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Income Distribution and Inequality in Lesotho: The Case of Lorenz-Crossing
M Mohanoe- Mochebelele, M Letete, M Raleting
Botswana Journal of Economics , 2009,
Abstract: This paper analyses the income inequality in Lesotho districts using Household Budget Surveys of 1994/95 and 2002/03. Lorenz curves are used to measure the degree of income inequality in each district. The results show that the income inequality declined in most districts between the two survey periods except in Butha-Buthe where it remained constant. Despite these declining trends inequality remains relatively high in comparison to international standards. In the Lorenz ordering, the phenomenon of Lorenz crossing is revealed.
Health Promotion Programs for the Elderly in Greece, the “Health Pro Elderly” Project
Panayota Sourtzi,Vasiliki Roka,Venetia Velonaki,Athena Kalokerinou
Hygiea Internationalis : an Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: Aim: The ageing of the population and the increase of chronic diseases’ incidence, combined with limited resources for health care, led researchers and policy makers to search for health promotion alternatives. The “Health Pro Elderly” project aims to identify criteria that make health promotion programs successful and provide evidence for sustainability.Method: The project was realised within the Public Health Program of the European Commission and 19 partners from 11 EU countries are involved in identifying criteria for sustainable implementation of health promoting projects for seniors.Results: The synopsis of literature findings in all countries has been realized (www.healthproelderly.com). Relevant terms have formed an English glossary. Criteria have been set for the collection and selection of health promotion programs. A database with 33 examples of good practice has been compiled. Conclusions: The lack of resources and personnel could be balanced by promoting policies that will advance Healthy Ageing. “Health Pro Elderly” as part of a EU-wide health promotion policy contributes to that direction.
Oral Health Promotion in Elderly Population
A Hajizamani,R Craven
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess current practice in oral health care among residential homes for the elderly in Manchester, Salford and Stockport and to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme to increase carers’ knowledge in key areas. Methods: The study was part of a randomised control trial, conducted in 56 residential homes, allocated randomly to test and control groups matched using the minimisation method. Managers of participating homes were interviewed to gather baseline data on the homes and oral care provided. A training session in oral health care for the elderly was provided for care staff in the homes. Carers` knowledge was assessed before and after the training session and their perceptions of the training were sought. Results: The survey of mangers revealed common inadequacies: the lack of any training for care staff in oral care; the lack of protocols for oral care (at 68% of homes); the lack of initial oral assessment. After the training session, the oral health knowledge of carers (467 carers) showed a significant improvement (McNemar Test, P< 0.005). Conclusion: Current practice in most homes is inadequate. The training sessions improved the carers’ knowledge in key areas but improvements in the organisation and delivery of care are clearly also required.
Human Rights promotion in Serbia: a difficult task for the European Union
Cierco, Teresa Maria;
Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-73292011000100009
Abstract: this article explores the role of the european union in the human rights protection, implementation and promotion in serbia. it is clear that the eu demands on democratisation in the region of western balkans are crucial to achieve the respect for human rights. the human rights standards as part of the conditionality criteria of the eu is a clear message towards the countries aspiring membership. however, serbia progress in the field has been difficult due to several internal constraints. this paper aims to uncover the democratisation process of serbia on its path towards the eu, and its progress (or not) regarding human rights protection and implementation.
A cross-sectional assessment of population demographics, HIV risks and human rights contexts among men who have sex with men in Lesotho
Baral Stefan,Adams Darrin,Lebona Judith,Kaibe Bafokeng
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-14-36
Abstract: Background Evidence is increasing of high HIV risks among southern African men who have sex with men (MSM). This represents the first study of HIV risks and human rights contexts among MSM in Lesotho. Methods Two hundred and fifty-two men who reported ever having anal sex with another man were accrued with snowball sampling and were administered a structured quantitative instrument in October and November 2009. Results Of the participants, 96.4% (240/249) were ethnic Basotho with a mean age of 26.3 years (range 18-56), 49.6% (124/250) were currently employed, and 95.2% (238/250) had at least a secondary-level education. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 11.6% (22/190); 54.5% (128/235) reported being tested for HIV in the last year. HIV knowledge was low; only 3.7% (8/212) of MSM knew that receptive anal intercourse was the highest risk for HIV and that a water-based lubricant was most appropriate to use with condoms. Bivariate associations of wearing condoms during last intercourse with men include: having easy access to condoms (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-8.5, p < 0.05); being older than 26 years (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.2, p < 0.01); knowing that receptive anal intercourse is higher risk than insertive anal intercourse (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.9, p < 0.05); wearing condoms with female sexual partners (OR 3.5, 95% 1.4-8.3, p < 0.01); using water-based lubricants (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.5, p < 0.01); being less likely to report having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infecton (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.76, p < 0.05); and being more likely to have been tested for HIV in the last year (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, p > 0.05). Human rights abuses were common: 76.2% (170/223) reported at least one abuse, including rape (9.8%, 22/225), blackmail (21.3%, 47/221), fear of seeking healthcare (22.2%, 49/221), police discrimination (16.4%, 36/219), verbal or physical harassment (59.8%, 140/234), or having been beaten (18.9%, 43/228). Conclusions MSM in Lesotho are at high risk for HIV infection and human rights abuses. Evidence-based and rights-affirming HIV prevention programmes supporting the needs of MSM should be developed and implemented.
