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Chemical Composition of Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit) Seed flour as Affected by Processing (Boiling and Roasting)
S.U. Okorie
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit) seed flour was subjected to boiling and roasting to determine their effects on the chemical composition. Proximate composition showed a significant difference (p>0.05) in the raw and processed flour samples. The moisture content was lowest (14.77%) in the roasted A. communis seed flour and highest (24.08%) in the boiled seed flour. Percentage ash, fat and protein were highest (3.66, 3.74 and 4.67%) in the raw while ash and fibre contents were least (2.75 and 1.81%), respectively in the boiled flour. Carbohydrate was highest (87.29%) in the boiled and least (85.60%) in the raw. Boiling and roasting indicated that the vitamin C content and the mineral contents were significantly higher in the raw A. communis seed flour. The effects of boiling and roasting with regards to loss and retention of the nutrients differed significantly (p>0.05), with only the roasting retaining more of the nutrients than boiled seed flour. Sodium and potassium contents of boiled (0.27 and 0.75 mg/L), respectively and roasted (0.34 and 0.78 mg/L, respectively) A. communis seed flours compared well (p<0.05) with the raw (0.37 and 0.83 mg/L, respectively).
Chemical Analysis Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis forst) from South-western Nigeria
Akpobome j. Udio,Bolanle A. Osuntogun,Muyiwa O. Falade,Steve r.a. Adewusi
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The proximate composition and other nutritional parameters evaluated in the peel, pulp and core of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) from four different locations in South-Western Nigeria were not significantly different in each component. The core of the unripe mature breadfruit had the highest content (percent) of moisture (86); ash (6.9); protein (7.7 - 14.7); fat (3.2); crude fiber (17.8); total free (5) and reducing sugars (2.4) and the lowest carbohydrate, starch and ascorbic acid content. The edible pulp had the highest content of carbohydrate and starch with the least ash, crude protein, fat and crude fiber. The peel had the highest level of ascorbic acid and the least total and free reducing sugars. Raffinose was the most prominent flatus-producing oligosaccharide in the core. The minerals were relatively high compared to conventional carbohydrate sources with the highest potassium concentration (3.6 %) in the core. The proximate composition of unripe and ripe mature breadfruits was significantly different and could account for the discrepancies in the literature values.
Nutrient composition, energy value and residual antinutritional factors in differently processed breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal
IO Oladunjoye, AD Ologhobo, CO Olaniyi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The proximate composition, carbohydrate fraction, minerals and residual anti-nutritional factors in peeled and unpeeled raw, cooked and soaked breadfruit meal were determined. Results indicated that breadfruit meals processed in various ways contained 4.31 - 4.85% crude protein, 5.00 - 5.38% crude fibre, 2.11 - 2.90% ether extract, 68.38 - 69.20% starch and 2.56 - 2.90 ash which can enhance its nutritional status. Residual anti-nutritional factors that were detected in the meals were oxalate (2.70 -3.30 mg/kg), phytic acid (0.58 - 0.75 g/100 g), tannin (6.06 - 6.70 mg/kg, trypsin inhibitor (0.00 - 21.30 TIU/mg) and haemagglutinin (0.00 - 12.30 HU/mg). The meals also had high gross energy (16.00 - 16.20 Mj/kg) and metabolizable energy (13.01 - 13.74 Mj/Kg). Cooking completely eliminated trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinin and reduced the concentration of oxalate and tannin while phytic acid was unaffected. Soaking in water reduced (P < 0.05) oxalate, phytic acid, tannin, trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinin. Peeling, cooking and soaking improved the metabolizable energy of breadfruit meal significantly (P < 0.05). It was concluded that breadfruit meal can be a substitute for maize in poultry diet if properly processed.
Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from Artocarpus communis (Moraceae)
Victor Kuete, Patrick Y Ango, Ghislain W Fotso, Gilbert DWF Kapche, Jean P Dzoyem, Arlette G Wouking, Bonaventure T Ngadjui, Berhanu M Abegaz
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-42
Abstract: The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species.The MIC results indicated that ACB as well as compounds 4 and 5 were able to prevent the growth of all tested microbial species. All other compounds showed selective activities. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25922 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The corresponding value of 32 μg/ml was recorded with compounds 4 and 5 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and compound 5 on E. coli ATCC 8739, their inhibition effect on P. aeruginosa PA01 being more than that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic.The overall results of this study provided supportive data for the use of A. communis as well as some of its constituents for the treatment of infections associated with the studied microorganisms.Artocarpus comminis J.R. & G. Forst., commonly known as breadfruit tree because of the "bread-like texture" of its edible fruits, is an equatorial lowland species of flowering tree in the mulberry family (Moraceae) that grows best below elevations of 650 m [1]. Numbers of medicinal uses are assigned to plants of the genus Artocarpus worldwide. This includes treatments of cardiovascular diseases (yellow leaf decoction of A. communis in Bahamas, Haiti, Trinidad and West Indies), chest pain and vomiting from heart problems (Artocarpus spp. in South Pacific), boils, abscess, and skin infections (leaf ash, macerated root, or latex of Artocarpus spp. sap in Dominican Republic, Haiti, Hawai'i, Malaya, Java, Samoa, Tahiti and Tonga), cracked-skin and dermatosis (A. communis in Hawai'i), burns (A. communis in Haiti), rashes (sap of Artocarpus spp. in Tahiti, Tonga); stomach pain (bark of Artocarpus spp. diluted latex in Samoa, Solomon Islands and Tonga), diarrhea or dysentery (diluted latex or roots boiled of Artocarpus spp
Physicochemical properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus Altilis) starch from Margarita island, Venezuela
Rincón,Alicia Mariela; Padilla,Fanny C;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2004,
Abstract: artocarpus altilis, seedless variety, is a fruit-producing plant, which is cultivated in margarita island, venezuela and consumed by inhabitants of the region. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and physical characteristics of fresh fruits, as well as chemical physicochemical, morphometric characteristics, viscoamylograph properties, light transmittance, and digestibility in vitro of extracted starch. the starch yield was 18.5 g/100 g (dw). scanning electron microscopy showed irregular-rounded granules. values for swelling power, water absorption and solubility were found to be higher than that of corn and amaranth starch. the amylographic study showed 73.3°c as gelatinization temperature, and high stability during heating and cooling cycles. artocarpus starch could also be categorized in the group of mixed short chain branched/long chain branched glucan starches, this agrees with digestibility results that showed a high degree of digestibility in vitro. these results might be advantageous in medical and food use.
Partial Substitution of Soyabean Meal with Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seed Meal in Broiler Starter Diets: Effects on Performance, Water Consumption and Carcass Characteristics  [PDF]
Nwokoro,Smart O.,Joseph O.I. Obasuyi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: The study was initiated to ascertain the effect of partial substitution of soyabean meal with breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal in broiler starter chickens diets reared in a tropical environment. 300 broilers chicks were used for the study and they were divided into 15 replicate groups such that three replicates were allocated to a diet. Five broiler starter diets (3000 Kcal MEKg-1 and 24% CP) were formulated such that the Soya bean meal in the diet were replaced with breadfruit seed meal at 0, 10. 20, 30 and 40% levels. The birds were fed and watered ad libitum for the 4 weeks of the study. Results indicated that final live weights of birds, weight gain, feed and water intakes, daily nitrogen retention, packed cell volume and back wholesale carcass cuts of the broilers indicated significant (P< 0.05) differences. It also showed that birds on control diet (diet 1) recorded significantly (P< 0.05) higher body weight, weight gain, feed intake than those of other diets (10, 20, 30 and, 40 % breadfruit seed meal based) which were not different from each other. There were consistent decrease in feed and water consumption with increasing breadfruit meal level of dietary inclusion. Results for the nitrogen retention revealed that the best values were recorded in diets 3 and 4 followed by diet 5, while the least were obtained in diets 1 and 2. Results for the blood metabolites indicated that only PCV and globulin showed significant differences, where only diet 5 (for PCV) were different from all other diets. Other parameters measured were not consistent. The value for the carcass back cut indicated a decreasing back cut between diet 1 and 5 with the exception of diet 3. Treatments had no effect on mortality.
