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Inequity in the Provision of Public Bus Service for Socially Disadvantaged Groups  [cached]
Ali Soltani,Yousef Esmaeili Ivaki
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v4n5p229
Abstract: Neo-classical economic doctrine dominating governmental policies shows its impact on recent transport policies, causing these policies; tend to base on demand and efficiency criteria instead of equity concerns. Public transit operating for remote areas is less cost-effective eventually leading to have a low level of service quality. In metropolitan areas of developing countries, a large part of socially disadvantaged and vulnerable groups live in outer suburban locations not in the inner-city. Transit equity evaluation is required by in order to consider the requirements of more vulnerable populations, as well as to foster equal benefits. The evaluation approach is based on highlighting the spatial distribution and clustering patterns of bus network and service as well as some disadvantaged social groups including unemployed, migrated, less educated, elderly, young, and disabled. The hypothesis is that vulnerable groups and economically disadvantaged communities receive a less than equal share of public bus services. The findings show that poor accessibility is associated both with low-income neighborhoods and with neighborhoods with disproportionately high populations of migrated, less-educated, unemployed and low-income groups. Modifications need to make in transport planning and policy system to achieve a better distribution of public transport services in hope of increasing level of service for minority groups and economically disadvantaged communities.
Community-based post-stroke service provision and challenges: a national survey of managers and inter-disciplinary healthcare staff in Ireland
Anne Hickey, Frances Horgan, Desmond O'Neill, Hannah McGee, on behalf of the Steering Committee of the Irish National Audit (INASC)
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-111
Abstract: The study was a cross-sectional tailored interview survey with key managerial and service delivery staff. As comprehensive listings of community-based health professionals involved in stroke care were not available, a cascade approach to information gathering was adopted. Representative regional managers for services incorporating stroke care (N?=?7) and disciplinary allied health professional and public health nurse managers (N?=?25) were interviewed (94% response rate).Results indicated a lack of formal, structured community-based services for stroke, with no designated clinical posts for stroke care across disciplines nationally. There was significant regional variation in availability of allied health professionals. Considerable inequity was identified in patient access to stroke services, with greater access, where available, for older patients (≥ 65 years). The absence of a stroke strategy and stroke prevalence statistics were identified as significant impediments to service planning, alongside organisational barriers limiting the recruitment of additional allied health professional staff, and lack of sharing of discipline-specific information on patients.This study highlighted major gaps in the provision of inter-disciplinary team community-based services for people with stroke in one country. Where services existed, they were generic in nature, rarely inter-disciplinary in function and deficient in input from salient disciplines. Challenges to optimal care included the need for strategic planning; increased funding of healthcare staff; increased team resources and teamwork; and removal of service provision barriers based on age. There were notably many challenges beyond funding. Similar evaluations in other healthcare systems would serve to provide comparative lessons to serve to tackle this underserved aspect of care for patients with stroke and their families.
