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Scenario of Infection Prevention and Control Measures for Tuberculosis in Tuberculosis Inpatient and Outpatient Department in Tertiary Care Hospital  [PDF]
Yogita Mistry, Sangita Rajdev, Summaiya Mullan
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44018
Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases in our country. Also nosocomial infection by tuberculosis can occur, which can be prevented by implementing simple, effective and affordable tuberculosis infection control measures in health care facilities. To evaluate the effectiveness of infection control measures, such study was planned. Questionnaires were administered to all doctors, healthcare workers and servants working in outdoor and indoor department of tuberculosis at tertiary care hospital to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices on prevention and control of Tuberculosis infection. A scoring system was devised to grade them. One-time audit was also done in outpatient and inpatient department. The analysis showed scoring of poor for doctors, good for nurses and poor forward aids. There is a need to develop strategies for training of health care workers on regular basis in order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections. Audit result shows a good level of environmental control measures. Better knowledge, attitude and practices are helpful for the prevention and control of tuberculosis. Also environmental control measures are helpful to prevent infection.
Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS)
Yin Xia, Dai Hu, Fei Liu, Xiao Wang, Yan Yuan, De Tu, Yi Chen, Lin Zhou, Li Zhu, Wei Gao, Hong Wang, Da Chen, Li Yang, Ping He, Xiao Li, Ying He, Feng Sun, Si Zhan
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-267
Abstract: Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI), a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis.ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy.Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. According to WHO reports, there were an estimated 9.3 million incident cases and 13.7 million prevalent cases of TB in 2007[1]. China is the second highest TB burden country in the world, only next to India. To control TB epidemic, China established China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS) in 1990, and started implementing directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) since 1991. Nowadays DOTS has covered all population in China [1], and became the major TB control access. The key component of DOTS strategy is the standard anti-TB short course chemotherapy regimen. The regimen which requires continually taking drug combinations of Isoniazid(H), Rifampicin (R), Pyrazinamide(Z), E
Prevention and control of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis
耐药结核病及其防治

YI Bin,
易滨

微生物学通报 , 2006,
Abstract: On recently years, the tuberculosis shows the characteristic of higher incidence, infection, drug-resistance, and Morbidity. However, the emphasis and difficult is preventing and contrnling of muhidrug resistant tuberculosis. Its nosocomial and societal causes of oecuring and prevailing were analyzed and control measures from seven facets were expounded in this article. Those include prevention knowledge widely, strengthen management and supervision of floating population, improve ability of diagnosis and therepy, develop combinasion treatment of traditional chinese medicine and western medicine and other assistant treatment, prevent community and nosocomial infection, perfect the drug-resistant surveillance system, carry out the study of new drug , measure and treatment to anti-tuberculosis actively.
Effectiveness Of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) Vaccination In The Prevention Of Tuberculosis Of Skin : A Case Control Study.
Zodpey S.P,Shrikhande S. N,Maldhure B.R,Kulkarni S W
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 1998,
Abstract: A hospital based pair matched case control study was performed at Government Medical College Hospital Nagpur to estimate the effectiveness of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BGG) vaccination against tuberculosis of skin. The study included 48 cases of tuberculosis of skin in the age group of 21 a€" 34 years and equal number of controls, matched for the age, sex and socioeconomic status. The estimates of protective effectiveness and prevented fraction were non-significantly higher for the subjects in the age group 21-30 years, males and subjects from lower strata of socioeconomic status. The overall vaccine effectiveness and prevented fraction was estimated to be 60. 87 (15.46- 81.89) and 36.83 (06.40 a€" 62.89) percent respectively. Results of this study thus indicated that BCG vaccination was moderately effective against tuberculosis of skin, in this population.
En el camino para acortar los tratamientos de la tuberculosis: los ensayos clínicos de la Unitat d'Investigació en la Tuberculosi de Barcelona impulsados por los Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
Moreno,Antonio; Sánchez,Francesca; Nelson,Jeanne; Miró,José M.; Caylà,Joan A.; ,;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112010000200013
Abstract: new treatment guidelines are required to improve the tuberculosis control strategies that have been used for 30 years. seven centers of the barcelona tuberculosis research unit (btru) (unitat d’ investigació en tuberculosi de barcelona) are collaborating with the division of tuberculosis elimination of the united states centers for disease control and prevention in a series of clinical trials on latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease. btru participation began in 2004 with study 26, an evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of rifapentine plus isoniazid administered once weekly for 3 months compared with the standard treatment for latent tuberculos isinfection. the btru centers together enrolled 246 patients (3% of the total).general enrollment was completed in february, 2008. hiv-infected patient and child enrollment continues. treatment with 12 doses instead of 270 doses is expected to be a clear success. however, the analysis will be completed in 2010. study 28 (startedin2006), designed for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, compared standard treatment with an experimental regimen substituting moxifloxacin for isoniazid. btru centers together enrolled 15 patients (3.5 % of the total).the provisional results (presented at the 47th interscience conferenceon antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy in chicago, 2007) showed no difference between the sputum conversion rate of each regimen at week 8 of treatment. study 29 is currently underway,in which rifapentine was introduced in the experimental regimen for active tuberculosis treatment.
Tuberculosis contact control in Brazil: a liberature review (1984-2004)
Gazetta, Cláudia Eli;Santos, Maria de Lourdes Sperli Geraldes;Vendramini, Sílvia Helena Figueiredo;Poletti, Nadia Antonia Aparecida;Pinto Neto, José Martins;Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692008000200021
Abstract: this study aims to review plans for tuberculosis control through the analysis of measures for tuberculosis contact tracing in brazil from 1984 to 2004. this article presents a literature review on tuberculosis control published in manuals of the ministry of health and the state department of health of sao paulo, and in medline and lilacs databases. there was a gap in the standardization of control measures in the decade from 1984 to 1994. it was concluded that health professionals need to incorporate tb control and prevention actions from the perspective of health surveillance and systematic monitoring.
