in nonfasters by 2.2% (P<0.001) and 10.2% (P=0.001), respectively, from Bef-R to End-R. Fasters' hematocrit and hemoglobin increased by 5.3% (P<0.001) and 6.3% (P=0.01), respectively, from Bef-R to End-R, while neither of these parameters changed in nonfasters. Fasters experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urea (8.7%; P<0.001), creatinine (7.5%; P<0.001), uric acid (12.7%; P<0.001), serum sodium (1.9%; P<0.001), serum chloride (2.6%; P<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.3%; P<0.001). Of these parameters, only creatinine increased (4.4%; P=0.01) in nonfasters.Conclusions:We conclude that Ramadan fasting lowers body weight and body fat percentage and can elevate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in physically active men. However, practicing aerobic exercise during a hot and humid Ramadan month can induce a state of dehydration marked by an increase in some renal function markers and serum electrolytes.
Dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical determinants of uric acid in free-living adults  [cached]
de Oliveira Erick Prado,Moreto Fernando,Silveira Liciana Vaz de Arruda,Burini Roberto Carlos
Nutrition Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-11
Abstract: Background High plasma uric acid (UA) is a prerequisite for gout and is also associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components and consequently risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the management of UA serum concentrations would be essential for the treatment and/or prevention of human diseases and, to that end, it is necessary to know what the main factors that control the uricemia increase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main factors associated with higher uricemia values analyzing diet, body composition and biochemical markers. Methods 415 both gender individuals aged 21 to 82 years who participated in a lifestyle modification project were studied. Anthropometric evaluation consisted of weight and height measurements with later BMI estimation. Waist circumference was also measured. The muscle mass (Muscle Mass Index – MMI) and fat percentage were measured by bioimpedance. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour recalls with later quantification of the servings on the Brazilian food pyramid and the Healthy Eating Index. Uric acid, glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, gamma-GT, albumin and calcium and HDL-c were quantified in serum by the dry-chemistry method. LDL-c was estimated by the Friedewald equation and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) by the immunochemiluminiscence method. Statistical analysis was performed by the SAS software package, version 9.1. Linear regression (odds ratio) was performed with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in order to observe the odds ratio for presenting UA above the last quartile (♂UA > 6.5 mg/dL and ♀ UA > 5 mg/dL). The level of significance adopted was lower than 5%. Results Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 OR = 2.28(1.13-4.6) and lower MMI OR = 13.4 (5.21-34.56) showed greater chances of high UA levels even after all adjustments (gender, age, CRP, gamma-gt, LDL, creatinine, urea, albumin, HDL-c, TG, arterial hypertension and glucose). As regards biochemical markers, higher triglycerides OR = 2.76 (1.55-4.90), US-CRP OR = 2.77 (1.07-7.21) and urea OR = 2.53 (1.19-5.41) were associated with greater chances of high UA (adjusted for gender, age, BMI, waist circumference, MMI, glomerular filtration rate, and MS). No association was found between diet and UA. Conclusions The main factors associated with UA increase were altered BMI (overweight and obesity), muscle hypotrophy (MMI), higher levels of urea, triglycerides, and CRP. No dietary components were found among uricemia predictors.
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