行动者网络视域下农村公共服务的多元合作供给
Research on Rural Public Service Provision With Multiple Subjects’Cooperation From the Perspective of Actor network Theory
 [PDF]

戴祥玉,杜春林
- , 2017,
Abstract: 提升农村公共服务供给效率和质量是推进农村公共服务供给侧结构性改革、实现城乡统筹发展的内在要求。基于行动者网络理论视角,通过构建农村公共服务多元合作供给的“行动者网络”分析框架,对当前影响我国农村公共服务多元合作供给质量的现实原因进行详细阐释,并提出优化农村公共服务多元合作供给网络的重塑路径。从农村公共服务多元合作供给的公共服务基础条件、多元供给主体行为模式和多元合作供给关系三个维度来看,正是农村公共服务多元化供给的服务支持能力与多元合作供给资源困囿,主体的转译行为与公共服务合作供给目标失谐,主体间竞争不完全、效能不确定与多元合作供给功能挑战等多重因素影响,掣肘农村公共服务多元合作供给的服务质量。因此,需从加固多元合作供给网络的结点网络、激活活动网络、疏通关系网络三方面着手,重塑农村公共服务多元合作供给网络。
To promote the supply side structural reform for rural public service and achieve the coordinated development of urban and rural areas, it demanded the promotion of efficiency and quality for rural public service. This research built a multi cooperation supply mechanism based on “Actor Network”analytical framework, in order to explore realistic factors which influenced the multi cooperation supply for rural area public service quality, and suggested the solution to optimize multi cooperation supply network for rural public service. From the dimensions of the multi cooperation supply subject for rural public service which included the public service infrastructure, multi supply subject’s behavior mode and multi cooperation supply relationship, the deficiency of the multi supply for rural area public service and multi cooperation supply support ability, the misterm state of the subject translation behaviors between public service cooperation supply target, the incompleteness competition between subjects, the indeterminacy of efficiency, and the challenges of multi cooperation supply function, et al. Therefore, it is necessary to reconstruct the network of multi supply for rural area by strengthening the network of nodes of multi cooperation supply network, activating the activity network and dredging the relationship network.
The Relationship between Manufacturing and Service Provision in Operations Management
Xin Jiang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n3p183
Abstract: Operations management is a large segment which is concerned with the existence of any organization. Every organization has an operations function to produce some type of products and/or services. It is well-known that manufacturing differs from service provision in many aspects. The main difference between products and services would be tangibility. While the outputs of manufacturing are tangible, the outputs of service provision are intangible. Some industries are the mixture of both manufacturing and service provision, which provide both products and services. Likewise, the operations managements which different industries apply are also very different. This article is concerning these differences in different areas, providing some industries and some companies for the analysis.
地区公共服务供给与转移支付减贫效应研究-基于多维贫困分析框架
Research on the Relationship Between Regional Provision of Public Service and Transfer Payments' Effect for Poverty Reduction Based on the Framework of Multidimensional Poverty
 [PDF]

王曦璟,高艳云
- , 2017,
Abstract: 从宏观与微观相结合的角度,考察宏观上一个地区的公共服务供给能力是否会影响到转移支付的减贫效果。从多维贫困的研究视角出发,利用CHNS数据库考察了个人特征和家庭特征对贫困的影响;在此基础上利用分层模型将地区公共服务供给能力这种宏观因素和微观因素相结合,探究了不同公共服务供给能力对转移支付减贫效应的影响,同时也与收入贫困框架下的结果进行对比分析。结果显示:就多维贫困来讲,地区公共服务供给能力高的地区转移支付减贫效应有加强效果;转移支付对收入贫困的改善则不受地区公共服务水平的制约。
Combining macro level and micro level, this paper discusses whether the regional provision of public service will affect the poverty reduction effect of transfer payments. This paper is mainly based on multidimensional poverty perspective, and use CHNS to research the effects of personal characteristics and family characteristics on poverty. Then we use multilevel models to combine micro factors with macro factors--regional provision of public service to explore the effects of different public service to the poverty reduction effect of transfer payments, contrasted with the results under the framework of income poverty. The conclusions show that, in multidimensional poverty condition, higher levels of public services in one area, better poverty reduction effect of transfer payments. Transfer payments effect on income poverty reduction has nothing to do with regional provision of public service.
Stochastic Optimization of Service Provision with Selfish Users  [PDF]
F. Altarelli,A. Braunstein,C. F. Chiasserini,L. Dall'Asta,P. Giaccone,E. Leonardi,R. Zecchina
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We develop a computationally efficient technique to solve a fairly general distributed service provision problem with selfish users and imperfect information. In particular, in a context in which the service capacity of the existing infrastructure can be partially adapted to the user load by activating just some of the service units, we aim at finding the configuration of active service units that achieves the best trade-off between maintenance (e.g.\ energetic) costs for the provider and user satisfaction. The core of our technique resides in the implementation of a belief-propagation (BP) algorithm to evaluate the cost configurations. Numerical results confirm the effectiveness of our approach.