Prevalence of Tuberculosis, HIV and Respiratory Symptoms in Two Zambian Communities: Implications for Tuberculosis Control in the Era of HIV  [PDF]
Helen Ayles, Albertus Schaap, Amos Nota, Charalambos Sismanidis, Ruth Tembwe, Petra De Haas, Monde Muyoyeta, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett 1 for the ZAMSTAR Study Team
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005602
Abstract: Background The Stop TB Partnership target for tuberculosis is to have reduced the prevalence of tuberculosis by 50% comparing 2015 to 1990. This target is challenging as few prevalence surveys have been conducted, especially in high burden tuberculosis and HIV countries. Current tuberculosis control strategies in high HIV prevalent settings are therefore based on limited epidemiological evidence and more evidence is needed from community-based surveys to inform improved policy formulation. Methods and Findings 8044 adults were sampled from 2 sub-districts (wards) in Lusaka province, Zambia. Questionnaires were used to screen for symptoms, respiratory samples were obtained for culture and oral secretions collected for HIV testing. 79 individuals were found to have Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their sputum, giving an adjusted overall prevalence of tuberculosis of 870/100,000 (95% CI 570–1160/100,000). The adjusted overall prevalence of HIV was 28.61% (95% CI 26.04–31.19). HIV- infection was significantly associated with prevalent tuberculosis (Adj OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.42–3.74) and the population attributable fraction of HIV for prevalent tuberculosis was 36%. Symptoms such as prolonged cough (adj OR 12.72, 95% CI 7.05–22.94) and fever (Adj OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.23–3.39), were associated with prevalent tuberculosis, but 8 (10%) individuals with prevalent tuberculosis denied having any symptoms at all and only 34 (43%) would have been classified as a TB suspect by current guidelines. Conclusions Undiagnosed tuberculosis is a challenge for tuberculosis control and new approaches are needed if we are to reach international targets. Epidemiological studies can inform screening algorithms for both detection and prevention of active tuberculosis.
Inactivación de genes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y su potencial utilidad en la prevención y el control de la tuberculosis
Chacón,Ofelia; Realpe,Teresa; Barletta,Raúl Gerardo; Robledo,Jaime;
Biomédica , 2004,
Abstract: gene inactivation in mycobacterium tuberculosis and its use in tuberculosis control and prevention availability of the m. tuberculosis genome sequence and the development of sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation of bacilli offer the potential for new and effective tools to prevent and control tuberculosis. efficient methods to inactivate mycobacterial genes have been developed. these methods have become the cornerstone for the application and development of mycobacterial functional genomics. specific mutants are generated to establish the role of targetted genes associated with mycobacterial physiology and pathogenesis. gene inactivation, supported directly or indirectly by the deciphering of the mycobacterial genome, has permitted the generation of large numbers of m. tuberculosis mutants. analysis of these mutants has (in some cases) established relationships between gene products and their role in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenesis.
The prevention and control of human leptospirosis  [cached]
John T
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Human leptospirosis is prevalent in several states in India, sporadically or as outbreaks, especially during rainy seasons. It affects predominantly male adults who work in agriculture, causing severe morbidity and unnecessary mortality. Yet, there is no systematic leptospirosis prevention and control programme in the country, as it is not identified as priority under the national health policy. Therefore states with leptospirosis ought to establish public health programme for its prevention and control, as part of building a comprehensive initiative for the control of all-important infectious diseases. After establishing disease surveillance and laboratory support service, the disease burden must be monitored before and during interventions for control. The District is the ideal unit of activity, with full participation of the State Government and Local Panchayati raj. The public health staff must give technical leadership and the risk factors of human leptospirosis must be identified and specific interventions targeted against them. Action must be local-area-specific and coordinated between the Departments of Health, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Environment and Forestry. A model leptospirosis control programme has been formulated in Kerala State and is awaiting implementation. A state level Diagnostic and Epidemiolgy centre has been established to provide technical leadership. This model must be implemented and also replicated in other states. The most important ingredient for the control of infectious diseases is the ′political will′.
Review on Zoonotic Importance of Bovine Tuberculosis and Its Control
Adem Mume Jemal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102504
Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious zoonotic disease of domestic animals and humans. It is characterized by formation of granulomas in tissue especially the lungs, lymph nodes, liver, intestines and the kidneys. Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of BTB (Bovine tuberculosis) which is an acid fast staining bacterium due to waxy substance (mycolic acid) present in its bacterial cell wall. The bacteria can be transmitted by both aerogenous and enterogenous routes. In Ethiopia bovine tuberculosis is endemic and mostly transmitted to humans through ingestion of unpasteurized contaminated milk and contact with infected animals. Disease causes development of miliary tubercular lesions, chronic cough, obstructions of air passages and alimentary tract or blood vessels and enlargement of lymph nodes. A spectrum of Cell-Mediated Immune responses (CMI) predominate infection, projecting the role of macrophages and T-cell populations. In advanced stage, there is increased humoral response. Tuberculinization test, single intradermal test and comparative intradermal test, is the valuable delayed type hyper sensitivity test used for diagnosing TB in live animal, and used in TB eradication and for international trade. Vaccination of calves with attenuated bovine-strain of tuberculosis bacterium, known as Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) and testing and culling are important measure in BTB control and prevention endemic area like Ethiopia. It is important to pasteurize milk before human consumption to reduce public health risk.
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