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Social class and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa
D Buor
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2005,
Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to test hypotheses on social class variables as determinants of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to structure a schematic model for the relationship on the impact of social class on HIV/AIDS prevalence. World Bank data, 2002 World Development Indicators, are used for the analyses. Interactive graphs, with a combination of regression lines, are used as the main instruments of analysis. The indicators of social class used for the analysis are education, women's education, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, level of poverty, urbanisation and contraceptive usage. Inbound tourist movement is included in the analysis, though not directly linked with social class, due to it being an emerging factor in the spread of the pandemic. Education has turned out to be the main determinant of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Inbound tourism movement has emerged as an important factor in the prevalence of the disease, after education. Defects of quality of data would not be far fetched, given the lack of logistics and financial resources of most governments for the exercise, possible political manipulations and ideological biases. It is recommended that primary research at individual country levels be carried out on the effectiveness of the use of condoms, and the social class and tourist movement factors on HIV/AIDS prevalence to confirm the sub-regional findings. Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 25(2) 2005: 66- 79
Pediatric imaging: Current and emerging techniques  [cached]
Shenoy-Bhangle A,Nimkin K,Gee M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Imaging has always been an important component of the clinical evaluation of pediatric patients. Rapid technological advances in imaging are making noninvasive evaluation of a wide range of pediatric diseases possible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two imaging modalities that do not involve ionizing radiation and are preferred imaging modalities in the pediatric population. Computed tomography (CT) remains the imaging modality with the highest increase in utilization in children due to its widespread availability and rapid image acquisition. Emerging imaging applications to be discussed include MR urography, voiding urosonography with use of ultrasound contrast agents, CT dose reduction techniques, MR enterography for inflammatory bowel disease, and MR cine airway imaging.
Health transitions in sub-Saharan Africa: overview of mortality trends in children under 5 years old (1950-2000)
Garenne,Michel; Gakusi,Enéas;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000600016
Abstract: objective: to reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-saharan africa between 1950 and 2000. methods: we selected 66 demographic and health surveys and world fertility surveys from 32 african countries for analysis. death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. when several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. we tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. findings: a quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. in eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric aids. reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. conclusion: overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-saharan africa during the second half of the twentieth century. however, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. the main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases.
Understanding the Scourge of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa
Inungu Joseph,Karl Sarah
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-8-4-30
Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of the world that has been hit hardest by the HIV epidemic. To fight the spread of HIV in the continent, it is necessary to know and effectively address the factors that drive the spread of HIV. The purpose of this article is to review the factors associated with the spread of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and to propose 6 essential activities, which we refer to by the acronym "ESCAPER," to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa.
Actinobaculum schaalii an emerging pediatric pathogen?  [cached]
Zimmermann Petra,Berlinger Livia,Liniger Benjamin,Grunt Sebastian
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-201
Abstract: Background Actinobaculum schaalii was first described as a causative agent for human infection in 1997. Since then it has mainly been reported causing urinary tract infections (UTI) in elderly individuals with underlying urological diseases. Isolation and identification is challenging and often needs molecular techniques. A. schaalii is increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans, however data in children is very limited. Case presentation We present the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian boy suffering from myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder who presented with a UTI. An ultrasound of the urinary tract was unremarkable. Urinalysis and microscopy showed an elevated leukocyte esterase test, pyuria and a high number of bacteria. Empiric treatment with oral co-trimoxazole was started. Growth of small colonies of Gram-positive rods was observed after 48 h. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed an A. schaalii infection 9 days later. Treatment was changed to oral amoxicillin for 14 days. On follow-up urinalysis was normal and urine cultures were negative. Conclusions A.schaalii is an emerging pathogen in adults and children. Colonization and subsequent infection seem to be influenced by the age of the patient. In young children with high suspicion of UTI who use diapers or in children who have known abnormalities of their urogenital tract, infection with A. schaalii should be considered and empiric antimicrobial therapy chosen accordingly.