Elderly Empowerment: Health Promotion in the Perspective of Popular Education in Health  [PDF]
Gildeci Alves de Lira, Marcilane da Silva Santos, Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva Ribeiro, Claus Dieter Stob?us
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.87080
Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the contributions of Popular Education in Health for the elderly empowerment in the community context. It is characterized as a qualitative research, type action research, which were studied issues related to prevention and promotion of health of the elderly in the community setting, through the Popular Education in Health, among the Project activities extension “Popular Education and Health Care for the Family (PEPASF)”, the Federal University of Paraíba, in Jo?o Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The participants were 40 elderly (but here we used the answers of three of them), 90 students (but here we used the answers of three of them) of design and 3 professionals (here we used the answers of one physician and two community health workers), from local health services. The analysis showed the implication of experienced by the People’s Education care so to promote the health of the elderly in the empowerment perspective, promoting new attitudes in the face of situations of life. It was noticed that care so developed by PEPASF contributed to the promotion of the health of the elderly followed, encompassing the dimensions, social, physical and subjective, inherent in the human being. By valuing aspects of the subjectivity of the elderly, the project has expanded the prospects for comprehensive health promotion, demonstrating significant benefits to improve the quality of life of these people, opening new horizons for the search for autonomy and empowerment, as well as the transformation unjust and exclusionary social realities.
Perception of elderly health promotion: view of community health agents
Ana Lorena Brito Cruz, Alissan Karine Lima Martins
Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: to know the perception of the community health agents about their performances on elderly health promotion. Methodology: this is a descriptive-exploratory study from qualitative approach performed in the municipal district of Várzea Alegre, Ceará, Brazil with nine community health agents. Data collection happened from July to August 2009 through interview guided by semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis happened through speeches categorization based on content similarity. The study followed the ethical norms of the Resolution 196/96, it was sent to the Ethics Committee of the Medical School of Juazeiro, receiving approval according the Protocol 98/09. Results: In the speeches, the health agents didn't demonstrate satisfactory understanding of the aging process. Among their attributions they identify the practice of elderly health promotion of their influence area with the difficulty in communication and incorporation of new life habits as greater limits to improve the work of these professionals with the elderly. Final considerations: based on the perception identified by the community health agents we noticed the need of investing in knowledge concerning the aging process and its peculiarities aiming to improve the health promotion practice of these professionals affecting the quality of life of the assisted population. Descriptors: health promotion; family health program; primary health care; health services for the aged; health of the elderly.
Advances in Health Promotion for People with Disabilities and the Laws of Brazil  [PDF]
Luciana Vieira de Carvalho, Aline Cruz Esmeraldo áfio, Janio Cavalcanti Rodrigues Junior, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida Rebou?as, Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.618272
Abstract: Brazilian laws guarantee the protection to the rights of the citizenship of people with disabilities and their participation in various social sectors which influence health promotion. One aimed at reflecting about the health promotion actions contemplated in Brazilian laws directed to people with physical, hearing and visual disabilities. Through the website of the National Secretariat for the Promotion of the Rights of People with Disabilities, one selected 14 laws whose content was articulated to the Health Promotion Charts in the process of discussion. The laws had as their main objective, the accessibility of people with disabilities to urban spaces, health, income, education, transportation and leisure, i.e. to public services that are essential for the establishment of health. It is concluded that there was a progress in the elaboration of laws that guarantee the rights and integration of this population. However, it is observed that the non-compliance of the laws makes the promotion of health impossible.
The Sources of Unemployment in Lesotho  [PDF]
Moeti Damane, Lira P. Sekantsi
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.95060
Abstract: Lesotho’s unemployment, poverty and income inequality and other social ills remain pervasive in the face of non-inclusive growth. Using structural vector autoregressive framework and annual time series data spanning from 1980 to 2014, this paper investigates the sources of the high unemployment in Lesotho, a small landlocked developing country whose currency is pegged to that of South Africa. The impulse response functions, forecast error variance decomposition and historical decomposition jointly revealed that unemployment dynamics in Lesotho largely emanate from shocks to employment, unemployment itself, productivity, real wages and inflation. The importance of positive shocks to employment and unemployment itself in explaining unemployment variations decline over time while the importance of positive shocks to productivity, real wages and inflation grow with time. In light of this, Lesotho’s government should promote private sector development, diversify the economy’s markets and invest in human and physical capital development with a view to increase employment.
The Effectiveness of Educational Intervention in the Health Promotion in Elderly people
H Malekafzali,M Baradaran Eftekhari,F Hejazi,T Khojasteh
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: Background: More than 8% of Irans populations are elderly. The greatest challenge in this generation is improvement of health and quality of life. So we decided to perform an interventional study with the aim of promoting the health of the elderly.Methods: This study was a community interventional in Ekbatan Complex. Subjects were elderly. At first, need assessment was done with the participation of 200 elderly by questionnaire. Based on the need assessment, we designed the educational interventions in different fields such as nutrition, mental health, and exercise and then, we compared the results.Results: 0ne hundred elderly participated as interventional group. There were 86% women and 24% of men. Almost 59% were in the 60-69 age group. More than of the subjects were university graduates. Pre and post interventional groups were matched in age, education and gender. Regarding nutrition, second priority food in women aged 60-69 was rice and after the intervention, it was changed to vegetables (P= 0.05) but in other age groups and in the mens groups no difference were noted.Aerobic exercises in women has increased after the intervention (P= 0.01). With regards to mental health, life satisfaction among women under study has increased from 68% to 90% after the intervention (P= 0.01). Feeling happy most of the time has increased from 53% to 83% in women aged 60-69 (P= 0.01) and in men from 64% to 83% (P= 0.05) respectively.Conclusion: Policymakers should design long-term educational programs to promote the elderly lifestyles.
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