oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Relationships between Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat under Different Water Availability (Dryland and Supplemental Irrigation Conditions)
Mohtasham MOHAMMADI,Peyman SHARIFI,Rahmatollah KARIMIZADEH,Mohammad Kazem SHEFAZADEH
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2012,
Abstract: Path and correlation analysis were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during two years (2009-2011) under supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions. Field experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield showed positive correlation with plant height and test weight under supplemental irrigation condition. The similar results were also revealed between grain yield and plant height, spike length, days to maturity, agronomic score and test weight in dryland environment. The grain yield of bread wheat in dryland condition depended on the effect of plant height, days to maturity, agronomic score and 1000 kernel weight, whereas in supplemental irrigation was mainly related to plant height, spike length, 1000 kernel weight and test weight. The influence of 1000 kernel weight on grain yield in both environments seems to cause from the fact that grain yield in wheat is frequently the sink limited, and for this reason, the 1000 kernel weight has been reported as a promising trait for increasing grain yield in wheat under different conditions. The nearly equal value of correlation and path coefficients of plant height and grain yield showed plant height had positive and direct effect on grain yield, in both conditions and suggesting a criteria trait for improving of grain yield. The results showed that genotype 12 (CS/TH.SC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/MILAN/5/ TILHI) is a high yielding potential genotype in moisture limited conditions.
Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications  [PDF]
Richard T. Koenig,Craig G. Cogger,Andy I. Bary
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/925462
Abstract: Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400?kg?ha?1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting. 1. Introduction Biosolids are an effective and relatively safe source of nitrogen (N) for dryland wheat production [1–3]. Applied at agronomic rates, biosolids can supply sufficient N to maximize yield, as well as a host of other nutrients that can benefit crops in a rotational sequence [4, 5]. Determining appropriate agronomic application rates is paramount in balancing nutrient (mainly N) needs of wheat without increasing the risk of nitrate (NO3?) leaching. Considerable research has been devoted to this subject [3, 5]. In the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) USA, soft white winter wheat is the predominant crop grown on over 2.75 million ha of mainly dryland (rainfed) cropland [6]. The majority of this wheat is exported and used to make unleavened products such as flat breads, noodles, and cakes [7]. Low-grain protein concentration (<10%) is desirable when producing unleavened products. High-grain protein concentration in soft white winter wheat has been a problem in the PNW due, in part, to high soil N levels [7]. Previous biosolids research in this area has shown that agronomic applications at or above rates required to maximize yield may produce undesirably high grain protein concentrations in soft white winter wheat [3, 5]. While high grain protein concentration is detrimental for soft wheat end uses, high protein is desirable in hard red and white winter wheats, with optimum targets of approximately 11.5 and 12.5%,
Stable carbon isotope ratio(δ13C)in flag leaves of different genotypes of winter wheat and its relation to yield and water use efficiency
不同基因型冬小麦旗叶的稳定碳同位素比值及其与产量和水分利用效率的关系

FAN Ting-Lu,MA Ming-Sheng,WANG Shu-Ying,LI Shang-Zhong,ZHAO Gang,
樊廷录
,马明生,王淑英,李尚中,赵刚

植物生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Aims Our objectives were to analyze differences of grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) in various genotypes of dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and the correlation between δ13C value and grain yield and WUE under two different ecological conditions. Findings will help clarify the reliability of using δ13C to evaluate WUE and provide a basis for breeding water-saving types. Methods We studied 15 winter wheat genotypes (12 from north China and 3 from Texas, USA) on the Loess Plateau of East Gansu under dryland and supplemental irrigation treatments at the jointing stage. Important findings Different genotypes had considerable differences in grain yield, WUE and δ13C value whether under dryland or irrigation, and the δ13C value increased with grain filling proceeding. Moreover, the δ13C value under dryland condition was higher than under limited irrigation. The correlation between δ13C with grain yield and WUE is significant during the grain filling stages whether under dryland or irrigation, and the correlation under dryland is better than that under limited irrigation. With irrigation of 100 mm water at jointing stage, various genotypes of winter wheat had significant compensation or super compensation effects. The δ13C value can indicate WUE well whether under dryland or irrigated condition. Therefore, the δ13C value can be used by breeding programs as a potential selection criterion for grain yield and WUE in wheat.
