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Shinde Sachin K,Grampurohit Nirmala D,Banerjee Subir K,Jadhav Suresh L
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Family- Zingiberaceae), have been used in Chinese and Indian folk medicine for centuries. There are no reported UV‐visible methods for quick estimation of this extract, which is necessary in the development of suitable formulations for this drug. Hence, a simple UV spectroscopic method was developed for direct estimation of this extract. Ginger rhizome extract obtained from simple maceration process. Calibration curve of rhizome extract was prepared in methanol on three consecutive days at λmax 281.40 nm. The absorbance values (mean of three determinations) with their standard deviations at different concentration in the range of 20‐100 μg/ml was determined. Extract was found to obey Beer‐Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 20‐100 μg/ml with regression coefficient (r2) values 0.9995. The regression equations were calculated as y = 0.0097x + 0.0132 for methanol. The developed calibration curve was validated for intra‐day and inter‐day variations as per ICH Q2A guideline and was found to be a stable method.
Morph-Anatomical Studies and Antibacterial Activities of the Rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Ahlam Salih Eltahir, Massara Ibrahem Elnoor, Sarrah Menahi, Eiman Mohammed Ali Mustafa
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104890
In this study, morphanatomical study and antibacterial activity of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) were investigated to assist as a relevant source of information and contribute towards the standards to dispose the quality and identity of this plant to avoid adulterations. The transverse section of the rhizome includes different types of tissues which are epidermis, cork, cortex and vascular bundles. The cortex is formed of parenchyma cells, which often contain starch and oils in large amounts. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by cork porous method. The most sensitive bacteria for all concentrations of the methanolic and only 50 mg/ml for the water extract was Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive for both extracts used. Bacillus subtilis was sensitive for the methanolic extract only. Escherichia coli was found to be not sensitive except for 100 mg/ml concentration of the methanolic extract.
Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on cystemine induced duodenal ulcer in rats
Mohsen Minaiyan,Alireza Ghannadi,Alireza Karimzadeh
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including: dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhea. Aromatic, spasmolytic, carminative and absorbent properties of ginger suggest that it has direct effects on the GI tract and anti-ulcerogenic potential. In the present study, the effects of this herbal remedy on an acute model of experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine was evaluated. Hydroalcoholic extract ofgginger with doses of 100, 350, 700 mg/kg, ranitidine (50 mg/kg), sucralfate (500 mg/kg) and 5 ml/kg of vehicle were administered orally (p.o.) to separate groups of male Wistar rats. Other groups received vehicle (5 ml/kg), extract (300 mg/kg) and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.). After ulcer induction, the number, scoring, area and finally ulcer index were assessed for each duodenum. Administration of extract by i.p. or at chronic doses (350 mg/kg) and ranitidine (p.o. and i.p.) resulted in significant reduction in mucosal damage for the entire ulcer factors which were assessed. Larger doses of extract given p.o. (350 and 700 mg/kg) were effective to reduce both the ulcer area and index but the lowest dose of extract (100 mg/kg) was not effective. Taken together, we conclude that ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective to protect against duodenal ulceration and for i.p. injection as well as chronic administration, the efficacy was comparable with ranitidine as reference drug.
The Effects of Seed Rhizome Size on the Growth, Yield and Economic Return of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)  [PDF]
Girma Hailemichael,Kindie Tesfaye
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the influence of seed rhizome size on the growth, yield and economic return of ginger to determine an optimum seed rhizome size. The experiment was conducted for three years (1995-1997) at Tepi Agricultural Research Sub-center using a locally grown ginger cultivar. It consisted of four different weight and sizes of seed rhizomes which were grouped as small (R-4 g), medium (R-8 g), large (R-16 g) and very large (R-32 g). The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. An increase in seed rhizome size significantly increased the major growth and yield component parameters of ginger. Seed rhizome size also significantly affected dry rhizome yield in all the 3 years that the largest seed rhizome size (R-32 g) had significantly higher rhizome yield than the other treatments in 1995 and 1996 and the small and medium size treatments in 1997. The R-32 g treatment increased rhizome yield by 124, 152 and 55% over the R-4 g treatment in 1995, 1996 (low rainfall year) and 1997 (high rainfall year), respectively suggesting the importance of using larger seed rhizomes under relatively lower than higher rainfall conditions. The R-32 g treatment gave a Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) of 235% with the highest residual indicating that using 32 g (>9.1 cm long) seed rhizomes is economically profitable for ginger production in South Western Ethiopia.
Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  [cached]
Naila Abdul Sattar,Fatma Hussain,Tahira Iqbal,Munir Ahmad Sheikh
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects. Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glica o de proteínas e sobre a difus o de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentra es de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibi o da difus o de glicose e, em menor extens o, através da redu o da glica o. Estudos adicionais s o necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absor o de glicose pós-prandial e a glica o de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.
