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Bt maize for small scale farmers: A case study
DP Keetch, A Ngqaka, R Akanbi, P Mahlanga
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2004,
Abstract: The role of biotechnology in small holder agricultural systems has been the subject of much debate in South Africa and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region as a whole. The debate has centered on the suitability of biotechnology crops in small holder agricultural systems. In South Africa, genetically modified (GM) white maize was approved for commercial production in 1998. To educate and inform small-scale farmers and to give them the opportunity to evaluate GM white maize for themselves, six demonstration plots were planted at strategic locations. This communications presents the results obtained from these six demonstration plots. In all plots it was found that GM maize gave higher yields and had less stalk borer damage than the comparable non GM variety. GM white maize can be beneficial to small scale farmers located in areas where maize stalk borer is a major production factor. However, it is important that the authorities provide an effective extension service and financial support in order that the full potential of GM white maize can be experienced.
AN EXAMINATION ABOUT THE CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PERCEIVED BENEFIT AND PERCEIVED RISK
Ay?e Sezen BAYO?LU,?zlen ?ZGEN
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: Consumer attitudes are believed to be a major factor influencing the extent of the future development of the gene technology. Genetic engineers and scientists are aware that consumers have a strong impact on the progress of biotechnology. Even when consumers assume that biotechnology is associated with relatively high risks and rather unknown consequences than other Technologies, they do not reject biotechnology altogether. It is claimed taht consumers have more positive attitudes towards biotechnology applications which are conducting on medical field than those involving agricultural and food sectors. This research was planned for determine the consumer attitudes towards biotechnology and affecting factors of perceived benefit and perceived risk towards biotechnology, and carried out on totally 360 consumers in Ankara.
Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in Holistic Strategy in West Africa
JJ Baidu-Forson, R Lewis-Lettington
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2008,
Abstract: Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of biodiversity resources which, with the appropriate application of biotechnological tools for conservation and use, can serve as sources of wealth creation. Proper harnessing of the linkages between biotechnology and the diversity of biological resources is required to meet challenges of food security, health, poverty and wealth creation in West African countries. The paper explores some of the key applications of biotechnology for conservation of agricultural biodiversity resources, and considers the potential threat of biotechnology to diversity of genetic resources. It also explores complex issues that inform current policy debates. It concludes that Government support is required for the conservation and breeding of farmers’ varieties, or landraces by public breeding programmes, and the design of private and public mechanisms to ensure that the pursuit of biotechnology does not compromise the diversity in biological resources. It would be strategic for West African countries to establish and explore beneficial linkages between the subregional genetic resources conservation initiative and biotechnology programmes. Some pertinent questions are raised on how to best manage the strategic interplay between biotechnology and diversity in agricultural biodiversity resources. The provision of adequate information is highlighted to inform decisions and choices based on the real value and potential risks of biotechnology.
BIOTECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA
J M Omiti, R N Chacha, M S Andama
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2002,
Abstract: By the year 2025, 83% of the expected global population of 8.5 billion will be living in developing countries. The capacity of global resources and technologies to satisfy the demands of this growing population for food and other agricultural commodities is not assured. In 25 years, Africa's population is projected to increase to 1.3 billion, bringing about intense interest in Africa's agricultural and economic performance, and the potential impact of biotechnology on the economy and the welfare of the continent. Under Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), most processes and many products of biotechnology research are patentable. African countries generally have weak national scientific infrastructure and capacity to innovate and patent new materials as well as enforce biosafety requirements. In order for countries to access biotechnology products or technologies, it will become increasingly important to have policies and procedures on intellectual property rights in place at the national and institutional levels. In view of the extent of the collaborative international programs taking place, strong local partners are required to expedite the adaptation of technologies and materials that are developed through collaborative research. Lack of biotechnological innovations or their limited diffusion by farmers has increased the technological gap with developed countries. Biotechnology will affect even the most isolated villages in various ways. It will neither be wise nor justified for African countries not to effectively participate in this revolution and fight for gaining some of its expected advantages. The current policy indifference will not help our farmers.
Challenges to Farmers’ Participation In Artificial Insemination (AI) Biotechnology In Nigeria: An Overview
BM Shehu, PI Rekwot, DM Kezi, TD Bidoli, AO Oyedokun
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2010,
Abstract: Livestock farming is an important source of animal based food products and income in Nigeria. To improve livestock production in the country, technologies such as artificial insemination have to be understood and transferred properly by Livestock Extension Agents (LEA) to farmers for proper adoption. This technology has been applied for some years in a number of countries using the appropriate extension approaches. Advantages claimed for the practice are the lessening of the risk of spread of disease in livestock, reduction in sterility and increase in fertility, facilitation of improvement in quality, and economy in livestock management. Against this background this paper highlights the benefits of AI technology, factors limiting against AI program in Nigeria, suggest the appropriate extension methods for disseminating the technology and suggest strategies that should be put in place to make AI technology sustainable in livestock production for increased productivity.
