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The Effectiveness of Drinking and Driving Policies for Different Alcohol-Related Fatalities: A Quantile Regression Analysis  [PDF]
Yung-Hsiang Ying,Chin-Chih Wu,Koyin Chang
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10104628
Abstract: To understand the impact of drinking and driving laws on drinking and driving fatality rates, this study explored the different effects these laws have on areas with varying severity rates for drinking and driving. Unlike previous studies, this study employed quantile regression analysis. Empirical results showed that policies based on local conditions must be used to effectively reduce drinking and driving fatality rates; that is, different measures should be adopted to target the specific conditions in various regions. For areas with low fatality rates (low quantiles), people’s habits and attitudes toward alcohol should be emphasized instead of transportation safety laws because “preemptive regulations” are more effective. For areas with high fatality rates (or high quantiles), “ ex-post regulations” are more effective, and impact these areas approximately 0.01% to 0.05% more than they do areas with low fatality rates.
The epidemiology of college alcohol and gambling policies
Howard J Shaffer, Anthony N Donato, Richard A LaBrie, Rachel C Kidman, Debi A LaPlante
Harm Reduction Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-2-1
Abstract: The college policy information was collected from handbooks, Web sites and supplemental materials of 119 scientifically selected colleges included in the fourth (2001) Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). A coding instrument of 40 items measured the scope and focus of school alcohol and gambling policies. This instrument included items to measure the presence of specific policies and establish whether the policies were punitive or rehabilitative. A total of 11 coders followed a process of information extraction, coding and arbitration used successfully in other published studies to codify policy information.Although all schools had a student alcohol use policy, only 26 schools (22%) had a gambling policy. Punitive and restrictive alcohol policies were most prevalent; recovery-oriented policies were present at fewer than 30% of schools. Certain alcohol and gambling policies had significant relationships with student binge drinking rates.The relative lack of college recovery-oriented policies suggests that schools might be overlooking the value of rehabilitative measures in reducing addictive behaviors among students. Since there are few college gambling-related policies, schools might be missing an opportunity to inform students about the dangers of excessive gambling.Young people are at increased risk for alcohol- and gambling-related problems compared to their older counterparts [1-3]. College and university students are at special risk because going to college often represents the first move away from their family and, as a result, fewer restrictions on their activities. (Because universities are by definition comprised of colleges, all institutions of higher learning henceforth will be referred to as "colleges.") In the United States, each year approximately 1.2 million freshmen enter four-year colleges [4]. Some of these freshmen enter college actively involved in recovery programs for alcohol abuse or other addictive behaviors (e.g., ill
Success local policies in preventing and reducing the alcohol consumption among youngters  [PDF]
Revista de Cercetare ?i Interven?ie Social? , 2012,
Abstract: Young people are most vulnerable to the consequences of alcohol consumption. Local autorithies are the main institution in the development of local policies to reduce alcohol related harm and preventive actions to target not only individual consumers, but the environment in which the young grows: parents, teachers and vendors of alcoholic beverages. The main goal of this project is to reduce youth alcohol availability. Cooperation between different organizations is essential because prevention education programs (schools) alone will not be able to change drinking behavior. In preparing its policy on alcohol on the knowledge of reality. Thereby, collecting local data on the level of alcohol consumption among young teens, parent’s attitudes and availability of alcohol was made by several sociological research base don sociological investigation. The population investigated included teenagers, parents and sellers of alcoholic beverages. Implementation of this policy required the formation of alcohol-related working groups according to the three elements of the project: public support (through media coverage and cooperareacu message frequency and parents), legal regulations and how to apply them (identification of the level of application and increased police actions in this direction). Key factors in the success of this project were the good communication and good cooperation of all involved.
Comparative Analysis of Alcohol Control Policies in 30 Countries  [PDF]
Donald A Brand,Michaela Saisana,Lisa A Rynn,Fulvia Pennoni,Albert B Lowenfels
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040151
Abstract: Background Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting goverments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator—the Alcohol Policy Index—to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. Methods and Findings The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains—physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg) to 67.3 (Norway). The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = ?0.57; p = 0.001): a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4–1.5 l). A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions. Conclusions The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.
Underage alcohol policies across 50 California cities: an assessment of best practices
Sue Thomas, Mallie J. Paschall, Joel W. Grube, Carol Cannon, Ryan Treffers
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-7-26
Abstract: Following best practice recommendations from a wide array of authoritative sources, we selected eight local alcohol policy topics (e.g., conditional use permits, responsible beverage service training, social host ordinances, window/billboard advertising ordinances), and determined the presence or absence as well as the stringency (restrictiveness) and comprehensiveness (number of provisions) of each ordinance in each of the 50 cities in 2009. Following the alcohol policy literature, we created scores for each city on each type of ordinance and its associated components. We used these data to evaluate the extent to which recommendations for best practices to reduce underage alcohol use are being followed.(1) Compiling datasets of local-level alcohol policy laws and their comprehensiveness and stringency is achievable, even absent comprehensive, on-line, or other legal research tools. (2) We find that, with some exceptions, most of the 50 cities do not have high scores for presence, comprehensiveness, or stringency across the eight key policies. Critical policies such as responsible beverage service and deemed approved ordinances are uncommon, and, when present, they are generally neither comprehensive nor stringent. Even within policies that have higher adoption rates, central elements are missing across many or most cities’ ordinances.This study demonstrates the viability of original legal data collection in the U.S. pertaining to local ordinances and of creating quantitative scores for each policy type to reflect comprehensiveness and stringency. Analysis of the resulting dataset reveals that, although the 50 cities have taken important steps to improve public health with regard to underage alcohol use and abuse, there is a great deal more that needs to be done to bring these cities into compliance with best practice recommendations.
