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The Nutritional and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Kunun-zaki Produced with the Addition of Hydrolytic Enzymes from Malted Rice (Oryza sativa)
O Akoma, S.A. Onuoha, M.O. Ajiboye, A.O. Akoma, A.M. Alawoki
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2002,
Abstract: Kunun-zaki was produced from millet (Pennisetum typhodeum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or maize (Zea mays) with or without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes obtained from ground-malted rice (Oryza sativa FARO 37) and analyzed for its chemical and organoleptic quality attributes. The results obtained show that there were 33, 44, 66% increases in crude protein 52, 117 and 91% increases in sucrose contents in those products (i.e. kunun-zaki produced from millet, sorghum and maize respectively) in which the extracts from ground-malted rice were incorporated. A similar increase was observed in acidity, iron, calcium and phosphorus contents. Furthermore, the sensory attributes of kunun-zaki produced using extracts from ground-malted rice did not differ (p>0.05) from the other products in appearance, taste, texture and sensory overall acceptability but differed (p<0.05) in aroma, which could be attributed to the production of more organic acids in these products by the fermenting microorganisms. The result obtained in this study therefore suggests that it could be economical and nutritious to use malted cereal grains in the production of kunun-zaki. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 7 No.1, 2002, pp. 24-26
Microbiological and Nutritional Quality of Hawked Kunun (A Sorghum Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage) Widely Consumed in Nigeria  [PDF]
N.A. Amusa,O.A. Odunbaku
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The microbiological and nutritional quality of freshly processed and hawked kunun drinks in South Western Nigeria was investigated at Ibadan, Nigeria. The microbes found associated with both the hawked and the laboratory prepared kunun samples are Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus sutilis, B. cereus, Streptococus feaceaum, S. lactis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus acidiophilis, Escherishai coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Saccharomysces cerevisiae, Candida mycoderma, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium oxysporum. However, the freshly processed kunun drinks harbored no coliform bacteria. The crude protein content of the hawked kunun drinks was found higher than that of the laboratory processed kunun samples, while the PH of the Kunun zaki drinks were highest in the laboratory processed samples. However, there were no significant differences between the carbohydrates contents of the laboratory processed kunun drinks sample and that of the hawked kunun drinks.
Effect of Processing on Nutritional, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Kunun-Zaki (A Sorghum Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage) Widely Consumed in Nigeria
N.A. Amusa,O.A. Ashaye
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The effect of processing on Nutritional, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Kunun-Zaki widely consumed was investigated at Ibadan Nigeria. The result of the analysis indicated that the highest % crude protein was found in the Kunun zaki samples from the Unseieved kunun flour followed by kunun samples from sieve kunun flour, while the least % crude protein was found in Traditionally processed kunun samples. There were no significant differences between the carbohydrates content of the traditionally processed kunun zaki and that processed using kunun flour. The PH of the traditionally processed Kunun zaki drinks were highest followed by kunun drinks processed from sieved kunun flour, while the least was found in kunun drinks processed from sieved kunun flour. The yeast and lactic acid bacterial count were highest in the traditionally processed kunun drink samples followed by kunun drinks processed from sieved kunun flour, while they were absent in kunun drinks processed from unseieved kunun flour. Coliform counts were found to be highest in the traditional processed kunun drinks, while the least count were obtained in kunun drinks from unseieved kunun flour. The traditionally processed kunun drinks was most preferred in terms of color, followed by kunun drinks from the sieved kunun flour while the least was found with kunun drinks from unseieved kunun flour. With regards to taste and texture, there was no significant difference between the kunun drinks traditionally processed and that from the sieved kunun flour, however, these were significantly different from the kunun drinks from the unseieved kunun flour.
