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Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of African Star Apple Juice (Chrysophylum albidum) on Rats Fed on Diets High in Cholesterol and Oil  [PDF]
Modupe F. Bobadoye, Oluwaseun O. Bamisi, Victor N. Enujiugha
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.710083
Abstract: This study investigated the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of Chrysophylum albidum juice in rats fed on highcholesterol and fatty diets (HFCD). The juice was expressed, pasteurized and frozen until needed. Diets were formulated by mixing at different ratios. Bio-assay of the blends was carried out for a period of 28 days. Twenty five male rats were divided into five groups of five each: a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high Fat/Cholesterol diet with 3 ml of African Star Apple Juice group, a high Fat/Cholesterol diet with 6 ml of African Star Apple Juice group, and a high Fat/Cholesterol diet with 9 ml of African Star Apple Juice group. Blood serum, selected tissues and organs were collected and the serum lipid profile, organ histology and oxidative stress test were carried out at the end of the animal experimentation. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and artherogenic index obtained from rats treated with African star apple juice (3 ml, 6 ml and 9 ml) decreased significantly (P 0.05), compared respectively to the HFCD rats. The results also showed that treatment with African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rats, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, and by inference, the antiatherogenic properties in male rats. African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) juice could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index, thereby supporting the local use of Chrysophylum albidum in the management of atherosclerosis and hypertensive conditions.
Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) in the Southern Benin (West Africa)  [cached]
Houessou Laurent G,Lougbegnon Toussaint O,Gbesso Fran?ois GH,Anagonou Lisette ES
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-8-40
Abstract: Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber) were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term survival of the species and local communities’ livelihoods.
SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL FROM AFRICAN STAR APPLE (CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM) SEEDS  [PDF]
Adebayo, Segun Emmanuel,Orhevba, Bosede Adelola,Adeoye, Peter Aderemi,Musa, John Jiya
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is one fruit of great economic value in tropical Africa due to its diverse industrial, medicinal and food uses. Its seeds have also been found tohave a number of beneficial uses. In this study, oil was extracted from the seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum using normal hexane as extracting solvent. The extraction was carried out at a temperature of 650C at 3 – 4 hours extraction time. Solvent extraction isknown to be the best method of extracting oil from low oil bearing seeds. The method used is aimed at determining the percentage oil yield. At a range of 3 - 4 hours extraction time and atemperature of 650C, the average oil yield obtained was 10.71%. The characterization was conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the extracted oil shows that the oil was deep red in colour, liquid at 280C with a characteristics smell, density of 0.89kg/m3, solidification temperature of -20C, boiling point of 620C, saponification value of 177.30 mg/KOH/gram, acid value of 5.20% free fatty acid value of 2.60%, peroxide value of 1.65 meq/kg, refractive index of 1.4672 at 31.20C. These results suggest that Chrysophyllumalbidum seeds may be a viable source of oil going by its oil yield. Furthermore, the studied characteristics of the oil extracted shows hat it may be used for many domestic and industrial purposes in Nigeria.
Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple as a Domestic Income Plantation Species
U.N Ureigho, B.A Ekeke
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is one of the 80 species of Chrysophyllum Linn, a pan-tropical genus. Market Survey was done to collect data from three major markets in Rivers State known for assorted fruits business. Eight to ten of morphologically differing types were characterized and further identified into types. Nine fruit types were morphologically identified and comprehensively analyzed in Food Science and Technology Laboratory, Rivers State University of Science and Technology for nutrient content. The analysis has shown that Chrysophyllum albidum has an approximation of carbohydrate (11%), crude fibre (4%), Lipids (3%), protein (7%), Calcium (17.11ppm), Iron (< Ippm), phosphorus (9.92ppm), vitamin C (25.03ppb), A (10.74ppb), B1 and B2 (< 1ppb). It is recommended that the awareness of the nutritive value of this species be created so as to increase it’s consumption as food supplement to the larger population and expand its utilization.
CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM (AFRICAN STAR APPLE) FRUIT EXTRACT AS ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY INHIBITOR ON THE CORROSION OF ALUMINIUM IN ACIDIC MEDIUM
I. C. Madufor,U. E. Itodoh,M. U. Obidiegwu,M. S. Nwakaudu
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 0.1M H2SO4 in the absence and presence of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit extract (CAFE) at temperature range of 30 60oC was studied using weight loss and thermometric techniques. The fruit extract acts as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase ininhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in temperature. The inhibiting effect of the CAFE could be attributed to the presence of some phytochemical constituents in the fruit extract which is adsorbed on the surface of the aluminium. The CAFE was found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorptionprocess is spontaneous.
STUDIES ON ASSOCIATED MYCOFLORA AND BIODETERIORATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN DRUG S. XANTHOCARPUM LINN. ROOTS UNDER STORAGE
M RASHIDI
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bio-Science , 2013,
Abstract: In the present study, total 18 fungi were associated with fresh samples of Solanum xanthocarpum Linn. Out of these isolated fungi F. solani showed the highest percentage incidence. The drug stored under the influence of different relative humidities viz. 30, 50, 75, 96 and 100% showed variation in percentage occurrence as well as biodeterioration of the chemical constituents such as proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides. The drug stored under 96 and100% RH showed maximum deterioration of selected chemical constituents.