Evaluating the impact of Internet provision on students' information-gathering strategies  [cached]
Julia Meek,Marie Garnett,John Grattan
Research in Learning Technology , 1998, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v6i1.10987
Abstract: Universities may invest millions of pounds in the provision of computer hardware without ever seriously considering the educational results such investment may deliver. Equally, academics may be committed to the use of IT in teaching and learning because it is expected of them (cf. Dearing, 1997), and rarely give serious consideration to the impact which the effective use of IT may have on student learning (Lauillard, 1993). The use of the WWW to deliver material in support of university teaching is still in its infancy, yet already two distinct approaches to its use can be seen. The first approach uses the WWW passively to deliver existing lecture notes in a technologically impressive and, perhaps more importantly, highly convenient fashion. The second approach attempts to shape the material delivered to maximize the teaching and learning potential of the WWW and to develop students' skills in the use of the medium. But which approach works more effectively? And how does one balance the needs of an academic community pressured by the Research Assessment Exercise with the need to develop effective teaching and learning strategies which maximize the potential of IT for the academic community, for the students and for their future employers?
Application of Asynchronous Weak Commitment Search in Autonomous Quality of Service Provision in Cognitive Radio Networks  [PDF]
Shabnam Sodagari
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This article presents a distributed solution to autonomous quality of service provision in cognitive radio networks. Specifically, cognitive STDMA and CDMA communication networks are studied. Based on asynchronous weak commitment search the task of QoS provision is distributed among different network nodes. Simulation results verify this scheme converges very fast to optimal solution, which makes it suitable for practical real time systems. This application of artificial intelligence in wireless and mobile communications can be used in home automation and networking, and vehicular technology. The generalizations and extensions of this approach can be used in Long Term Evolution Self Organizing Networks (LTE-SONs). In addition, it can pave the way for decentralized and autonomous QoS provision in capillary networks that reach end nodes at Internet of Things, where central management is either unavailable or not efficient.
Water Service Provision in Owerri City, Nigeria  [PDF]
Emmanuella C. Onyenechere, Sabina C. Osuji
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.47058
Abstract: The study investigates water service provision in Owerri-a Nigerian city. For the study both primary and secondary data were obtained and analysed. Secondary data were obtained from Imo State Water Corporation (ISWC) and the Works Department of Owerri Municipal Council. While, primary data were obtained from all the 17 wards that constitute Owerri city, i.e. the municipal area. Key informants were identified and interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The analysis of variance employed showed that there are significant differences in the water service provision pattern in the seventeen wards in Owerri city. The study found that though most residents of Owerri city rely heavily on commercial borehole owners and water tanker drivers/water peddlers for their daily supplies, the government through its SWA is in control, and there is an absence of a popularly acceptable regulatory framework/water policy. It recommends that Water decree 101 from 1993 (water legislation) be reviewed to address growing challenges. In order to enhance regular water supply at less cost, the study recommends that government should collaborate with the private sector and other community based organizations in a tripartite partnership. A new regulatory framework that will carry out government ownership and control of water resources and participatory aspects of water management should be produced by ISWC.
Referenda and the Provision of a Binary Public Good  [PDF]
Rajat Deb, Indranil K. Ghosh, Tae Kun Seo
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.84042
Abstract: In referenda, projects are approved if the support for the project exceeds a particular threshold or quota. The usual threshold is the requirement of majority support. The paper provides a theoretical analysis of referenda with different threshold quotas for the provision of a binary public good. Optimal quota sizes are characterized and how the optimal quota changes as the size of the society increases is studied. While the majority quota may or may not be optimal, the conditions which determine the significance of the loss of expected welfare from the (possibly inoptimal) use of the majority quota are analyzed and interpreted. It is shown that the welfare loss from using an inoptimal majority quota will be insignificant if the ratio of the average intensity of support for the project relative to the intensity of opposition to it is positively associated with the probability of a positive net valuation of the project.
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