Influence of malting on the nutritional characteristics of kunun-zaki
O Akoma, EA Jiya, DD Akumka, E Mshelia
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Kunun-zaki, a traditional fermented cereal beverage was produced in this study using various combinations of malted cereals (millet, sorghum singularly or in combination with rice) and, were evaluated for its nutritional composition using chemical, organoleptic and growth studies and as well as the analysis of blood samples of the sacrificed animals. The results obtained show that the weaning albino rats fed with laboratory diet and kunun-zaki produced by the addition of ground malted rice to millet for 14 days gained more weight (27.7 g) and was significantly different (p< 0.05) from the other products. A similar trend was observed in the lymphocyte count. The crude protein, crude fat and calcium contents of kunun-zaki produced with the addition of malted rice to millet were higher (0.74%,0.53% and 88 ppm) than the other products. A similar trend was observed in the titratable acidity and pH(0.76% lactic acid, 4.78), respectively, at the end of fermentation period. Furthermore, kunun-zaki produced by the addition of ground-malted rice to millet was generally preferred organoleptically (aroma and taste) and was significantly different (p< 0.05) from the other products. This study has shown that use of malted cereals improved the nutritional quality of the kunun-zaki. Also, the elevated lymphocyte counts obtained in the blood samples of animals fed with kunun-zaki produced using combinations of malted cereals is indicative of its medicinal attributes, a concept widely believed by its numerous consumers
Innovations in the Traditional Kunun Zaki Production Process  [PDF]
Gaffa Terna,J.A. Ayo
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: The traditional kunun zaki production process has been improved upon. The usual 24 hours process has been shortened to a maximum of 12 hours. Steeping of the grains in warm water with 5% sodium metabisulphite help in softening them. Liquefaction and saccharification of gelatinized sorghum starch with sweet potato and Cadaba farinosa crude extracts did not increase the amount of reducing sugar after 6 hours of incubation. Similarly, the specific density of the slurry remained the same after 6 hours of incubation with the crude enzyme extracts. Due to shortened saccharification process, the nutrient content of kunun zaki from improved process was a bit higher. The protein content was 5.4 and 4.1% for the improved and traditional processes respectively. The product from improved process was preferred to that in the traditional process.
Effects of Annealing and Removal of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Dry-Milled Rice Flour on the Texture of Cooked Rice Noodles  [PDF]
Soo Young Choi, Bong Kyung Koh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.810064
Abstract: Rice noodles were prepared using dry-milled rice flours, which were treated by annealing and removing the water-soluble fraction to improve the quality of noodles without using chemical additives. The combined treatment (TC) with annealing and water-soluble fraction removal decreased the cooking losses for Goamibyeo but not for Chenmaai and Milyang260, which had soft kernels and contained less damaged starch than the hard kernel rice after milling. TC significantly reduced the hardness and adhesiveness of cooked noodles, and increased the cohesiveness according to the texture profile analysis. A sensory evaluation detected an increase in mouth feel firmness and elasticity of cooked TC noodles. These results indicate that annealing at room temperature for 3 h followed by the removal of the water-soluble fraction is effective for reducing the cooking losses and improving the textural properties of noodles made from rice flour with high starch damage.
Sorghum used to fodder production in dry farming
A. Pistoia,P. Poli,L. Casarosa,G. Balestri
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.342
Abstract: In Italy water deficient increase forward to cultivate resistant crops for forage production. In the present research it has been studied the opportunity of using 2 varieties of sorghum: the “Sweet Creek”, used as green forage and for silage and the “True”, with thinner stalks, used as hay. The fodder production and the dhurrin content during the vegetative phase of the 2 varieties were recorded. Production and chemical characteristics of green and preserved fodders (hay and silage) were determined; moreover the nutritive value and the in vitro digestibility of DM were measured. Results confirm the good adaptation of the sorghum to the water limited conditions as those ones in which the test has been carried out; green and preserved fodders yield were high, however during the hay harvest problems due to the different drying dynamics of leaves and stalks were found. The dhurrin content of these two varieties, even in the young phase, allows the use for grazing of the regrown, which have good bunching.
