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Pulmonary Symptoms and Functions in Cotton Factory Workers  [PDF]
Candan ??ü?,Levent D?nmez,Tülay ?zdemir,Aykut ?illi
Dicle Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: To determine the effects of chronic cotton dust exposure on respiratorytract.We planned a cross sectional study in cotton textile workers. Meanworking period of all subjects had been calculated as 18.0 ± 3.7 years. Atotal of 250 (95.4%) out of 262 were administered a respiratoryquestionnaire and all subjects were examined, and subjected to spirometricevaluation. 146 (%58.4) workers were exposed to cotton dust.Onehundredfour (41.6%) subjects working in places without dust wereregarded as control group.No statistically significant difference in respiratory symptoms, signs andspirometric parameters was found between study groups. In spirometricevaluations, in those having complained of symptoms compatible withallergic rhinitis and byssinosis PEFR, in those with bronchialhyperreactivity FEV1, PEFR and MMEF and in those with physicalexamination findings FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, MMEF values weresignificantly lower.No statistically significant impairment of pulmonary system wasdetected in workers due to chronic cotton dust exposure for 18 years.
Cotton Dust Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms and PEFR in Textile Workers  [PDF]
M. Ghasemkhani,S. Firoozbakhsh,K. Azam,F. Ghardashi
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The purposes of this study was to measurement cotton dust levels in air workplace, Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determine of changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) before and after during workday among textile workers. This study was done among 31 workers carding and blowing rooms. Using a short questionnaire for demographic characteristics, medical record were collected in a modified questionnaire of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 12 air samples were collected of work area. The PEFR was measured with a peak flow meter. The mean cotton dust levels in carding and blowing rooms were 0.39±0.03 and 0.20±0.01 mg m 3, respectively. The mean age and year s employment were 45±7.97 and 12.5±6.28, respectively. Thirty three percent of the workers were smoking. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increased with age and employment years and there were found significantly between age and employment years with cough, phlegm, dyspnea (p<0.05, 0.05, 0.05, respectively). The mean PEFR before and after during workday were 362.9±147.8 and 305.8±147.5, respectively and subjects had found significantly (p<0.0001). The decline in PEFR was significantly associated with years employment (p<0.05), whereas with age and cotton dust levels were found to be non significant. One explanation for thelack of age and cotton dust levels effects in workers may be due to the low number of subjects and samples, respectively. Technological improvement has resulted in reduction of cotton dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms.
Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust
Dantas, Ivan de Picoli;Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira;Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro;Anselmo-Lim, Wilma Terezinha;
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.7162/S1809-97772013000100005
Abstract: introduction: the respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. aim: our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. method: the prospective study population consisted of workers from the "nova esperan?a" cooperative of nova odessa (sao paulo), who were studied between september and december 2008. data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. results: using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. discussion: aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. from the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, ige, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. this study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. conclusion: analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.
Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  [cached]
Dantas, Ivan de Picoli,Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira,Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro,Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperan a" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.
Effect of Workwear Fabric Characteristics on the Changes in Tensile Properties of Sewing Threads after Sewing  [PDF]
Vinay Kumar Midha, Ph.D.,A. Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.,V. K. Kothari, Ph.D.,R. Chattopadhyay, Ph.D.
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics , 2010,
Abstract: During sewing at high speed, the needle thread issubjected to repeated tensile stresses, heat, bending,pressure, torsion and wearing. These stresses act onthe thread repeatedly and the thread passes 50-80times through the fabric, the needle eye and thebobbin case mechanism, before getting incorporatedinto the seam. As a result both the sewing thread andthe yarns in the fabric get abraded/ severed during theseaming process. A number of researchers observedthat there could be 30% to 40% strength loss in thecotton needle thread after sewing. The extent ofdamage becomes more critical if the fabric beingused is of a dense, thick and heavy construction. Anumber of studies have been carried out on threadstrength loss after sewing, but the impact of fabriccharacteristics on thread strength loss is stillunexplored. In this paper, the effect of weight andfabric composition of workwear fabrics, on thechanges in the tenacity, breaking elongation andinitial modulus of the needle thread has been studied.The tenacity and breaking elongation loss increasewith increase in fabric weight for staple threads andremain unchanged for core spun threads. The loss ininitial modulus increases for polyester threads asfabric weight increases, and decreases for cottonthread. When sewn on polyester-cotton fabric ofsame weight, the cotton thread shows decrease intenacity and breaking elongation loss, whereas loss ininitial modulus increases. The polyester core spunthreads show exactly opposite change, i.e. tenacityand elongation loss increase and loss in initialmodulus decreases when sewn on polyester-cottonfabric.
