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Tailoring ECC for Special Attributes: A Review
Victor C. Li
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s40069-012-0018-8
Abstract: This article reviews the tailoring of engineered cementitious composites (ECC), a type of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites with a theoretical design basis, for special attributes or functions. The design basis, a set of analytic tools built on micromechanics, provides guidelines for tailoring of fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interfaces to attain tensile ductility in ECC. If conditions for controlled multiple cracking are disturbed by the need to introduce ingredients to attain a special attribute or function, micromechanics then serve as a systematic and rational means to efficiently recover composite tensile ductility. Three examples of ECCs with attributes of lightweight, high early strength, and self-healing functions, are used to illustrate these tailoring concepts. The fundamental approach, however, is broadly applicable to a wide variety of ECCs designed for targeted fresh and/or hardened characteristics required for specific applications.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Identification of Practical Pharmacology Skills Useful for Good Clinical Practice
C Ramachandra Bhat,V. Shilpa, R. Divya
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Awareness about animal ethics is increasing everywhere. This increased awareness coupled with strict regulations discouraging the use of animals for routine experiments have tied the hands of many pharmacologists. They are now forced to develop alternative experiments without using animals. At present, there is acute need to come out with more innovative and useful practical exercises for pharmacology practical sessions. In this background, the present study was undertaken to develop the much-needed alternative experiments. Aims and Objective: To identify new pharmacological practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Material and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 110 doctors of different categories like house surgeons, postgraduate students, assistant professors and professors who are working in a tertiary care hospital. They were asked to give their suggestions regarding new pharmacology practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Statistical analysis: Responses of the participants to the questions asked were tabulated and analyzed. Suggestions given by them were listed out and studied. Results: Use of emergency drugs, dosage calculation, drugs used in pregnancy, case discussions and prescription writing exercises received a lot of support from the participants. Research methodology, cost calculation, animal experiments and interpretation of data of animal experiments did not receive support from the participants. Suggestions given by the participants regarding useful pharmacological skills belonged to the areas like therapeutics, safe use of drugs, recent advances, analysis of information given by the medical representatives and analyzing articles in journals for knowing the efficacy of drugs. Conclusion: Exercises relevant to the clinical practice, as identified in this study, can be introduced as practical pharmacology exercises. Steps are to be taken to highlight the importance of research methodology and pharmaco-economics to the undergraduates.
International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA): does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?
Stephens JM, Handke B, Doshi JA
Comparative Effectiveness Research , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CER.S22984
Abstract: ternational survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA): does practice meet the principles proposed for good research? Original Research (2373) Total Article Views Authors: Stephens JM, Handke B, Doshi JA Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 29 - 44 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CER.S22984 Received: 23 May 2011 Accepted: 17 May 2012 Published: 31 August 2012 Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) HTA Special Interest Group (SIG) 1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA) and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process. Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1) organizational information and process, (2) primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3) HTA application and dissemination, and (4) quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles. Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3), Canada (n = 2), Europe (n = 17), Latin America (n = 2), and the United States (n = 6). The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy), cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence, and data availability for emerging technologies. Conclusion: This is the first international survey to specifically assess the state of HTA research methods. Future efforts should expand the respondent sample to include more emerging markets and update the results of this survey to specifically address additional aspects of research methods in HTA.
International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA): does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?  [cached]
Stephens JM,Handke B,Doshi JA
Comparative Effectiveness Research , 2012,
Abstract: Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) HTA Special Interest Group (SIG)1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA) and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process.Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1) organizational information and process, (2) primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3) HTA application and dissemination, and (4) quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles.Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3), Canada (n = 2), Europe (n = 17), Latin America (n = 2), and the United States (n = 6). The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy), cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence, and data availability for emerging technologies.Conclusion: This is the first international survey to specifically assess the state of HTA research methods. Future efforts should expand the respondent sample to include more emerging markets and update the results of this survey to specifically address additional aspects of research methods in HTA.Keywords: survey, technology assessment, payers, research methods, reimbursement
Special Article Ethics and Electronic Health Information Technology: Challenges for Evidence-Based Medicine and the Physician–Patient Relationship
ID Norman, MK Aikins, FN Binka
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), and the National Identification Authority (NIA), pose ethical challenges to the physician-patient relationship due to interoperability. This paper explores (1) the national legislation on Electronic Health Information Technology (EHIT), (2) the ethics of information technology and public health and (3) the effect on the Physician-patient relationship. Method: This study consisted of systematic literature and internet review of the legislation, information technology, the national health insurance program, and the physician-patient relationship. Result: The result shows that (1) EHIT have eroded a big part of the confidentiality between the physician and patient; (2) The encroachment on privacy is an inevitable outcome of EHIT; (3) Legislation on privacy, the collection, storage and uses of electronic health information is needed and; (4) the nexus between EHIT, NHIS, NHA, Ethics, the physicianpatient relationship and privacy. Conclusion: The study highlights the lack of protection for physician-patient relationship as medical practice transitions from the conventional to the modern, information technology driven domain.
Affordances of Sensory Garden towards Learning and Self Development of Special Schooled Children  [cached]
Hazreena Hussein
International Journal of Psychological Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijps.v4n1p135
Abstract: This study examined the design and use of a sensory garden, located in a special school in the United Kingdom, by evaluating their zones and how they are utilized, with a focus on children with special needs, and their adult carers. The potential for users’ physical engagement with the attributes, whether the physical activity was accessible or if opportunities are not being actualized because of barriers were looked into. Interviews, observation and behaviour mapping methods were applied in conjunction with affordance theory. The study was supported with a few noteworthy events recorded as anecdotal evidence to illustrate on the users’ experience in a sensory learning environment. The researcher had discovered that the layout of pathways and pathway connectivity have a significant influence on how users engage with the attributes in the sensory garden. This main finding should assist to inform the theory and practice of designers when they create future sensory gardens in special schools.
