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Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae  [PDF]
Wing-Yee Liu, Chi-Fat Wong, Karl Ming-Kar Chung, Jing-Wei Jiang, Frederick Chi-Ching Leung
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074487
Abstract: The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species.
Genomic Diversity within the Enterobacter cloacae Complex  [PDF]
Armand Paauw, Martien P. M. Caspers, Frank H. J. Schuren, Maurine A. Leverstein-van Hall, Alexis Delétoile, Roy C. Montijn, Jan Verhoef, Ad C. Fluit
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003018
Abstract: Background Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex have been increasingly isolated as nosocomial pathogens, but phenotypic identification of the E. cloacae complex is unreliable and irreproducible. Identification of species based on currently available genotyping tools is already superior to phenotypic identification, but the taxonomy of isolates belonging to this complex is cumbersome. Methodology/Principal Findings This study shows that multilocus sequence analysis and comparative genomic hybridization based on a mixed genome array is a powerful method for studying species assignment within the E. cloacae complex. The E. cloacae complex is shown to be evolutionarily divided into two clades that are genetically distinct from each other. The younger first clade is genetically more homogenous, contains the Enterobacter hormaechei species and is the most frequently cultured Enterobacter species in hospitals. The second and older clade consists of several (sub)species that are genetically more heterogonous. Genetic markers were identified that could discriminate between the two clades and cluster 1. Conclusions/Significance Based on genomic differences it is concluded that some previously defined (clonal and heterogenic) (sub)species of the E. cloacae complex have to be redefined because of disagreements with known or proposed nomenclature. However, further improved identification of the redefined species will be possible based on novel markers presented here.
Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) for Characterization of Enterobacter cloacae  [PDF]
Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Kayoko Hayakawa, Norio Ohmagari, Masahiro Shimojima, Teruo Kirikae
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066358
Abstract: Enterobacter cloacae is an important emerging pathogen, which sometime causes respiratory infection, surgical site infection, urinary infection, sepsis, and outbreaks at neonatal units. We have developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme utilizing seven housekeeping genes and evaluated the performance in 101 clinical isolates. The MLST scheme yielded 83 sequence types (ST) including 78 novel STs found in the clinical isolates. These findings supported the robustness of the MLST scheme developed in this study.
EPIDIDIMITE CR NICA POR Enterobacter cloacae EM C O CHRONIC EPIDIDYMITIS FOR Enterobacter cloacae IN DOG  [cached]
Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant’ana,Edismair Carvalho Garcia,Rogério Elias Rabelo,Carla Afonso da Silva Bitencourt Braga
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2008,
Abstract: Este relato descreve os aspectos clínicos, anatomopatológicos e microbiológicos de um caso de epididimite cr nica em c o causada por Enterobacter cloacae. Um c o macho, Boxer, de três anos de idade, com histórico de tumefa o unilateral na bolsa escrotal foi submetido à avalia o citopatológica. Após o diagnóstico citológico, sugestivo de orquite ou epididimite bacteriana, indicou-se a castra o do animal. Macroscopicamente, o epidídimo direito estava muito aumentado de volume, firme e com superfície de corte irregular. Coletaram-se amostras de epidídimo e testículo para exames histopatológico e microbiológico, os quais revelaram epididimite cr nica, degenera o testicular e identifica o de E. cloacae. Diagnóstico diferencial foi realizado principalmente com orquite e neoplasias testiculares ou epididimárias. Esse parece ser o primeiro caso descrito de epididimite em c o associada à infec o por E. cloacae. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: C o, epididimite, Enterobacter cloacae This report describes the clinic, anatomopathological and microbiological aspects of a case of chronic epididymitis in dog caused by Enterobacter cloacae. A three-year-old Boxer male dog with a history of scrotum unilateral swelling was submitted to cytopathologic examination. After cytologic diagnosis sugestive of bacterial orchitis/ epididymitis was indicated the castration. Grossly, the right epididymis was very firm and enlarged with irregular cut surface. Epididymis and testicle samples were collected to histologic and microbiologic exams. Histologic diagnosis of chronic epididymitis and testicular degeneration were confirmed. In the bacteriological valuation, E. cloacae was identified. Diferential diagnosis was realized especially with orchitis and testicular/epididymal neoplasms. Apparently, the present case is a first descrititon of epididymitis in dog associated to E. cloacae infection. KEY WORDS: Dog, epididymitis, Enterobacter cloacae.
Enterobacter cloacae: A predominant pathogen in neonatal septicaemia  [cached]
Mahapatra A,Ghosh S,Mishra S,Pattnaik D
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2002,
Abstract: A total of 120 blood samples from neonates presenting with clinical signs of septicaemia were subjected for culture using brain heart infusion agar biphasic medium (BHI BPM) and glucose broth. Bacterial agents were isolated from 48 numbers (40%) of cultures. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in maximum percentage (88.45%) of cases whereas gram-positive bacteria (coagulase negative staphylococci and group B streptococci) in 11.6% of cultures. E.cloacae (39.5%) was maximally isolated among the pathogenic bacteria followed by K.pneumoniae (23.2%), E.coli (11.6%) and others like Acinetobacter spp. (6.9%), Citrobacter freundi (4.6%) and P.mirabillis (2.3%). All the gram-negative bacilli isolates showed 100% susceptibility to amikacin, whereas 85% of E.cloacae isolates were sensitive to the same. Thus E.cloacae was found to be a predominant moderately sensitive pathogen in neonatal septicemia.
