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Evaluation of a New CHROMagar Medium for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  [PDF]
Mohammad Rahbar,Parisa Islami,Mahnaz` Saremi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Four laboratory methods including, E-test MIC, Oxacillin screen agar, manitol salt agar plus oxacillin and CHROMagar MRSA were compared for detection of methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). CHROMagar MRSA had a high sensitivity and specificity comparing to conventional E-test method. Sensitivity and specificity by manitol salt agar was 95 and 100%, respectively, while oxacillin screening agar method had 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity.
Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections and nasal carriage at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital Center, Casablanca, Morocco
Zriouil, Sanaa Bouhali;Bekkali, Mohammed;Zerouali, Khalid;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702012000300011
Abstract: infections caused by staphylococcus aureus are a major problem in hospitals. the multidrug resistance and the nasal carriage of s. aureus play a key role in the epidemic of these infections. in this prospective study, 160 s. aureus strains were isolated from pathological samples of patients (79 cases) and nasal swabs (81) of cases and controls from january to july 2007. the susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, including cefoxitin, was determined by the agar diffusion method, and methicillin resistance was confirmed by amplifying the meca gene by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the prevalence of methicilin-resistant s. aureus (mrsa) was high in the burns (57.7%) and dermatology (39.4%) wards, and the mrsa strains isolated were extremely multi-resistant, but all of them were still susceptible to vancomycin. the rate of s. aureus nasal carriage was high in both cases and controls, in state, mrsa nasal carriage was more common among people infected with s. aureus.
Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en personal de la unidad de terapia intensiva de la Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana, Medellín 2004
Infectio , 2006,
Abstract: objective. our objective was to determine the prevalence of methicilin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and methicilin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (mssa) in the nasal cavity of the personal that labours at the intensive care unit at the clínica universitaria bolivariana. methodology. in this descriptive study, samples from nasal cavity and pharynx were taken from 45 members of the intensive care unit staff. the samples were seed on plates nurtured with lamb?s blood agar from which we isolated s. aureus colonies that were identified by means of the gram coloration and the catalase. coagulase test and manitol fermentation were perfomed in order to confirm s. aureus. the antibiotic sensitivity was determined by the kirby bauer method. the oxacillin resistance was confirmed with the mueller hinton screening test in oxacillin (6 mg/ml) and nacl (4%) supplemented media. a diffusion screen test on disk with cefoxitin was performed to mrsa strains to predict whether the methicilin resistance was mediated by the meca gen. the data was tabulated in excel and analyzed in spss. results. the prevalence of mrsa was 6.7%. nasal cavity was the most common anatomical site from which the isolated came
Prevention strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Latin America
Alvarez, Carlos;Labarca, Jaime;Salles, Mauro;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702010000800006
Abstract: after the first reports of the emergence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) in the 1970s, numerous measures intended to prevent its transmission were initiated in hospitals. however, in most cases, large-scale measures failed to be implemented and the transmission of mrsa has since led to a global pandemic. presently, doubts still remain about the best approach to prevent and control mrsa and more often than not, control measures are not implemented. therefore, we review here the current situation in latin america with respect to existing policies for control of mrsa, and evaluate the evidence for control measures in hospitals and the community. we look at the risk factors for infection and transmission of mrsa between hospital patients and within specific populations in the community, and at the effect of antibiotic usage on the spread of mrsa in these settings. finally, we summarize recommendations for the prevention and control of mrsa, which can be applied to the latin american hospital environment and community setting
Oyetunji I. Ajoke,Ikenna Osemeka Okeke,Olumide A. Odeyemi,A.E.J. Okwori
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigated the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the nasal swabs of healthy community individual volunteers in Jos South, Nigeria and its susceptibility pattern to seven other antibiotics. Standard procedures were employed for isolation, screening, and susceptibility testing. The result of this study reveal that 98 (49 %) S. aureus were isolated from 200 nasal swab samples collected. The prevalence rate for male and female group was 48 % and 50 % respectively. Sixty two isolates (63.3 %) were found to be methicillin resistant. The MRSA isolated were highly resistant to Ampicillin (88.7 %), Amoxicillin (85.5 %), Tetracycline (80.6 %), Cotrimoxazole (80.6 %) but had low resistance to Erythromycin (35.5%). The MRSA isolated showed high susceptibility to Ofloxacin (98.4 %) and Gentamicin (83.9 %). While 55 (88.7 %) of the MRSA isolated showed multidrug resistance and only 3 (4.8 %) were susceptible to all other tested antibiotics.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in a dermatology unit
Pacheco, Renata L.;Lobo, Renata D.;Oliveira, Maura S.;Farina, Elthon F.;Santos, Cleide R.;Costa, Silvia F.;Padoveze, Maria Clara;Garcia, Cilmara P.;Trindade, Priscila A.;Quitério, Ligia M.;Rivitti, Evandro A.;Mamizuka, Elsa M.;Levin, Anna S.;
Clinics , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011001200012
