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Oxidase-like Function by Apo-Transferrin towards Manganese(III) Chelates  [cached]
Takahiro Satoh,Keita Abe,Yuzo Nishida
International Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v4n3p10
Abstract: We have observed that oxidation of Mn(III) ion in several manganese chelates to a Mn(IV) state occurs in the presence of apo-transferrin, and at the same time facile up-take of manganese ion by apo-transferrin proceeds. This clearly shows that much manganese ions can be transported to the brain by transferrin under the certain conditions, which may lead to manganism. Based on these results we have prepared the new chelate to capture only the Mn(III) and Mn(IV) ions selectively, but not Mn(II) ion, and to remove these manganese ions from the solution without toxicity.
EFFECT OF THE COW AGE GROUP AND LACTATION STAGE ON THE COUNT OF SOMATIC CELLS IN COW MILK
Beata SITKOWSKA
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the paper was to evaluate the effect of the cow age group and lactation stage on the count of somatic cells in cow milk. The analysis was made based on the breeding documentation of 11359 test yields from cows representing twelve herds in the Kujawy and Pomorze Province. All the animals researched calved for the first time in 2001. The numerical data were verified statistically with the analysis of variance following GLM procedure, considering the effect of the herd, father, sampling month, cow groups (primiparas, multiparas), lactation stage at which the sample was taken. The effect of these factors on basic milking yield and the content of somatic cells were mostly highly significant. It was observed that depending on the milk use length in cows during lactation, the content of somatic cells in milk increased, and the yield of milk, fat and protein decreased.
The dynamics of changeability of fatty acid profile in woman, cow and sow milk during lactation
Ma gorzata Adamczyk, Jerzy Truchliński, Ma gorzata Gorzel, Jan Matras
Annales UMCS, Zootechnica , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10083-012-0001-5
Abstract: Changes in fatty acid profile of woman, cow and sow colostrum and milk fat during lactation were investigated. Colostrum samples were taken 2 times: a few hours postpartum and then 2-3 days postpartum. Also, milk samples were collected 2 times. The first collection from each 3 investigated species took place in 2nd week of lactation and the second collection - in 4th, 6th and 3rd month of lactation from women, cows and sows, respectively. The level of linoleic acid in the colostrum and milk of women gradually decreased during lactation, whereas linolenic acid gradually increased until 2nd week of lactation, after which its level slighty decreased. In cow milk fat, the linoleic acid was stable during the two first weeks of lactation, then its content decreased. The level of linolenic acid increased (from 0.74 to 1.14%) within the investigated 6 months of lactation. The percentage of arachidonic acid also slightly increased (from 0.41% to about 0.50%). High linoleic content in sow colostrum (2.6-3.1%) decreased considerably in milk fat (1.8%). The lowest (0.3%) linolenic acid content in colostrum increased gradually with time of lactation up to 0.8% in 3rd month postpartum.
Trans-Generational Effect of Maternal Lactation during Pregnancy: A Holstein Cow Model  [PDF]
Oscar González-Recio, Eva Ugarte, Alex Bach
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051816
Abstract: Epigenetic regulation in mammals begins in the first stages of embryogenesis. This prenatal programming determines, in part, phenotype expression in adult life. Some species, particularly dairy cattle, are conceived during the maternal lactation, which is a period of large energy and nutrient needs. Under these circumstances, embryo and fetal development compete for nutrients with the mammary gland, which may affect prenatal programming and predetermine phenotype at adulthood. Data from a specialized dairy breed were used to determine the transgenerational effect when embryo development coincides with maternal lactation. Longitudinal phenotypic data for milk yield (kg), ratio of fat-protein content in milk during first lactation, and lifespan (d) from 40,065 cows were adjusted for environmental and genetic effects using a Bayesian framework. Then, the effect of different maternal circumstances was determined on the residuals. The maternal-related circumstances were 1) presence of lactation, 2) maternal milk yield level, and 3) occurrence of mastitis during embryogenesis. Females born to mothers that were lactating while pregnant produced 52 kg (MonteCarlo standard error; MCs.e. = 0.009) less milk, lived 16 d (MCs.e. = 0.002) shorter and were metabolically less efficient (+0.42% milk fat/protein ratio; MCs.e.<0.001) than females whose fetal life developed in the absence of maternal lactation. The greater the maternal milk yield during embryogenesis, the larger the negative effects of prenatal programming, precluding the offspring born to the most productive cows to fully express their potential additive genetic merit during their adult life. Our data provide substantial evidence of transgenerational effect when pregnancy and lactation coincide. Although this effect is relatively low, it should not be ignored when formulating rations for lactating and pregnant cows. Furthermore, breeding, replacement, and management strategies should also take into account whether the individuals were conceived during maternal lactation because, otherwise, their performance may deviate from what it could be expected.
Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation
Mina Martini,Francesca Cecchi,Cosima Scolozzi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2006,
Abstract: The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter < 6um is positively correlated (P<0.01) with the percentage of dry matter and lipids, whereas the greater presence of globules with a diameter >6 um was associated (P<0.01) with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............
Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation  [cached]
Mina Martini,Francesca Cecchi,Cosima Scolozzi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2006.349
Abstract: The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter < 6um is positively correlated (P<0.01) with the percentage of dry matter and lipids, whereas the greater presence of globules with a diameter >6 um was associated (P<0.01) with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............
Role of chelates in treatment of cancer  [cached]
Tripathi Laxmi,Kumar Praveen,Singhai A
Indian Journal of Cancer , 2007,
Abstract: Chelates are used in cancer as cytotoxic agent, as radioactive agent in imaging studies and in radioimmunotherapy. Various chelates based on ruthenium, copper, zinc, organocobalt, gold, platinum, palladium, cobalt, nickel and iron are reported as cytotoxic agent. Monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioactive metals such as yttrium-90, indium-111 and iodine-131 are used in radioimmunotherapy. This review is an attempt to compile the use of chelates as cytotoxic drugs and in radioimmunotherapy.
SOCS3-Mediated Blockade Reveals Major Contribution of JAK2/STAT5 Signaling Pathway to Lactation and Proliferation of Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells in Vitro  [PDF]
Yu-Ling Huang,Feng Zhao,Chao-Chao Luo,Xia Zhang,Yu Si,Zhe Sun,Li Zhang,Qing-Zhang Li,Xue-Jun Gao
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules181012987
Abstract: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a cytokine-induced negative feedback-loop regulator of cytokine signaling. More and more evidence has proved it to be an inhibitor of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5). Here, we used dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) to analyze the function of SOCS3 and the interaction between SOCS3 and STAT5a. The expression of SOCS3 was found in cytoplasm and nucleus of DCMECs by fluorescent immunostaining. Overexpression and inhibition of SOCS3 brought a remarkable milk protein synthesis change through the regulation of JAK2/STAT5a pathway activity, and SOCS3 expression also decreased SREBP-1c expression and fatty acid synthesis. Inhibited STAT5a activation correlated with reduced SOCS3 expression, which indicated that SOCS3 gene might be one of the targets of STAT5a activation, DCMECs treated with L-methionine (Met) resulted in a decrease of SOCS3 expression. SOCS3 could also decrease cell proliferation and viability by CASY-TT detection. Together, our findings indicate that SOCS3 acts as an inhibitor of JAK2/STAT5a pathway and disturbs fatty acid synthesis by decreasing SREBP-1c expression, which validates its involvement in both milk protein synthesis and fat synthesis. In aggregate, these results reveal that low SOCS3 expression is required for milk synthesis and proliferation of DCMECs in vitro.
Productive level and energy balance in buffalo cow  [cached]
F. Infascelli,C. De Rosa,L. Amante,F. Zicarelli
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.204
Abstract: Buffalo cow, at the beginning of lactation, shows a decrease in DM intake which determines a condition of physiologic hyponutrition (Campanile et al., 1997). In order to ensure physiologic haematic levels of glucose, the organism mobilizes the fat deposits and muscle proteins. Aim of present study was to evaluate the loss of body weight during the first months of lactation and the energy required for standard milk production in buffalo cow........
Productive response of dairy cows to a supplementation with methionine hydroxy analog  [cached]
G. Cozzi,P. Berzaghi,S. Segato,I. Andrighetto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.222
Abstract: Methionine and lysine have been identified most frequently as first-limiting essential amino acids in the protein nutrition of dairy cattle (NRC, 2001). According to Patton (1996), 50- 75% of the methionine requirement of a high producing dairy cow is covered by the microbial protein synthesized in the rumen, while the remaining amount should arise from the contribution of the ruminally undegraded feed protein. Soybean proteins are not a good source of by-pass methionine in comparison to animal-derived proteins such as meat or fish meal (Cozzi et al., 1995). Therefore, the ban of the use of animal protein sources for ruminant feeding due to the BSE crisis has made more difficult the fulfillment of the methionine requirement in the lactating cow,........
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