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Economic Conditions at the Time of Birth and Cognitive Abilities Late in Life: Evidence from Ten European Countries  [PDF]
Gabriele Doblhammer, Gerard J. van den Berg, Thomas Fritze
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074915
Abstract: With ageing populations, it becomes increasingly important to understand the determinants of cognitive ability among the elderly. We apply survey data of 17,070 respondents from ten countries to examine several domains of cognitive functioning at ages 60+, and we link them to the macro-economic deviations in the year of birth. We find that economic conditions at birth significantly influence cognitive functioning late in life in various domains. Recessions negatively influence numeracy, verbal fluency, recall abilities, as well as the score on the omnibus cognitive indicator. The results are robust; controlling for current characteristics does not change effect sizes and significance. We discuss possible causal social and biological pathways.
The Unexpected Impact of Parental Emotional Socialization on Theory of Mind and Emotion Regulation: The Case of Children with Intellectual Disabilities  [PDF]
Emilie Jacobs, Stéphanie Mazzone, Poline Simon, Nathalie Nader-Grosbois
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.109084
Abstract: Improving our understanding of contribution of environmental factors to Theory of Mind (ToM) and Emotion Regulation (ER) competences in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) is crucial to helping them to boost their emotional and social abilities. Parental emotion-related socialization behaviors (ERSBs) have been shown to be favorable factors for the development of these competences in preschoolers. However, few studies have investigated links between mothers’ and fathers’ ERSBs and socio-emotional abilities in children with IDs. The goal of this study is to explore the share of the variance in ToM and ER abilities explained by individual characteristic and each parent’s reactions to the emotions of their children with IDs and emotion-related conversation. Twenty-seven mothers, 16 fathers, and their children with IDs participated. Direct and indirect measures of children’s ToM were used. Questionnaires about children’s ER competences and parents’ ERSBs were completed by parents. The results demonstrated that, at preschool developmental age, parents’ ERSBs had an impact on affective and cognitive ToM as well as on ER, depending on the parent’s gender, on children’s chronological and developmental age, and on the nature of ERSBs, namely reactions or conversations.
Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden  [cached]
Anders Chronholm
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rsa.456
Abstract: Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.
Mothers More Altruistic than Fathers, but Only When Bearing Responsibility Alone: Evidence from Parental Choice Experiments in Tanzania  [PDF]
Jana Vyrastekova, Janine Huisman, Idda Mosha, Jeroen Smits
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099952
Abstract: Evolutionary theory predicts humans to be more altruistic towards genetically more closely related kin. Because fathers face uncertainty about the relation to their children, the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis predicts mothers to provide a higher share of parental care than fathers. We tested this hypothesis using parental choice experiments in rural Tanzania, in which fathers and mothers could choose between an outcome that benefited themselves and an outcome that benefited their children. When a parent was solely responsible for the outcome, mothers chose more altruistic than fathers. However when the choice situation was changed into a coordination game in which responsibility was shared with the partner, the sex difference disappeared. Fathers then chose somewhat more altruistic, but mothers substantially less. Our findings thus partly support the asymmetric parental altruism hypothesis, but they also show that parental altruism is influenced by the context in which choices are taken.
Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave  [PDF]
Marre Karu,Kairi Kasearu
Studies of Transition States and Societies , 2011,
Abstract: The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ a ected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren).
Development of cognitive abilities as educational goal  [PDF]
Milanovi?-Nahod Slobodanka S.,?aranovi?-Bo?anovi? Nade?da
Zbornik Instituta za Pedago?ka Istra?ivanja , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/zipi0436066m
Abstract: The present paper sets out to consider cognitive abilities development depending on learning and educational goals. Three standpoints and their effects on the quality of cognition are opposed: determination of tasks and goals beforehand, non-determination of tasks and goals beforehand, and alternative models where general and specific goals are planned specification being left to curriculum executors. Thereafter, consideration is given to the learning theories where it is insisted either upon learner’s individual activities or upon planning of learning context which contains interrelations between teachers, learners and contents. Emphasis is placed on a discrepancy between theoretical ideas providing good reasons for independently constructed knowledge evaluation, on the one hand, and school practice that commonly does not attribute great importance to such knowledge on the other hand. How the development of cognitive abilities will proceed in teaching depends largely on teachers themselves - their understanding of tasks and goals, qualifications they possess for school subject they teach manner of executing instruction, and familiarity with student personality needs. We can accept the standpoint that we need the theory focusing straight on education, but must be broad enough to embrace both individual and contextual perspective as well as activities of both teachers and students.
Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities  [PDF]
David Reilly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039904
Abstract: Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = ?.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = ?.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated.
Cognitive abilities and superior decision making under risk  [PDF]
Edward T. Cokely,Colleen M. Kelley
Judgment and Decision Making , 2009,
Abstract: Individual differences in cognitive abilities and skills can predict normatively superior and logically consistent judgments and decisions. The current experiment investigates the processes that mediate individual differences in risky choices. We assessed working memory span, numeracy, and cognitive impulsivity and conducted a protocol analysis to trace variations in conscious deliberative processes. People higher in cognitive abilities made more choices consistent with expected values; however, expected-value choices rarely resulted from expected-value calculations. Instead, the cognitive ability and choice relationship was mediated by the number of simple considerations made during decision making --- e.g., transforming probabilities and considering the relative size of gains. Results imply that, even in simple lotteries, superior risky decisions associated with cognitive abilities and controlled cognition can reflect metacognitive dynamics and elaborative heuristic search processes, rather than normative calculations. Modes of cognitive control (e.g., dual process dynamics) and implications for process models of risky decision-making (e.g., priority heuristic) are discussed.
How Are Parental Reactions to Children’s Emotions Related to Their Theory of Mind Abilities?  [PDF]
Stéphanie Mazzone, Nathalie Nader-Grosbois
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.72019
Abstract: In this study, parents’ reactions to their children’s emotions were investigated as correlates of children’s abilities in Theory of Mind (ToM). 175 parents completed questionnaires about their reactions to their children’s emotions. Children’s ToM abilities were assessed by direct measures and a questionnaire completed by mothers. Inter-parental comparisons and intra-parental inter-actions were explored. The maternal model was significant for children’s ToM-emotions and ToM-thinking. The paternal model was significant for children’s ToM-beliefs. Maternal supportive reactions (SR) to positive emotions were related to children’s ToM-emotions and ToM-thinking. Moreover, maternal non-supportive reactions (NSR) to negative emotions were negatively associated with children’s ToM-thinking. The interaction between paternal SR to children’s positive emotions and a low level of NSR to positive emotions was associated with a high level of ToM-beliefs. The results suggest that exploring the parental gender effect and the combined effects of parental reactions is useful for understanding children’s ToM development.
Development of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities (NOSCA)  [PDF]
Anke Persoon,Liesbeth Joosten-Weyn Banningh,Wim van de Vrie,Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert,Theo van Achterberg
ISRN Nursing , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/895082
Abstract: Background. To assess a patient's cognitive functioning is an important issue because nurses tailor their nursing interventions to the patient's cognitive abilities. Although some observation scales exist concerning one or more cognitive domains, so far, no scale has been available which assesses cognitive functioning in a comprehensive way. Objectives. To develop an observation scale with an accepted level of content validity and which assesses elderly patients' cognitive functioning in a comprehensive way. Methods. Delphi technique, a multidisciplinary panel developed the scale by consensus through four Delphi rounds (>70% agreement). The International Classification of Functioning/ICF was used as theoretical framework. Results. After the first two Delphi rounds, the panel reached consensus about 8 cognitive domains and 17 sub domains. After two other rounds, 39 items were selected, divided over 8 domains and 17 sub domains. Discussion. The Nurses' Observation Scale Cognitive Abilities (NOSCA) was successfully designed. The content validity of the scale is high because the scale sufficiently represents the concept of cognitive functioning: the experts reached a consensus of 70% or higher on all domains and items included; and no domains or items were lacking. As a next step, the psychometric qualities of the NOSCA will have to be tested. 1. Background The vulnerability of elderly hospital patients is characterised by simultaneously occurring somatic, psychological, and social problems, which may result in problems in cognitive functioning, mood, behaviour, activities of daily life, and, consequently, in declining quality of life. Determination of an individual’s specific cognitive status is important for two reasons. First, the choices of nursing interventions are substantially influenced by the patient’s cognitive abilities. The patient’s cognitive abilities determine the provision of nursing care to a large extent as they influence communication, the support to be given in daily life activities, the recognition and treatment of other nursing problems (e.g., pain, behavioural problems), and discharge policy [1–3]. The nurse’s approach to individual patients is also largely influenced by the type of cognitive problem. In case of memory problems, for example, information is repeated or written down; in case of problems in sustaining attention, a quiet environment is offered; and in case of executive problems, information is kept simple. Second, facilitation of medical diagnosis is another reason for determining cognitive status. Neuropsychiatric
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