Phenotyping and genotyping methods applied to investigate the relatedness of Brazilian isolates of Enterobacter cloacae
Darini, A.L.C.;Magalh?es, V.D.;Levy, C.L.;Barth, A.L.;Coscina, A.L.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999000900004
Abstract: in order to evaluate the resolving power of several typing methods to identify relatedness among brazilian strains of enterobacter cloacae, we selected twenty isolates from different patients on three wards of a university hospital (orthopedics, nephrology, and hematology). traditional phenotyping methods applied to isolates included biotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, phage-typing, and o-serotyping. plasmid profile analysis, ribotyping, and macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) were used as genotyping methods. sero- and phage-typing were not useful since the majority of isolates could not be subtyped by these methods. biotyping, antibiogram and plasmid profile permitted us to classify the samples into different groups depending on the method used, and consequently were not reliable. ribotyping and pfge were significantly correlated with the clinical epidemiological analysis. pfge did not type strains containing nonspecific dnase. ribotyping was the most discriminative method for typing brazilian isolates of e. cloacae.
Phenotyping and genotyping methods applied to investigate the relatedness of Brazilian isolates of Enterobacter cloacae  [cached]
Darini A.L.C.,Magalh?es V.D.,Levy C.L.,Barth A.L.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: In order to evaluate the resolving power of several typing methods to identify relatedness among Brazilian strains of Enterobacter cloacae, we selected twenty isolates from different patients on three wards of a University Hospital (Orthopedics, Nephrology, and Hematology). Traditional phenotyping methods applied to isolates included biotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, phage-typing, and O-serotyping. Plasmid profile analysis, ribotyping, and macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used as genotyping methods. Sero- and phage-typing were not useful since the majority of isolates could not be subtyped by these methods. Biotyping, antibiogram and plasmid profile permitted us to classify the samples into different groups depending on the method used, and consequently were not reliable. Ribotyping and PFGE were significantly correlated with the clinical epidemiological analysis. PFGE did not type strains containing nonspecific DNase. Ribotyping was the most discriminative method for typing Brazilian isolates of E. cloacae.
Molecular epidemiology of a nosocomial outbreak due to Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter agglomerans in Campinas, S?o Paulo, Brazil
GON?ALVES, Célia R.;VAZ, Tania M.I.;LEITE, Daniela;PISANI, Beatriz;SIM?ES, Marise;PRANDI, Maria Angela M.;ROCHA, Marilu M.M.;CESAR, Paulo C.;TRABASSO, Plinio;NOWAKONSKI, Angela von;IRINO, Kinue;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652000000100001
Abstract: a total of 73 isolates (57 enterobacter cloacae and 16 enterobacter agglomerans), recovered during an outbreak of bacteremia in the campinas area, s?o paulo, brazil, were studied. of these isolates, 61 were from parenteral nutrition solutions, 9 from blood cultures, 2 from a sealed bottle of parenteral nutrition solution, and one was of unknown origin. of the 57 e. cloacae isolates, 54 were biotype 26, two were biotype 66 and one was non-typable. of 39 e. cloacae isolates submitted to ribotyping, 87.2% showed the same banding pattern after cleavage with ecori and bamhi. no important differences were observed in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among e. cloacae isolates exhibiting the same biotype, serotype and ribotype. all e. agglomerans isolates, irrespective of their origin, showed same patterns when cleaved with ecori and bamhi. the results of this investigation suggest an intrinsic contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions and incriminate these products as a vehicle of infection in this outbreak.
Molecular epidemiology of a nosocomial outbreak due to Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter agglomerans in Campinas, S o Paulo, Brazil  [cached]
GON?ALVES Célia R.,VAZ Tania M.I.,LEITE Daniela,PISANI Beatriz
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2000,
Abstract: A total of 73 isolates (57 Enterobacter cloacae and 16 Enterobacter agglomerans), recovered during an outbreak of bacteremia in the Campinas area, S o Paulo, Brazil, were studied. Of these isolates, 61 were from parenteral nutrition solutions, 9 from blood cultures, 2 from a sealed bottle of parenteral nutrition solution, and one was of unknown origin. Of the 57 E. cloacae isolates, 54 were biotype 26, two were biotype 66 and one was non-typable. Of 39 E. cloacae isolates submitted to ribotyping, 87.2% showed the same banding pattern after cleavage with EcoRI and BamHI. No important differences were observed in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among E. cloacae isolates exhibiting the same biotype, serotype and ribotype. All E. agglomerans isolates, irrespective of their origin, showed same patterns when cleaved with EcoRI and BamHI. The results of this investigation suggest an intrinsic contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions and incriminate these products as a vehicle of infection in this outbreak.
In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Shrikant Patil, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Bacteriology & Parasitology , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2155-9597.1000241
Abstract: This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 μg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 μg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
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