Abstract: objective: the aim of this study was to characterize staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) carriage in a dermatology unit. methods: this was a prospective and descriptive study. over the course of 26 weeks, surveillance cultures were collected weekly from the anterior nares and skin of all patients hospitalized in a 20-bed dermatology unit of a tertiary-care hospital. samples from healthcare workers (hcws) were cultured at the beginning and end of the study. colonized patients were put under contact precautions, and basic infection control measures were enforced. staphylococcus aureus colonization pressure was determined monthly. colonized and non-colonized patients were compared, and isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility, sccmec type, virulence factors, and type. results: of the 142 patients evaluated, 64 (45%) were colonized by mrsa (39% hospital acquired; 25% community acquired; 36% indeterminate). despite isolation precautions, hospital-acquired staphylococcus aureus occurred in addition to the continuous entry of staphylococcus aureus from the community. colonization pressure increased from 13% to 59%, and pemphigus and other bullous diseases were associated with mrsa colonization. eleven out of 71 hcws (15%) were staphylococcus aureus carriers, although only one worker carried a persistent clone. of the hospital-acquired mrsa cases, 14/28 (50%) were sccmec type iv (3 pfge types), 13 were sccmec type iii (46%), and one had an indeterminate type. these types were also present among the community-acquired staphylococcus aureus isolates. sscmec type iv isolates were shown to be more susceptible than type iii isolates. there were two cases of bloodstream infection, and the pvl and tst virulence genes were absent from all isolates. conclusions: dermatology patients were colonized by community- and hospital-acquired staphylococcus aureus. half of the nosocomial staphylococcus aureus isolates were sccmec type iv. despite the identification of colonized patie
Piomiositis primaria por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente proveniente de la comunidad
Jozefkowicz,Mariela; Jorrat,Pablo; Méndez,José;
Archivos argentinos de pediatr?-a , 2008,
Abstract: primary pyomyositis is an acute or subacute bacterial infection of skeletal muscle characterized by the formation of intramuscular localized abscess without a previous adjoining or remote infection. although it is not frequent in our population, it is increasing because of community-acquired methicilin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (ca-mrsa) emergency. for an early diagnosis and to avoid secondary complications a high degree of clinical suspicion is required. we report a case of primary pyomyositis in a boy without an underlying condition or previous infection.
SS Taiwo, BA Onile, AA Akanbi II
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2004,
Abstract: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control. This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, between January and December 2001. The methicillin disc diffusion method for the detection of methicillin resistance and the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility tests, were used. The MRSA prevalence rate was 34.7% (51/147) of all Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Forty-five isolates were associated with infections and 6 were colonizing strains. Thirty-six (70.6%) were hospital (nosocomial) acquired while 15 (29.4%) were community-acquired. Forty-eight patients have received antibiotics previously including 30 who had received multiple antibiotics. Skin and soft tissues were sites of infections in 36 cases and surgical, emergency and intensive care units accounted for 31 isolates. All MRSA isolates were resistant to more than two antibiotics but remained largely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, macrolides and quinolones and all were sensitive to vancomycin. We recommend the use of third generation cephalosporins and quinolones where indicated, in the treatment of serious MRSA infections in this environment. Control of the spread of MRSA in this hospital must include reinforcement of appropriate use of antibiotics, hand washing and laboratory surveillance for MRSA, particularly in the surgical wards and intensive care units, in order to identify sources of outbreaks. Key Words: Methicillin-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus, Ilorin. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5(2): 189 – 197.
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization on admission to an intensive care unit  [cached]
Mehmet Yerer,G?khan Metan,Emine Alp,Duygu E?el
Erciyes Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are frequent in intensive care units (ICUs). This prospective study was implemented to investigate the frequency of MRSA colonization on admission to ICU.Materials and methods: This study was conducted at Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine Gevher Nesibe Hospital Internal Medicine ICU from December 2004 to January 2006. All patients admitted to ICU were included in the study. Nose, axilla and groin swab cultures were carried out within 48 hours of ICU admission then cultivated on mannitol salt agar including 6mg/L oxacillin.Results: A total of 408 patients were followed up during the study. MRSA colonization on admission was detected in 23 (5.64%) patients. MRSA infection was detected in 5 (21.7%) of those colonized patients. Staying in hospital before ICU admission, length of stay in hospital before ICU, previous antibiotic use, duration of previous antibiotic use, decubit ulcers and central venous catheter were statistically significant (p<0.05). Comorbidities, age, sex, APACHE II and SOFA scores were not determined as risk factors.Conclusion: The patients colonized with MRSA before admission to ICU are important sources of MRSA outbreaks. Detection of risk factors may decrease the rate of MRSA infections in ICUs.
Misidentification of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya
MO Ahmed, AR Abuzweda, MH Alghazali, AK Elramalli, SG Amri, ES Aghila, YM Abouzeed
Libyan Journal of Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen of exceptional concern. It is responsible for life-threatening infections in both the hospital and the community. Aims: To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods. Methods: One hundred and seventy S. aureus isolates previously identified as MRSA were obtained from three hospitals in Tripoli. All isolates were reidentified by culturing on mannitol salt agar, API 20 Staph System and retested for resistance to methicillin using the cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility test and PBP2a. D-tests and vancomycin E-tests (Van-E-tests) were also performed for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Results: Of the 170 isolates examined, 86 (51%) were confirmed as MRSA (i.e. 49% were misidentified as MRSA). Fifteen (17%) of the confirmed MRSA strains exhibited inducible clindamycin resistance. Of the 86 confirmed MRSA isolates, 13 (15%) were resistant to mupirocin, 53 (62%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41 (48%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and none were resistant to linezolid. Although discdiffusion testing indicated that 23 (27%) of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, none of the isolates were vancomycin-resistant by Van-E-test. Conclusions: Misidentification of nosocomial S. aureus as MRSA is a serious problem in Libyan hospitals. There is an urgent need for the proper training of microbiology laboratory technicians in standard antimicrobial susceptibility procedures and the implementation of quality control programs in microbiology laboratories of Libyan hospitals.
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