EVALUATION OF HYBRID SORGHUM FOR SILAGE THROUGH IN SITU DEGRADABILITY
ROGéRIA MARTINS CARDOSO,DANIEL ANANIAS DE ASSIS PIRES,VICENTE RIBEIRO ROCHA JúNIOR,SIDNEI TAVARES DOS REIS
Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo , 2012,
Abstract: The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate in situ degradability and the degradation kineticsof dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of silages of three sorghum genotypes. Twoisogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMSXS 114 and CMSXS 165) and one sorghum hybrid (double purpose, BR-700)were used. The plantation of the genotypes was carried out in summer/2009, in seedbeds 5 m long, 3 m wide and 0.75m row spacing. After cutting, the material was ensilaged. After the opening of the silos the samples were pre-dried,milled and stored in glass bottles for analyses of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber,hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin, pH, NH3/NT and in situ digestibility of the dry matter. An entirely randomizedexperimental design was used, with four replications and four treatments, and the means were compared by the Tukeytest at 5% significance. As for degradation rate of DM, the ensilage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior toall of the treatments. The isogenic line genotype without tannin (CMSXS 165) presented greater effective degradabilityof CP than the line with tannin (CMSXS 114). Thus, the results found in this experiment allow concluding that thepresence of tannin can reduce the rumen degradability of the dry matter and crude protein of the ensilages.
Dry Matter Yield, Chemical Components and Dry Matter Degradability of Ten Sorghum Cultivars (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Grown on Oxic Paleustult Soil  [PDF]
S. Pholsen,S. Kasikranan?,Pimpaporn Pholsen??,A. Suksri
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1998,
Abstract: An experiment on ten sorghum cultivars with respect to growth and feed quality was carried out at Khon Kaen University Farm during rainy season of 1996. The experiment was laid in a randomised complete block design with four replications. The plant samples were taken at days 90 and 160 after emergence. The plant materials were used for the determinations of dry matter yield per plant, extractable juice concentration, crude protein (CP), neutral and acid detergent fibre contents (NDF and ADF) and dry matter degradability (DMD). The results showed that with the first cutting, the first three highest dry matter yield were with Rio, IS 23585, and E 35-1 whilst Suphan Buri 1, UT 470-2 and U-Thong 1 gave the highest extractable juice concentration. All cultivars gave CP content not exceeded 7 per cent and the first four lowest cultivars for NDF and ADF contents were with IS 23585, PB 12891, Suphan Buri 1 and Rio. The contents of CP, NDF, and ADF of the second cutting were lesser than the first cutting. The highest values of DMD were found with E 35-1, UT 470-2, and Suphan Buri 1 for the first cutting whilst the second cutting was with Rio, IS 23585, UT 538-B, PB 12891 and E 35-1. Out of the ten sorghum cultivars being used, IS 23585 and Rio could be considered as the best cultivars for feed stuffs of ruminant animals.
Evaluation of poultry litter on sorghum straw intake and dry matter disappearance using dry cows
álvarez Zapata, Ramón;Combellas Láres, Jorge;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982005000200028
Abstract: an experiment was carried out to evaluate supplementation of sorghum straw (ss) with poultry litter (pl) in a single offering/day, and minerals and their effects on feed intake, sorghum straw dry matter disappearance (dmd) in nylon bags and rumen liquid ammonia n concentration. a 4x4 latin square design with 17-day periods and four rumen fistulated stalled cows was used to compare four treatments: (0) ss alone, (m) ss + mineral mixture offered ad libitum (p) ss + 1 kg/day of a concentrate with 83.5 % pl and (pm) ss + supplements used in m and p. the concentrate was offered in one meal and rumen n concentration increased to just over 100 mg/l between 1 and 3 h after feeding, decreasing to less than 50 mg/l after 7 h, levels similar to those on treatments without pl. dry matter disappearance at 72 h and feed intake increased by the addition of concentrate, but not by mineral supplementation. these results show that the effect of supplementation with pl was due mainly to degradable nitrogen and not by the minerals. a single offering/day is not enough to maintain recommended ammonia n concentrations during most of the day.
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