Temporal & Spatial Variation and Benefit Analysis of Farmers Fertilizer at Tarim River Basin  [cached]
Lu YAN,HuiLan MA,Yang SU
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720120805.7463
Abstract: Along with the continuous development of the fertilizer industry, it provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. This paper analyzes based on the temporal & spatial variation and planting efficiency of farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, it finds that farmers fertilizer provides a large extent of impetus to cultivation. Therefore, using cointegration method to analyze influence of planting efficiency with farmers fertilizer at Tarim River Basin, the model results show that farmers fertilization amount with planting efficiency at Tarim River Basin and prefectures exists a positive correlation, and the influence of the order is same as the fertilization amount with planting efficiency growth. On this basis, it proposes suggestions on farmers reasonable fertilization. Key words: Tarim River Basin; Fertilization; Plant production value
Policy Implication of the Awareness and Use of Biotechnology Products Among Farmers in Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria
EC Matthews-Njoku, OM Adesope
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2008,
Abstract: The study investigated awareness of and extent of the use of biotechnology products among farmers in Aboh-Mbaise local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 60 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean scores. The study revealed that majority (88.3 percent) of the respondents are aware of the existence of biotechnology products and majority (76.7 percent) of the respondents use biotechnology products. It was observed that genetically modified cassava variety is the most used biotech product in the study area as it scored a mean of 3.25 followed by biotech maize and tree crops which scored means of 2.68 and 2.67 respectively. It was also revealed that genetically modified cassava varieties was the most available biotech product in the study area, and closely followed by biotech tree crops. In the same vein biotech cassava variety is the most used biotech product in the study area. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made: There is need for adequate and proper education of farmers about biotechnology and its relative advantages. Adequate extension policy on availability of genetically modified yam, cowpeas, sorghum, millet and vegetables will meet help to meet the needs of the farmers and other end users. It is only if they are available that they can be utilized.
Climate change and food security: The role of biotechnology
W Quaye, RM Yawson, ES Ayeh, I Yawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several climate change related factors including temperature increases, changes in rainfall patterns and outbreak of pests and diseases negatively affect agricultural productivity and food security. Climate change effects significantly increase production risk and rural vulnerability, particularly in regions that already suffer from chronic soil and water resource scarcity or high exposure to climatic extremes, such as droughts and flooding. The effects of climate change on agriculture may depend not only on changing climate conditions, but also on the agricultural sector’s ability to adapt through changes in technology and demand for food. Significant proportions of the growing populations in developing countries derive their livelihoods from agriculture and are, therefore, vulnerable to climate change effects. The task of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, as per Millennium Development Goals, will require both regional and global research efforts and concrete actions among which biotechnology adoption plays a key role. Advances in biotechnology can lead to cutting-edge technologies in agriculture. However, sub-Saharan Africa faces an uphill task with regard to the adoption and use of agricultural biotechnology. The potential to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers is a strong incentive to meet the challenge. This paper reviews research work on climate change in relation to increasing food insecurity situation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the significance of plant biotechnology in reversing the disturbing food insecurity trends on the continent. To move plant biotechnology forward, the paper recommends that African countries institutionalize effective bio-safety regulatory frameworks, and commit resources to capacity building and provision of infrastructure for biotechnology development. Funding of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) related research into tropical and sub-tropical staple foods, suitable for the needs of small-scale farmers in SSA countries, is strongly recommended. There is also the need for researchers to engage in effective education and communication with the general public so as to enhance adoption of biotechnological products in Africa.
Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study
Christopher P Lewis, James N Newell, Caroline M Herron, Haidari Nawabu
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-407
Abstract: Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes.Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities.This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which to tackle issues of food security, provide improved health and drive development.Good nutrition forms a foundation for human health and development, and the link between poor nutrition and poor health has long been established [1]. Food security, "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life" [2], represents a major cause for concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Poor nutrition is a signific
Diagnostic research to enable adoption of transgenic crop varieties by smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Melinda Smale, Hugo De Groote
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: Diagnostic research is important in helping to create an enabling environment for promising biotechnology products in smallholder agriculture, before rather than after release. The biotechnology products that now hold promise for poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa are those that tackle economically important, biotic or abiotic problems not easily addressed through conventional plant breeding or pest control, in crops that serve for food as well as cash, while posing little risk of endangering trade. Two biotechnology products we have selected for social science research in East Africa, Bt maize in Kenya and pest and disease resistance in the East African highland banana, meet these criteria. Preliminary research suggests that the expression of the trait is much more visible to farmers in maize than in bananas; for either crop, for different reasons, bottlenecks will be encountered in planting materials systems; and despite differing crop reproduction systems, transgenic varieties of either share the same environmental hazard of heightened genetic uniformity in the inserted trait relative to conventionally bred varieties. Aside from the performance of the technology, many factors that have incidence at national, regional, and farm levels will affect the likelihood that farmers will adopt transgenic varieties. Social science research can help pinpoint necessary complementary investments.
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