Preferences of people living with diabetes for the aspects of good pharmaceutical practice  [PDF]
Bondarenko, Ksenia,Danyliv, Andriy
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: People living with diabetes (PLD) have special needs which could be effectively and efficiently addressed at the stage of pharmaceutical care. We analyzed preferences of PLD in Kyiv for services that could be potentially implemented in a specialized pharmacy.METHODS: We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to elicit preferences for pharmacist’s consultation, possibility of testing, and the availability of special products. The pharmacy was described with 3 attributes having 2 levels and 2 attributes having 3 levels. The analysis is based on interviews with 98 PLD. Respondents were recruited either in the in-patient unit of Kyiv endocrinology center or through snow-ball approach between January 2012 and March 2012. The DCE part consisted of 12 choice tasks (orthogonal fractional factorial design). To reduce the number of choices per respondent, the DCE was split into two experiments of 6 choices each. Respondents were randomly assigned to either DCE. Logistic regression xtlogit was used to model DCE responses using STATA version 11.0. RESULTS: Pharmacist’s consultation regarding the use of drugs, their compatibility, and special diet was the most important choice factor among PLD (marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) was 23.38 UAH), followed by the possibility of controlling the blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels, (MWTP is 21.68 UAH) and the availability of specialized products (MWTP is 13.57 UAH). Time for purchase (including travel and waiting) did not significantly affect the choice of pharmacy.CONCLUSIONS: Respondents gave mostly meaningful answers to the DCE and the model is theoretically valid. PLD are willing to spend time on traveling to the specialized pharmacy with Good Pharmacy Practice GPP services. Conclusively, introduction of the pharmacy with special focus on PLD has good potential in Kyiv as they are ready to spend additional time and money to obtain proper services.
The Difference Degree of Condition Attributes and Its Application in the Reduction of Attributes
Taorong Qiu,Yuyuan Li,Xiaoming Bai
Journal of Computers , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.7.5.1087-1091
Abstract: The attribute reduction based on rough set usually reflects the essence of information table and it is the key content of rough set theory. With the analysis of the difference degree between equivalence classes or tolerance classes based on rough set theory, a measure for the importance of attributes was introduced. And based on the measure, a method of the reduction of attributes was proposed and a corresponding reduction algorithm was designed. This method is applicable to a complete information system and incomplete information system. In the algorithm, the measure was used as heuristic factor to find a reduction subset. And also, the approximation quality of classification was applied to evaluate the quality of the reduction subset. Finally, test and comparison results show that the proposed method is feasible.
Epidemiología, nueva morbilidad pediátrica y rol del pediatra Epidemiology, new paediatric morbidity and paediatrician role
NELSON A VARGAS C,ARNOLDO QUEZADA L
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2007,
Abstract: Propósito: Describir y analizar los principales cambios de la salud infantil durante las últimas décadas, reconocer nuevos desafíos y relacionarlos con el rol del pediatra en este escenario. Material y Método: Revisión de literatura biomédica y de estadísticas nacionales relacionadas con la salud infanta juvenil. Resultados: Los indicadores biodemográficos, de salud y atención han tenido una evolución favorable que refleja el éxito de los programas de prevención y control de salud materno infantil aunque subsisten inequidades cuya magnitud se acentúa al comparar unidades administrativas de menor tama o y grupos étnicos determinados. Las principales causas de muerte han cambiado dando paso a enfermedades emergentes, trastornos nutricionales por exceso y patologías crónicas. A futuro, es probable que las muertes infantiles se concentren en las afecciones congénitas, perinatales y en otras mal definidas del período neonatal precoz. El consumo de alcohol y drogas, así como la actividad sexual, son cada vez más tempranos; mientras el sedentarismo llega a magnitudes importantes y hay una alta proporción de nacidos fuera del matrimonio, en especial en adolescentes. La mayor sobrevida aumenta el número y complejidad de quienes deben recibir atención, incrementando la necesidad de capacitación y los costos asociados al avance tecnológico. Rol: Se sugiere que el Pediatra -abogado de los derechos del Ni o- debe detectar y dar a conocer las desigualdades, pesquisar patologías y liderar un equipo de salud multidisciplinario amplio que trabaje en red y sea capaz de promover la salud infantil y adolescente; prevenir enfermedades y diagnosticar, tratar y rehabilitar los enfermos. Estas últimas misiones deben reforzarse en algunos riesgos específicos. La meta final es contribuir a producir ancianos sanos y con buena calidad de vida. Todo ello obliga a mantener una capacitación permanente y, por la alta exigencia de trabajo, a protegerse del agotamiento personal Objective: Describe and analyze the principle changes in child health during the last decades, identify new challenges and relate them to the paediatrician role in this area. Method: Review of biomedical literature and national statistics related to infant health. Results: The biodemographic parameters of health care have shown a positive evolution, demonstrating the success of preventive programs and mother-child health supervision. The most frequent causes of death have changed, being now emerging diseases, excess nutritional disorders and chronic pathologies; in the future, infant mortality will concentrate on
Quantitative constructional attributes selection in construction series of types  [PDF]
P. Gendarz,M. Cielniak
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the dimension values to preferred numbers, catalogue and standardized elements dimensions etc.Practical implications: Presented method was applied to generate the constructions series of types with the use of quantitative constructional attributes selection process.Originality/value: Described analysis presents the process of selecting the quantitative constructional attributes with computer aid.
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