Effects of limited irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of two sequence-replaced winter wheat in Loess Plateau, China
L Liu, B-C Xu, F-M Li
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The effects of irrigation on grain yield and water use efficiency was studied on two sequence replaced dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Changwu 135 (CW, a new cultivar) and Pingliang 40 (PL, an old cultivar). Field experiments were carried out on Changwu country on Loess Plateau, China. Whereas the control plots were not irrigated at all, the treatment plots were irrigated three times, the quantity of irrigation being the same (40 mm) each time: at the jointing stage, at booting, and at flowering. Irrigation increased root biomass in each layer of soil in PL. Irrigation made PL produce greater root biomass in deeper soil, enabling the plants to tap larger quantities of water. CW had a harvest index (HI) greater by 0.11 than that of PL under both conditions, and lower shoot and root biomass, which indicates that more dry matter was transported to productive organs, leading to higher yields than PL. CW consumed more water to produce a unit quantity of root biomass and use irrigation less efficiently showing undercompensation, whereas PL showed overcompensation. Higher yield and greater water use efficiency in wheat appear to be associated with smaller root systems and higher harvest index irrespective of irrigation.
Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile
Martinez G,Ingrid; Ovalle,Carlos; Del Pozo,Alejandro; Uribe,Hamil; Valderrama V,Natalia; Prat,Christian; Sandoval,Marco; Fernández,Fernando; Zagal,Erick;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392011000400018
Abstract: chilean dryland areas of the mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. an oat (avena sativa l. cv. supernova-inia) - wheat (triticum aestivum l. cv. pandora-inia) crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (nt), nt + contour plowing (nt+cp), nt + barrier hedge (nt+bh), and nt + subsoiling (nt+sb), compared to conventional tillage (ct) to evaluate their influence on soil water content (swc) in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth), the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted alfisol. at the end of the growing seasons, swc was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in ct. soil water content had a significant (p < 0.05) interaction with tillage system and depth; nt+sb showed lower swc between 10 to 30 cm, but higher and similar to the rest between 50 to 110 cm except for ct. although, swc was higher in conservation tillage systems, the high values on soil compaction affected yield. no tillage + subsoiling reduced soil compaction and had a significant increment of grain yield (similar to ct in seasons 2008 and 2009). these findings show us that the choice of conservation tillage in compacted soils of the mediterranean region needs to improve soil structure to obtain higher yields and increment swc.
Kipa-INIA, new high yield spring bread wheat variety for Chile
Matus,Iván; Madariaga,Ricardo; Jobet,Claudio; Zú?iga,Javier; Alfaro,Christian;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392011000200018
Abstract: kipa-inia is a spring wheat variety (triticum aestivum l.) originated from a cross carried out in the wheat plant breeding project of the instituto de investigaciones agropecuarias (inia), in the centro regional de investigación quilamapu (36°31? s; 71°54? w) in 1993. it has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage. the adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 90 and 95 cm. the spike is white with long awns along its full length. the grain is ovate, white, and vitreous. it was sown in mid-august in the santa rosa experimental field, chillán, head emergence occurred 90 to 95 d after sowing, i.e. is 4 to 6 d before ?domo-inia?. on the mean, ?kipa-inia? sown under irrigation conditions reached a yield of 11.7% higher than the control var. domo-inia, and 18.1% higher in dryland soils.
Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and Grain Quality of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
MB Sokoto, IU Abubakar, AU Dikko
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 dry seasons at the Fadama Teaching and Research Farm of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria. The farm is located on latitude 130011N; longitude 50151E and at an altitude of about 350 m above sea level. The study was aimed at investigating the correlation between some growth, yield, yield components and grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress), two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kuaze/Weaver) and four sowing dates (21st November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Simple correlation coefficient of different crop parameters and grain yield indicated that most of the agrophysiological crop parameters viz. plant height, number of tiller m-2, Leaf Area Index (LAI), Net Assimilation Rate (NAR), Crop Growth Rate (CGR), number of spike m-2, spike length, spikelets per spike, number of grain per spike, 1000-grain weight, total aerial phytomass and harvest index had significant positive correlation with grain yield in both seasons and combined and this indicate their importance in yield determination. Protein and gluten content had varying levels of correlation in both seasons and combined. An over all, it is logical to conclude that spike m-2, number of spikelets per spike, grain per spike, total aerial phytomass yield, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight are the major contributors towards grain yield since these characters had high correlation. Thus, direct selection of these characters should be major concern for increased grain yield and grain quality of wheat.