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seeds Collected from Three Locations in Edo State, Nigeria
J.O.I. Obasuyi,S.O. Nwokoro
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: The study was initiated to ascertain some physical and chemical characteristics of the breadfruit seed collected from three locations (Benin City in Oredo, Egor in Egor, and NIFOR in Ovia North-East Local Government Areas) in Edo State, Nigeria. 150 units of well-matured seeded breadfruits were harvested, the fruits were opened and the following physical characters were determined; weight of fruits, number of seeds per fruit, percentage weight of seeds and weight per seed. The seeds after sun-drying (30-35oC) and seed coat removed were apportioned into two (defatted and undefatted)by extraction followed by proximate chemical analysis (AOAC, 1990).Results indicated that there was no significant (P > 0.05) differences between locations for the physical and chemical characters of the breadfruit and seeds determined. However, it indicated that the mean weight of fruits ranged between 1228.5 and 1291.09 numbers of seeds per fruit (from 73.0 to 77.0) while the mean weight of seeds per fruit and mean weight per seed were between 615.4g and, 750.1g and 8.49g and 9.00g respectively. The seed weights per seed were between 615.4g and 750.1g, 8.49g and 9.00g respectively. The seed weights (percent) per fruit were 50.1, 54.9 and 53.1% for the three locations. The chemical composition of the fruit seed indicated ash to be between 5.02% for Benin and 5.33% for NIFOR and CP, 18.27 (Benin), 19.11 (Egor) and NIFOR, 19.37 percent. Other parameters measured (EE, CF, NFE) were 8.25, 16.18 and 42.10% for Benin City, 8.63, 16.92 and 17.15% for Egor and NIFOR, 8.54, 16.75, and 43.49 percent. Results for the defatted seed meal were (2.75%), CP (27.93%), CF (15.37%) and 48.01% for NIFOR. It may be concluded that locations within the region did not considerably affect the breadfruit and seeds characteristics measured in this study.
Identification of Cytotoxic Compound from Artocarpus communis Leaves Against P-388 Cells  [PDF]
Puspa D.N. Lotulung,Sofa Fajriah,Muhammad Hanafi,Euis Filaila
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In the course of continuing research for finding bioactive compounds from Indonesian plants, the leaves of Artocarpus communis was extracted by ethanol. This extract partitioned with n-hexane-water (1:4) and then water extract was partitioned with dichloromethane. Dichloromethane extract was purified by column chromatography techniques on silica gel to afford yellow crystal (F-1). Based on LC-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (1D and 2D) spectra and compared with previous spectral data, it was identified as prenylated flavonoid, 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-[8-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl] 1-propanone. This compound showed significant cytotoxicity against murine P-388 leukemia cells.
Utilización de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis) en la ceba de conejos Nueva Zelanda Blanco Utilization of fruit and leaf meals from breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis) for fattening New Zealand White rabbits  [cached]
Coralia S Leyva,M Valdivié,A Ortiz
Pastos y Forrajes , 2012,
Abstract: Se utilizaron 36 conejos de la raza Nueva Zelanda Blanco, de 35 días de edad y 506 g de peso vivo, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de tres dietas en los indicadores productivos y económicos de los animales durante la ceba. Las dietas consistieron en: 1) pienso comercial más forraje fresco de glycine (Neonotonia wightii), como control; 2) harina de frutos del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis) más glycine; y 3) pienso integral compuesto por una mezcla de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan, más vitaminas y minerales. Se realizó un análisis de varianza, según un dise o completamente aleatorizado, con tres tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Después de 90 días en ceba, el peso vivo al sacrificio fue de: 2 347, 2 223 y 2 127 g/conejo, respectivamente; la ganancia media, de 20, 19 y 18 g/día; y la viabilidad fue del 100% en todos los tratamientos. Económicamente, el pienso balanceado con harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan tuvo una utilidad de 1,05 USD/conejo cebado, el sistema de alimentación con harina de frutos del árbol del pan más follaje de glycine alcanzó utilidades de 0,89 USD/conejo cebado; mientras que el sistema control generó pérdidas económicas, debido a los altos costos de las materias primas que componían el pienso convencional. Se concluye que los sistemas de alimentación alternativos que emplean la harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan resultan económica y biológicamente apropiados para los conejos en ceba Thirty-six New Zealand White rabbits, 35 days old and with 506 g of live weight were used, in order to evaluate the effects of three diets on the productive and economic indicators of the animals during fattening. The diets consisted in: 1) commercial concentrate feed plus fresh forage of perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightií), as control; 2) breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal plus perennial soybean and 3) integral concentrate feed composed by a mixture of fruit and leaf meal from the breadfruit tree, plus vitamins and minerals. A variance analysis was used according to a completely randomized design with three treatments and four repetitions. After 90 days of fattening, the live weight at slaughter was 2 347, 2 223 and 2 127 g/rabbit, respectively, the average gain was 20, 19 and 18 g/day and viability was 100% in all treatments. Economically, the concentrate feed balanced with fruit and leaf meal from the breadfruit tree had a profit of US $1,05/fattened rabbit, the feeding system with breadfruit meal plus perennial soybean foliage earned US $0,89/fattened rabbit, while the control system generated economic loss
Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice  [PDF]
Chiang-Wen Lee,Horng-Huey Ko,Chee-Yin Chai,Wan-Tzu Chen,Chun-Ching Lin,Feng-Lin Yen
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14023860
Abstract: Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM) in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation ( p < 0.05), but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways ( p < 0.05) in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.
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