Effect of Some Fabric and Sewing Conditions on Apparel Seam Characteristics  [PDF]
A. K. Choudhary,Amit Goel
Journal of Textiles , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/157034
Abstract: Many previous studies showed that seam appearance as well as performance depends on the interrelationship of fabrics, threads, and the stitch/seam selection and lastly on the sewing conditions, which include the needle size, needle thread tension, stitch density, and the appropriate operation and maintenance of the sewing machine. Present investigation elucidates the effect of blend composition, sewing thread size, and sewing needle parameters on garment seam characteristics (i.e., seam strength, seam strength efficiency, seam puckering, seam stiffness, and drape coefficient). The seam quality characterization is studied through the L9 orthogonal design methodology. In good quality apparels, compatibility of the seams with the functional requirement is very important for serviceability and life of the apparel. Reversibility as well as repairing of seams in the apparel is very limited in the condition of seam failure. Seam strength efficiency is higher for the uniform fiber matrix in the structure of fabrics. The polyester dominated suiting fabrics give minimum seam stiffness because polyester component has low flexural rigidity. The cotton dominated suiting fabrics have less seam puckering due to increase in fabric stiffness. 1. Introduction The fabric quality influences not only the quality of the garment but also the ease with which a shell structure can be produced out with flat fabric. The specifications of fabrics for apparel manufacturing can be considered in terms of primary and secondary quality characteristics. The primary quality characteristics are static physical dimensions and secondary characteristics are the reactions of the fabric to an applied dynamic force. The apparel manufacturer is primarily interested in the secondary characteristics of the fabric and focus on the seam quality during the fabrication and production of apparel [1, 2]. On the other hand, apparel consumers are mainly paying attention to appearance, comfort, and wearability of fabric and evaluate seamquality based on the seam appearance and its mechanical intactness after wear and care procedures of apparel. The production of garments from high quality fabrics not only gives comfort to the wearer but also helps in the smooth working of manufacturing processes and leads to almost defect-free garments. Further, the primary function of a seam is to provide uniform stress transfer from one piece of fabric to another, thus preserving the overall integrity of the fabric assembly. For proper appearance, seam should not contain any defects including skipped stitches, unbalanced
Morbidity profile of cotton mill workers  [cached]
Yerpude Pravin,Jogdand Keerti
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among cotton mill workers. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in cotton mills in Guntur District (AP) in January 2009 to May 2009. Total 474 workers were included in the study. Results: All study subjects were male. Most of the study subjects belonged to age group 30 40 years (56.96%) and lower socioeconomic status (36.09%) according to modified Kuppuswamy′s classification. The literacy status was varied with 5.70% being illiterate and 37.13% were educated up to primary school. Most of workers were working in Ring frame (41.56%) and majority (58.44%) were working for the last 5 10 years. Mean height of study subjects was 147.42 cm and mean weight was 55.11 kg. The common morbid conditions found were eosinophilia (18.35%), iron deficiency anemia (28.90%), byssinosis grade 1 (7.80%), dental stains (6.54%), refractive errors (7.80%), chronic bronchitis (4.85%), and upper respiratory tract infection (8.64%).
Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate
Xing Tie-Ling,Liu Jie,Li Shi-Wei,Chen Guo-Qiang
Thermal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tsci1205472x
Abstract: Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloy-loxyethyl phosphate were investigated by the atom transfer radical polymerization method. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to explore the thermal decomposition mode of flamed retardant cotton fabric. The weight loss rate of the flamed retardant cotton was bigger than that of the control cotton fabric, and a more final residual char of flamed retardant cotton was also observed. Flammability tests were used to study the flame retardance property of the flame retardant cotton fabric. The results showed that flamed retardant cotton fabric with 16.8% of weight gain could keep good flame retardance. Scanning electron microscope pictures were applied to investigate the morphology of residual char of the flame retardant samples.
Thermogravimetric and kinetic study of methylolmelamine phosphate treated – cotton fabric
NA Ayeni, A Adeniyi, NN Abdullahi, E Bernard, AO Ogunleye
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Some salient properties of cotton cellulose which requires it to be treated with additives to improve its versatility were examined taken into consideration, the molecular structure. Thermogravimetric analysis of the cotton fabric and the treated cotton fabric were carried out in an improvised muffled furnace. The result was in accordance with the previous study carried out on cellulose showing two stages of thermal degradation with first degradation between 2500C – 3000C and estimated 75% weight loss. The treated fabrics show degradation at 2000C – 2500C with an estimated 10% - 25% weight loss and more stages of thermal degradation. This may be attributed to the structural modification of the cotton cellulose upon resination with methylolmelamine phosphate.
USING AGEING EFFECT FOR HYDROPHOBIC MODIFICATION OF COTTON FABRIC WITH ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA  [PDF]
Wing-Yu Iris Tsoi,Chi-Wai Kan,Chun-Wah Marcus Yuen
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: A hydrophobic modification of cotton fabric was demonstrated with atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with oxygen as the reactive gas. Oxygen plasma was determined to be capable of inducing hydrophobic modification of cotton fabric surface by utilizing the ageing effect. Upon ageing, the surface polarity was reversed and hydrophobic aliphatic hydrocarbons were formed, which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Surface hydrophobicity was quantified by the wetting area measurement. Wetted area of plasma-modified cotton was found to be strongly dependent on plasma-induced surface structures and the chemical composition on the fiber surface. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that physical morphological alteration was also a crucial factor that contributed to surface hydrophobicity. This work seeks to determine a controlled hydrophobic modification of textile materials through optimization of plasma process based on the Orthogonal Array Testing Strategy (OATS). Optimum process conditions were determined based on reduction of wetted area of plasma-modified cotton fabrics. Finally, hydrophobicity of plasma-modified cotton fabric was compared with conventional water repellency treatment.
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