Line × Tester Mating Design Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  [PDF]
Zine El Abidine Fellahi,Abderrahmane Hannachi,Hamenna Bouzerzour,Ammar Boutekrabt
International Journal of Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/201851
Abstract: Nine bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were crossed in a line × tester mating design. The 20 F1's and their parents were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria) during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results indicated that sufficient genetic variability was observed for all characters studied. A899?× Rmada, A899?× Wifak, and A1135?× Wifak hybrids had greater grain yield mean than the parents. A901 line and the tester Wifak were good combiners for the number of grains per spike. MD is a good combiner for 1000-kernel weight and number of fertile tillers. HD1220 is a good general combiner to reduce plant height; Rmada is a good general combiner to shorten the duration of the vegetative growth period. A901?× Wifak is a best specific combiner to reduce plant height, to increase 1000-kernel weight and number of grains per spike. AA × MD is a best specific combiner to reduce duration of the vegetative period, plant height and to increase the number of kernels per spike. A899?× Wifak showed the highest heterosis for grain yield, accompanied with positive heterosis for the number of fertile tillers and spike length, and negative heterosis for 1000-kernel weight and the number of days to heading. , ? low ratios and low to intermediate estimates of h2ns supported the involvement of both additive and nonadditive gene effects. The preponderance of non-additive type of gene actions clearly indicated that selection of superior plants should be postponed to later generation. 1. Introduction Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important staple food in Algeria. This crop ranks third after durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), with a yearly cropped area of 0.8 million hectares, representing 24.2% of the 3.3 million hectares devoted to small grain cereals. Algeria imported 3.0 million tons of bread wheat in 2010/2011, to remedy the decline in the domestic production and to build stocks to meet the needs. Increasing wheat production can be achieved by application of improved agronomic technics, developing and adopting high yielding varieties. Major emphasis, in breeding program, is put on the development of improved varieties with superior qualitative and quantitative traits and resilience to abiotic stresses. In fact, genetic improvement in bread wheat, having better tolerance against terminal heat and water stress, has a good promise to improve grain yield average and total wheat production. However to breed high
The Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Growing Periods, Yield and Yield Components of Some Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars Grown in the East-Mediterranean Region of Turkey  [PDF]
Tevrican Dokuyucu,Aydin Akkaya,Didem Yigitoglu
Journal of Agronomy , 2004,
Abstract: The aim of this research was to determine the effect of different sowing dates on growing period, yield and some yield components of three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown Kahramanmaras, in the East-Mediterranean region of Turkey. Experiment was carried out in a split-plot on randomized complete block design with four replications, between the year 1997-1999. Seven planting dates were planned with the first on 9th October and the others followed at about 15 day intervals. Two cultivars (Seri-82, Dogankent-1 and Panda) were the main plots and 7 different sowing dates were the subplots. According to the results of two years, sowing dates had significant effect on vegetative period (VP), grain filling period (GFP), days to maturity (DM), head number m-2 (HN m-2), 1000-grain weight (1000-GW) and grain yield (GY). Grain yields obtained from the first five sowing dates were not significantly different. Consequently, the period from first week of November to middle of December could be concluded as optimum sowing period for maximum grain yield for the region.
Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile  [cached]
Ingrid Martinez G,Carlos Ovalle,Alejandro Del Pozo,Hamil Uribe
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2011,
Abstract: Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA) crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt), Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp), Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh), and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb), compared to conventional tillage (Ct) to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC) in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth), the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p < 0.05) interaction with tillage system and depth; Nt+Sb showed lower SWC between 10 to 30 cm, but higher and similar to the rest between 50 to 110 cm except for Ct. Although, SWC was higher in conservation tillage systems, the high values on soil compaction affected yield. No tillage + subsoiling reduced soil compaction and had a significant increment of grain yield (similar to Ct in seasons 2008 and 2009). These findings show us that the choice of conservation tillage in compacted soils of the Mediterranean region needs to improve soil structure to obtain higher yields and increment SWC. En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA) - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA) establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt), Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp), Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh) y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb), las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct), para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC) en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad), la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 a os seguidos (2007 al 2009) en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de labranza y la profun
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.