Post Harvest and Cold Storage Losses in Apple of Balochistan  [PDF]
Nisar Ali Shah,Shahjahan Khan,Manzoor Ahmad Kasi,S. M. Khair
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The apple of the province is famous for its distant and quality. Where as the significant quantity of apple produced traded to other provinces mainly Punjab and Sindh. Balochistan is the largest province of the country but have the poorest communication and infrastructure development which results in higher post harvest storage and transportation losses. To increase the shelf-life and maintain the quality of perishable produce cool temperature can play an important role. In Balochistan there are two cold stores with the capacity of 700 tones. On an average in cold storage 17 percent damaged apples were found in a crate, the basic reason for this damage was uneven grading and tight package in wooden crates, as mostly the farmer put, the bold apples on top, while the immature and infected apples at the bottom. Out of these 12 percent were not consumed. Furthermore, in a wooden crates there is an additional cost on waste product of apple in the form of packing, transportation, labor, commission, storage, etc. During March 70% of apple were "Shin Kulu" and the rest were other varieties i.e. Tore kulu, Kashmiri, Mashadi, and Gaja. in Quetta market. The grade wise distribution of apple in a crate of `Tor Kulu` were 10 and 4 kgs with price tag of Rs. 30/ and 16 for A and B grade. It accounts for almost 35 percent of apples produced in Balochistan. Almost, similar trend were reported in `Shin Kulu` the apple texture is firm which gives it longer shelf life compared to other varieties. The grade wise distribution of apple in `Shin Kulu` were 8,5 and 2 kgs. with a price tag of Rs. 24, 12 and 8 for A, B and C grade within the crate, respectively. In other apple varieties i.e., `Amri` and `Mashadi` grade wise distribution were 5,7,3 and 7,5,1 kgs. Balochistan marketing channel constitute of producers, contractors, commission agents, ladanwala, whole salers and retailers
Quality parameter of storage apple as a firmness
Dobrza?…??ski B.,Rybczy?…??ski R.,Go?…??acki K.
International Agrophysics , 2000,
Abstract: Different physical parameters related to firmness were studied for apple fruit. Fruit were kept in different conditions up to 30 weeks to show a wide range of mechanical behaviour. Refrigerated storage, regular storage frequently applied in small farm in Poland, and storage with artificial high temperature were used in this study to ensure different softness of fruit. Water potential of apple flesh was measured using the HR-33T microvoltmeter equipped with the C-52 sample chamber. The most important mechanical factors related to fruit firmness were determined in different way using Instron machine equipped in each case with special adapters. Application of simple devices designed by the authors for the estimation of the slight changes in fruit firmness during storage is presented.
Storage Stability of Cashew Apple Juice-Use of Chemical Preservatives
Uma Talasila,Rama Rao Vechalapu,Khasim Beebi Shaik
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2012.117.123
Abstract: Cashew apples are being wasted across various parts of the cashew growing countries due to high perishability and short shelf life. The present study aims to preserve and improve shelf life of cashew apple juice using different combinations and concentrations of chemical preservatives. The efficiency of chemical preservatives was tested by analyzing sensory, physicochemical and microbiological qualities of the juice periodically. The results reveal that combination of sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite at 0.1 g L-1 each, sodium benzoate and citric acid at 0.1 g L-1 each and sodium metabisulphite and potassium metabisulphite at 0.05 g L-1 each, prolonged shelf life of cashew apple juice upto 20 days. Vitamin C and total sugars of the preserved samples were found to be almost stable. Sensory attributes also revealed good overall acceptability of the juice. Thus, cashew apple juice could be preserved using optimized chemical preservatives at household level.
USE OF SOME FUNGICIDES IN CONTROL OF APPLE SCAB AND STORAGE DISEASES
Florin Cristian.Marin,Mihaela Sumedrea,Mirela C?linescu,Dorin Sumedrea
Fruit Growing Research , 2012,
Abstract: The paper present an analysis of the biological efficacy of some new experimented during 2008-2011 at RIFG Pitesti, in order to protect the stored apples against apple scab, brown rot and other damaging storage diseases. During the experiment, 11 fungicides, including 9 single active ingredients and 2 new actives mixes, were tested by preventive treatments applied in the orchards on 4 winter apple cultivars ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Idared’, ‘Nured Jonathan’ and ‘Starkrimson’. The biological material was stored in the cold warehouse then assessed under lab conditions. The results obtained revealed that in control of brown rot, the best results were obtained with: Chorus 75 WDG - 0.3 kg/ha/treatment, Rovral 500 SC - 1.5L/ha/treatment, Switch 62.5 - 1kg/ha/treatment and Bellis 38 WG 0.8 kg/ha/treatment (F%: 0.75%; 0.25; 0%; 0%). As regard the control of apple scab, under storage conditions, the finest results were obtained with: Chorus 75 WDG - 0.3 kg/ha/treatment, Mystic Extra 0.75L/ha/treatment, Topsin M70 1kg/ha/treatment, Score 250 EC 0,2L/ha/treatment, Indar 5 EW 1,2 kg/ha/treatment, Toledo 430 SC 0.45L/ha/tratment, Folicur Solo 0.75L/ha/treatment (F%: 0%; 0.36%; 0.75%; 1.37%; 1.75%; 2.01%; 2.25%; 3.75%). Also, the treatments applied in 2011 with Bellis 38 WG 0.8 kg/ha and Switch 62.5 - 1kg/ha/treatment protected very well the stored apples against the apple scab and 4 other specific storage diseases (F%: 0).
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