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Therapeutic and Cosmetic uses of Botulinum Toxin  [cached]
Vinay Kant,Rita Koshal,Pawan Kumar Verma,Nrip Kishore Pankaj
Vet Scan , 2009,
Abstract: From times unknown man has greatly been benefited from uncovering and utilizing the chemicals from the natural world. Living organisms, such as plants, animals, microorganisms, offer a huge source of pharmaceutically useful medicine and toxins. Depending upon their source, the toxins are categorized as phytotoxins, mycotoxins and, zootoxins including venoms and bacterial toxins. Botulinum toxin is neurotoxic protein produced by the gram-positive, rod shaped, spore forming, strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. These bacteria are widely distributed in soil and water (Dowell, 1984). Botulinum toxin is one of the most acutely toxic naturally occurring substances in the world with a lethal dose of about 200-300 pg/kg (100g could kill every human on earth. Botulinum toxin is odorless and tasteless, and shares many properties with the other bacterial toxins such as tetanospasmin and diphtheria toxin (Davis, 1993). Thousands of people in the world each year continue to be poisoned with botulinum toxin food-borne, infantile, or wound botulism but the neurotoxin is now sufficiently understood to allow it to be used as medicinal agent to paralyze specific muscles, giving temporary symptomatic relief from variety of neurologic disorders and for certain cosmetic purposes in minute doses. (Davis, 1993). The clostridia produce more protein toxins than any other bacterial genus and are a rich reservoir of toxins for research and medicinal uses. Research is underway to use these clostridial exotoxins or their toxin domains for drug delivery, prevention of food poisoning, and the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The remarkable success of botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent has created a new field of investigation in microbiology.
Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae
Victório, Cristiane P.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000025
Abstract: plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. many species of the genus alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, alpinia zerumbet (pers.) burtt et smith and a. purpurata (vieill) k. schum, which have a significant presence in brazil. these species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. however, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. in addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.
Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae  [cached]
Cristiane P. Victório
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011,
Abstract: Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill) K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.
Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals: A Review
AR Tapas, DM Sakarkar, RB Kakde
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2008,
Abstract: Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties. They also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Among these compounds, flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and human health, a better understanding of their structures and biological activities indicates their potentials as therapeutic agents and also for predicting and controlling food quality. Due to the variety of pharmacological activities in the mammalian body, flavonoids are more correctly referred as “nutraceuticals”.
Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Food and Cosmetic, Using the Purge and Trap Injector Coupled to a Gas Chromatograph with Photo Ionization Detector  [cached]
Yunfang Zhao,Sheming Lua,Chunbo Liu,Zhaoyu Meng
International Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v2n1p55
Abstract: A method was developed to analyze volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in food, beverages and cosmetic samples. VOCs were isolated from a standard solution or samples using a purge-and-trap (PT) system and identified and quantified by a gas chromatograph with Photo Ionization Detector (GC–PID). The experimental conditions were optimized and the performance of the system was evaluated. Linear calibration curves were obtained with correlation coefficients of at least 0.9981. RSDs were less than 6%. Detection limits, calculated for 5 ml sample volume, ranged from 0.3056 ng ml-1 for toluene to 7.1373 ng ml-1 for propionaldehyde. The method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of food and cosmetic samples. Propionialdehyde and butyraldehyde were not found in food samples. Benzene and toluene were not detected in wine samples. Acetone was detected in all samples, except two samples. The method is reliable and is used for routine monitoring in food, beverages and cosmetic.
Down regulation of NF-kappa B as a therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes: effect of flavonoids
Amin Ardestani,Razieh Yazdanparast
Iranian Journal of Medical Hypotheses & Ideas , 2007,
Abstract: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that plays a critical role in the regulation of a variety of genes important in cellular responses, including inflammation, innate immunity, growth, and cell death. There are growing evidences that activation of NF-κB by acute oxidative stress may be the critical signal initiating the cascade of events leading to β-cell death and type 1 diabetes. This activation results in an increase in inflammatory and immune responses and leads to an amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production which, in turn, ultimately leads to the destruction of the β-cells, hyperglycemia and the development of type 1 diabetes. The key role of NF-κB in controlling the expression of multiple inflammatory and immune genes involved in type 1 diabetes makes this factor as a central and favorable target for therapeutic intervention of this disease. Polyphenolic plant-derived flavonoids display characteristic inhibitory patterns toward the NF-κB signal transduction pathways. In various types of cells, flavonoids, as natural polyphenolic antioxidants, strongly block cytokine- or LPS-induced NF-κB activation, which is crucial for iNOS expression in β-cells. Recently, we have suggested that a number of flavonoids might exert protective effects on pancreatic β-cell and therefore this could be considered as potential therapeutic agents for type 1 diabetes. On the other hand, studies investigating cytokine-induced pancreatic β-cells death models of type 1 diabetes, have found that flavonoids are effective for type 1 diabetes at least partly through inhibition of NF-κB activation. The importance of NF-κB in β-cell inflammatory responses is underscored by the fact that blockade of NF-κB in in vitro and in vivo models, by means of flavonoids, may prevents β-cell destruction and type 1 diabetes. In view of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities and their capacity to modulate NF-κB signaling pathways, it is hypothesize that flavonoids hold great promise as potential therapeutic agents for controlling the onset of type 1 diabetes.
Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms  [PDF]
Prinjaporn Tee-ngam,Namthip Nunant,Poomrat Rattanarat,Weena Siangproh,Orawon Chailapakul
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s131013039
Abstract: Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.
Analysis by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Potential Use in Food, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic Industries  [PDF]
Leonel Pereira,Saly F. Gheda,Paulo J. A. Ribeiro-Claro
International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/537202
Abstract: Polysaccharides present in several seaweeds (Kappaphycus alvarezii, Calliblepharis jubata, and Chondrus crispus—Gigartinales, Rhodophyta; Gelidium corneum and Pterocladiella capillacea—Gelidiales, Rhodophyta; Laurencia obtusa—Ceramiales, Rhodophyta; Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Saccorhiza polyschides, Sargassum vulgare, and Padina pavonica—Phaeophyceae, Ochrophyta) are analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The nature of the polysaccharides (with extraction and without any type of extraction) present in these seaweeds was determined with FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman analysis of extracted phycocolloids and ground dry seaweed. 1. Introduction Many species of seaweed (marine macroalgae) are used as food and they have also found use in traditional medicine because of their perceived health benefits. Seaweeds are rich sources of sulphated polysaccharides, including some that have become valuable additives in the food industry because of their rheological properties as gelling and thickening agents (e.g., alginates, agar, and carrageenan). Sulphated polysaccharides are recognized to possess a number of biological activities including anticoagulant, antiviral, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating activities that might find relevance in nutraceutical/functional food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications [1]. Some seaweeds produce hydrocolloids, associated with the cell wall and intercellular spaces. Members of the red algae (Rhodophyta) produce galactans (e.g., carrageenans and agars) and the brown algae (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) produce uronates (alginates) and other sulphated polysaccharides (e.g., fucoidan and laminaran) [2–8]. The different phycocolloids used in food industry as natural additives are (European codes of phycocolloids)(i)alginic acid—E400,(ii)sodium alginate—E401,(iii)potassium alginate—E402,(iv)ammonium alginate—E403,(v)calcium alginate—E404,(vi)propylene glycol alginate—E405,(vii)agar—E406,(viii)carrageenan—E407,(ix)semirefined carrageenan or “processed Eucheuma seaweed”—E407A. Carrageenan and agar (Figure 1) are the principal sulphated polysaccharides produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta); the main difference between the highly sulphated carrageenans from the less sulphated agars is the presence of D-galactose and anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenans and of D-galactose, L-galactose, or anhydro-L-galactose in agars. Figure 1: Idealized structures of the chemical units of kappa-, iota-, and lambda-carrageenan, agar, alginic acid (M = mannuronic acid and G = guluronic acid), fucoidan and laminaran [ 13, 14].
The Evaluation of Chinese Therapeutic Food for the Treatment of Moderate Dyslipidemia
Shu Sun,Hong Xu,Lawrence Ngeh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/508683
Abstract: The clinical efficacy of the Chinese therapeutic food (specifically hawthorn fruit and Chinese kiwifruit-extract compound) on dyslipidemia was evaluated in this placebo-controlled, double blind, paired clinical trial conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Forty-three participants diagnosed with moderate dyslipidemia and met the study criteria were randomly assigned to Group A or B, with baseline characteristics matched. Twenty-seven participants completed all the tests, the blood lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides (TG) was analysed. The traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis was made based on participants’ symptoms and signs. The results indicate that a four-week intake of the compound increased the serum HDL-c levels by 5% (=0.026) and decreased the ratios of TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c (=0.012 and =0.044, resp.). The placebo intake did not significantly change the blood lipid profile. In the initial 43 participants with dyslipidemia, 76.7% of them were diagnosed with “Spleen deficiency” and 58.1% with “Liver qi stagnation.” The intake of hawthorn fruit and Chinese kiwifruit extract compound may increase the serum levels of HDL-c and decrease the ratios of TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c, therefore, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Flavonoids and the CNS  [PDF]
Anna K. J?ger,Lasse Saaby
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16021471
Abstract: Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure. Flavonoids are present in food and medicinal plants and are thus consumed by humans. They are found in plants as glycosides. Before oral absorption, flavonoids undergo deglycosylation either by lactase phloridzin hydrolase or cytosolic β-glucocidase. The absorbed aglycone is then conjugated by methylation, sulphatation or glucuronidation. Both the aglycones and the conjugates can pass the blood-brain barrier. In the CNS several flavones bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in sedation, anxiolytic or anti-convulsive effects. Flavonoids of several classes are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A or B, thereby working as anti-depressants or to improve the conditions of Parkinson’s patients. Flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanidins have protective effects preventing inflammatory processes leading to nerve injury. Flavonoids seem capable of influencing health and mood.
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