Issues and Emerging Trends in Identity Management  [cached]
Manish Snehi,Jyoti Snehi,Renu Dhir
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In today’s digital age as companies are moving more and more amounts of important, sensitive data, information, applications, and infrastructure online there is a need to establish and maintain credentials on all the connected and disconnected systems, and grant rights or access to users. The main goal is to manage physical and logical resources and relate them to owners. Identity Management is emerging as a significant technology to help in handling the complexity of today’s Business companies, dealing with security in the virtualized environment, strong authentication and dealing with threats from Insiders. This paper attempts to provide direction toward some of the issues, Challenges and Trends in Identity Management. Emerging Trends in Information technology involves identity audit, automated compliance, Role lifecycle management, authorization, Information centric identity, E-SSO and strong authentication, Open ID, Infocards, CardSpace, Governance, Identity management as a service, Risk management, and Compliance Modularity.
Emerging health issues of cyanobacterial blooms
Manganelli,Maura; Scardala,Simona; Stefanelli,Mara; Palazzo,Francesca; Funari,Enzo; Vichi,Susanna; Buratti,Franca Maria; Testai,Emanuela;
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità , 2012, DOI: 10.4415/ANN_12_04_09
Abstract: this paper describes emerging issue related to cyanobacterial dynamics and toxicity and human health risks. data show an increasing cyanobacteria expansion and dominance in many environments. however there are still few information on the toxic species fitness, or on the effects of specific drivers on toxin production. open research fields are related to new exposure scenario (cyanotoxins in water used for haemodialysis and in food supplements); to new patterns of co-exposure between cyanotoxins and algal toxins and/or anthropogenic chemicals; to dynamics affecting toxicity and production of different cyanotoxin variants under environmental stress; to the accumulation of cyanotoxins in the food web. in addition, many data gaps exist in the characterization of the toxicological profiles, especially about long term effects.
Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues  [PDF]
R.C. Andrew Thompson,Susan J. Kutz,Andrew Smith
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6020678
Abstract: The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact.
Stigma of People with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review  [PDF]
Ngozi C. Mbonu,Bart van den Borne,Nanne K. De Vries
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/145891
Abstract: The aim of this literature review is to elucidate what is known about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa was systematically searched in Pubmed, Medscape, and Psycinfo up to March 31, 2009. No starting date limit was specified. The material was analyzed using Gilmore and Somerville's (1994) four processes of stigmatizing responses: the definition of the problem HIV/AIDS, identification of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), linking HIV/AIDS to immorality and other negative characteristics, and finally behavioural consequences of stigma (distancing, isolation, discrimination in care). It was found that the cultural construction of HIV/AIDS, based on beliefs about contamination, sexuality, and religion, plays a crucial role and contributes to the strength of distancing reactions and discrimination in society. Stigma prevents the delivery of effective social and medical care (including taking antiretroviral therapy) and also enhances the number of HIV infections. More qualitative studies on HIV/AIDS stigma including stigma in health care institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa are recommended.
Male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: Successes, challenges and way forward  [PDF]
Fatch W. Kalembo, Du Yukai, Maggie Zgambo, Qiu Jun
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21006
Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of mother to child transmissions of HIV. PMTCT programme plays a big role in reducing the MTCT nevertheless its effectiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa depends on involvement of male partners considering the fact that men are decision makers in African families. They make important decisions that have big impact on women’s health. Male partner involvement has been seen to increase uptake of PMTCT services and their involvement underscores their importance in reducing HIV infection in children. Recently many sub-Saharan countries adopted male partner involvement in PMTCT programme with an aim of increasing the uptake of PMTCT services. The programme has made some progress in improving the effectiveness of PMTCT services. On the other hand the strategy is facing a lot of challenges, the biggest being low male partner involvement. This article therefore seeks to review the successes and challenges faced by male involvement in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also proposes the way forward in order to improve its effectiveness. We used peer reviewed articles of research studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa and other related reliable sources of data to write the paper.
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