Evaluation of Various Crude Extracts of Zingiber officinale Rhizome for Potential Antibacterial Activity: A Study in Vitro  [PDF]
Purshotam Kaushik, Pankaj Goyal
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2011.11002
Abstract: In vitro antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and organic extracts of rhizome of Zingiber officinaleRoscoe (ginger) was studied against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) bacterial strains. The present study reveals that the pattern of inhibition varied with the solvent used for extraction and the organism tested. Plant extracts prepared in organic solvents provided more consistent antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Methanol extract was the most active against maximum number of bacterial species tested. Gram-positive bacteria were found the most sensitive as compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was significantly inhibited by almost all the extracts even in very low MIC followed by other Gram-positives. Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) was showing the least inhibition with highest MIC values, while Salmonella typhi was found completely resistant. Methanol extract yielded the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins in phytochemical screening. Results of the present study sign the interesting assurance of designing a potentially active antibacterial agent from Zingiber officinale.
Physicochemical characterization of medicinal essential oil made obtained from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale (ginger), grown in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in order to standardize future hydroponic  [PDF]
1Jean Carlo González-Guevara; 2German L Madrigal Redondo; 2Rolando Vargas Zú?iga; 3Santiago Rodríguez Sibaja
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2017, DOI: 10.22200/pjpr.2017124-29
Abstract: Introduction: Ginger is a medicinal plant native to India. Has been reported their potential use in cosmetics, medicines and natural products, however depending on crop conditions the medicinal components of the different parts of the plant not only changes in concentration but in its composition, this modifies its medicinal action. The aim of this study was to characterize by physicochemical methods the chemical composition of essential oil obtained from rhizomes of Zingiber officinale grown in the area of San Carlos, Costa Rica in order to standardize future hydroponic cultivations of the plant and validate their subsequent pharmacological or cosmetic effects. Materials and methods: the rhizomes of the plant were used, the active principles were extracted by ethanolic extraction with Soxleth and distillation by entrainment with vapor, analysis was performed by using a qualitative phytochemical profile for the ethanolic extract, and the composition of the essential oil was studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS).Results and Conclusions. The presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and triterpenes in the ethanolic extract was qualitatively determined. In characterizing the essential oil by GC-MS were identified as lead compounds the geranialdehyde (27.42%), nerol (20.11%), 1.8-cineole (13.35%), camphene (4.65%) and E-geraniol (3.92%). The composition obtained was compared with the composition reported in the literature, obtaining a clear difference with those reported in other studies, allowing predicting an antimicrobial behavior unlike most traditional essential oils of the rhizomes.
Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism  [PDF]
Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah,Harish Nayaka Mysore Annaiah,Shylaja M. Dharmesh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep060
Abstract: Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE) belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200?mg?kg?1?b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI) of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80%) at 30?mg?kg?1?b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38?μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4?μg?mL?1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE). DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4?μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5?g?kg?1?b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50%) and gallic (46%) phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity. 1. Introduction More and more evidences are being accumulated nowadays regarding the cause of gastric hyperacidity and ulcers. Stress appear to play a major role as indicated by a set of studies which emphasizes that any patient irrespective of the nature of the disease, if admitted to emergency wards in the hospital, invariably ends up with gastric ulcers [1]. Besides this there are characteristic problems such as (i) Zollinger-Ellisson syndrome where there is a high and uncontrolled production of acid; (ii) the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [2] (NSAID) for rheumatoid diseases and (iii) a rod-shaped pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori, normally existing in human stomach are known to cause ulcers [3]. Ulceration may occur either by uncontrolled production of acid or by the side effects of NSAIDs which acts as inhibitors of gastric mucosal defense or by manipulating the mucosal epithelium structure-function causing a defenseless condition and hence ulcers. The concept
Padr?o de vasculariza??o do rizoma de gengibre (Zingiber Officinale R)
Santos, Gedir de Oliveira;Silva, Eldo A. Monteiro da;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89131998000300012
Abstract: the vascular system in the rhizome of ginger (zingiber officinale r.) is arranged in three distinct systems: an inner system that form the principal vascular system of the rhizome, an intermediated system originating a thin camada of anastomosing vascular strands, having direct contact with the inner system and an outer system free of the anastomosis with the another vascular systems. the intermediated and inner system are associated with the root insertion and whole systems are relacioned with the formation of bud adventicious maintaing the same pattern of the rhizome and the communication between the outer and inner system occurs through the bridging to inner system leaf traces.
Antioxidant Activities, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Content in Two Varieties of Malaysia Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  [PDF]
Ali Ghasemzadeh,Hawa Z. E. Jaafar,Asmah Rahmat
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15064324
Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
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