Toro,Héctor Hernán; Rivera,Leonardo; Manotas,Diego Fernando;
Revista EIA , 2011,
Abstract: this work addresses the valuation of economic effects of different inventory holding policies. we study the var over the value of a company and the variations induced on this indicator by the changes made to the working capital, related to inventory policies. three typical different inventory systems are studied and comparisons are drawn between different policies. policies derived from net present value (npv) maximization are contrasted against cost minimization, as well as against arbitrary inventory policies derived from market conditions. every inventory system under study is evaluated using two performance indicators: npv and var over npv. the inventory policies are derived in a deterministic scenario, but are tested under the risk conditions that the inventory systems have to face. this is done by using monte carlo simulation. in all three of the inventory systems under study, the difference between price and variable cost is what causes the greatest variation on the npv indicator. an important result of this work is that for the cases studied, which are rather common in the real world, the optimal inventory policies obtained by using the cost minimization approach are equally good from a risk minimization perspective than those obtained by using the profit maximization approach.
The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review
Montarat Thavorncharoensap, Yot Teerawattananon, Jomkwan Yothasamut, Chanida Lertpitakpong, Usa Chaikledkaew
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-4-20
Abstract: Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies.Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies.Alcohol exerts a substantial economic burden worldwide [1-3]. The need for estimates of the economic cost of alcohol is almost self-evident. This estimation is potentially a valuable source of information for policymakers, researchers and public health planners. Specifically, it is useful in supporting a formulation of alcohol-related policies and in planning and estimating the cost-effectiveness of policies or interventions aimed at mitigating the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. In addition, it can be used to identify information gaps, research needs and adjustments to national statistical reporting systems. Also, it increases public awareness of the economic burden alcohol has on society.Estimating th
Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas: implications for alcohol policy
Rehm,Jürgen; Monteiro,Maristela;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892005000900003
Abstract: objectives: to describe patterns of alcohol consumption in the americas, to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol in the year 2000, and to suggest implications for policies to reduce alcohol-related disease burden. methods: two dimensions of alcohol exposure were included in this secondary data analysis: average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking. there were two main outcome measures: mortality (number of deaths) and disability-adjusted life years (dalys) lost (number of years of life lost due to premature mortality and disability). separate estimates were obtained for different sexes, age groups and who regions. results: despite regional variations, alcohol consumption in the americas averaged more than 50% higher than worldwide consumption. patterns of irregular heavy drinking prevailed. alcohol consumption caused a considerable disease burden: 4.8% of all the deaths and 9.7% of all dalys lost in the year 2000 were attributable to drinking, with most of the burden occurring outside north america. intentional and unintentional injuries accounted for 59.8% of all alcohol-related deaths and 38.4% of the alcohol-related disease burden. of all risk factors compared here, alcohol accounted for the greatest proportion of risk, followed by smoking. conclusions: interventions should be implemented to reduce the high burden of alcohol-related disease in the americas. given the epidemiological structure of this burden, injury prevention including, but not restricted to, prevention of traffic injuries, as well as appropriate treatment options, should play an important role in comprehensive plans to reduce the alcohol-related public health burden.
“Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study  [PDF]
Andrea S. Fogarty, Simon Chapman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065261
Abstract: Introduction Policies affecting alcohol’s price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. Method From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18–25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. Results Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol’s price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. Conclusions News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol’s price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well as facilitate understandings of how this culture is amenable to change through the use of evidence-based policies.
Cost-of-alcohol studies as a research programme
Klaus M kel
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-012-0026-7
Abstract: AIMS - According to the literature, estimates of the costs of alcohol abuse serve four main purposes: They draw attention to the severity of alcohol problems, they help to target specific problems and policies, they identify information gaps and they provide a baseline for future cost-effectiveness studies. This paper evaluates to which extent these purposes have been met in recent studies and how likely they can be met in the future. METHOD - Critical review. MATERIAL - Thirty reports on alcohol costs published after 2000. CONCLUSIONS - Even the most sophisticated cost-of-alcohol calculations include entries based on misleading assumptions or logical mistakes. Monetary calculations do not add precision to the comparison of the weight of health problems. Cost calculations cannot be used to compare the extent or nature of alcohol problems in different countries. Cost calculations should focus on money spent from clearly defined budgets. Calculating the costs to "society" is not a promising research program. It is good to measure the joys and sorrows of heavy drinkers and their nearest, but the use of a monetary metric conceals important issues and value judgments. As a research program, the cost-of-alcohol tradition is based on promises about future cost-effectiveness studies, but traditional measures of alcohol problems offer a better picture of the effects of policy measures than cost-of-alcohol estimates.
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