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Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the paper was evaluation of selected agro-tourist farms in Poland. Research covered 10 tourist farms situated in Kujawy-Pomorze region, 5 were located in nin administrative unit and 5 in Golub-Dobrzyń administrative unit. The evaluation of accommodation standard, food and offered services in tested agro-tourist farms was done on the basis of the questionnaire-polls addressed to owners of these farms and guests who were there staying (done in July and August 2005). Among tourist 70% had full-board (3 meals) in 40% prepared from products coming from the farm. Own vegetables (in 70%) and poultry were used. Among respondents 84% thought that meals are varied and 68% that they are rich in all nutritional components. Most asked tourist making up 60% stated that accommodation and food standard is good. This case should be improved because the development of agro-tourism is done in regions, where favourable environmentally virtues with high accommodation and food standard are connected.
Chaido Dritsaki
Tourismos : an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism , 2009,
Abstract: This paper analyzes the supply of an important form of non urban tourism, the so-called agro tourism, together with providing a detailed literature review of the various stages of a tourist product life cycle. A theoretical econometric model of these life cycle phases is then presented. Finally, suggestions are proposed about the contribution of private and public sectors, and the strategies political institutions should follow in order to sustain and promote agro tourism.
Estimation of divergence times for major lineages of galliform birds: Evidence from complete mitochondrial genome sequences
X-Z Kan, X-F Li, Z-P Lei, L Chen, H Gao, Z-Y Yang, J-K Yang, Z-C Guo, L Yu, L-Q Zhang, C-J Qian
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Determining an absolute timescale for avian evolutionary history has been recently challenged by the relaxed molecular clock methods, that rates of molecular evolution can vary significantly among organisms. In this study, we used relaxed molecular clocks to date the divergence of major lineages of Galliformes based on complete mitochondrial genomes. A nucleotide dataset of 13 concatenated protein-coding genes from 22 species of Galliformes was used to investigate the evolutionary divergences within the group. Using Gallus bravardi, Schaubortyx and Gallinuloides fossils as calibration points, divergence times analyses were performed with four relaxed molecular clock methods as follows: (1) Bayesian method of Multidivtime; (2) Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis of the Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST); (3) local rate minimum deformation method (LRMD) of TREEFINDER; and (4) nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS) of TREEFINDER. The various relaxed clock methods all indicated that (1) Megapodiidae originated in the Late Cretaceous; (2) Numididae, Phasianidae, Arborophilinae and Coturnicinae originated in the Eocene of Palaeogene; (3) Pavoninae and Gallininae originated at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary; (4) Phasianinae and Meleagridinae originated in the Oligocene; (5) divergence times estimation among most genera of Phasianidae were much older than those of the previous studies. Our results might provide a more likely time scale for evolutionary history of the galliform birds.
Birds and fish as bioindicators of tourist disturbance in springs in semi-arid regions in Mexico: a basis for management  [PDF]
J. Palacio Nú?ez,J. R. Verdú,E. Galante,D. Jiménez-García
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2007,
Abstract: Tourist disturbance in semi-arid springs was analysed; birds and fish were selected as bioindicators. Media Luna spring is the biggest and most spatially complex system in the region, with the highest biodiversity levels and tourist use. Areas with the highest bird species richness and abundances showed highest structural heterogeneity and least direct human impact. No differences in species richness of fish were observed between sectors and the most abundant species were found in the sectors least perturbed by human activity. Factors that explained the bird distribution were the species' tolerance to the effects of direct tourism (noise and direct presence of people) and habitat quality, mainly riparian vegetation. Aquatic vegetation condition was very important for fish. Six bird species and two fish species were relevant as indicators of the habitat quality related to human impact. Anthropic disturbance such as tree plantation favoured some bird species, whereas aquatic vegetation removal was favourable for some fish species, such as the endemic Cichlasoma bartoni, however, both types of disturbance were unfavourable for other species; riparian vegetation removal was negative for both groups. Controlled tourism promotes good conditions for C. bartoni establishment. Efficient conservation measures such as limiting touristic distribution are necessary for all species, especially for the fish community, in order to conserve biodiversity in general.
Sequencing of the core MHC region of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and comparative genomics of the galliform MHC  [cached]
Wang Biao,Ekblom Robert,Strand Tanja M,Portela-Bens Silvia
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-553
Abstract: Background The MHC, which is regarded as the most polymorphic region in the genomes of jawed vertebrates, plays a central role in the immune system by encoding various proteins involved in the immune response. The chicken MHC-B genomic region has a highly streamlined gene content compared to mammalian MHCs. Its core region includes genes encoding Class I and Class IIB molecules but is only ~92Kb in length. Sequences of other galliform MHCs show varying degrees of similarity as that of chicken. The black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a wild galliform bird species which is an important model in conservation genetics and ecology. We sequenced the black grouse core MHC-B region and combined this with available data from related species (chicken, turkey, gold pheasant and quail) to perform a comparative genomics study of the galliform MHC. This kind of analysis has previously been severely hampered by the lack of genomic information on avian MHC regions, and the galliformes is still the only bird lineage where such a comparison is possible. Results In this study, we present the complete genomic sequence of the MHC-B locus of black grouse, which is 88,390 bp long and contains 19 genes. It shows the same simplicity as, and almost perfect synteny with, the corresponding genomic region of chicken. We also use 454-transcriptome sequencing to verify expression in 17 of the black grouse MHC-B genes. Multiple sequence inversions of the TAPBP gene and TAP1-TAP2 gene block identify the recombination breakpoints near the BF and BLB genes. Some of the genes in the galliform MHC-B region also seem to have been affected by selective forces, as inferred from deviating phylogenetic signals and elevated rates of non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions. Conclusions We conclude that there is large synteny between the MHC-B region of the black grouse and that of other galliform birds, but that some duplications and rearrangements have occurred within this lineage. The MHC-B sequence reported here will provide a valuable resource for future studies on the evolution of the avian MHC genes and on links between immunogenetics and ecology of black grouse.
Tourist Farm Service Quality Assessment  [PDF]
Karmen Pa?ek Ph.D., Assistant Professor,?rtomir Rozman Ph.D., Associate Professor
Journal for Geography , 2010,
Abstract: Farm tourism shows a structure different from agriculture, forestry, and fishery; farm tourism is expanding, labour intensive, generates an influx of money, and maintains the service base in the region. Farm tourism is one of the most important supplementary activities and generates onsiderable secondary income. This paper presents the developed methodology that will enable the ranking of tourist farms based on their service quality. This is accomplished through the use of the expert system based on the DEXi decision-making method. Using DEXi, the multi-criteria decision model for the assessment of farm tourism's service quality was developed. The model was applied in practice on 7 vacation farms. The data from thequestionnaires completed by farm guests and hosts was used as input data in the multiattribute model and as an arbitrary estimation for the farm. The results of the model are shown as the assessments for individual farms. Out of seven chosen farms, four achieved the best possible estimation. Two of them achieved middle estimation. For the last tourist farm, where a data deficit was present, the model showed two final possible estimations (very good or good and bad - depends on value of missing attributes).
Detecting Adaptive Evolution of Galliform and Anseriform Avians Mx Genes
Y.F. Zhu,H.F. Li,W. Han,J.T. Shu,W.T. Song,X.Y. Zhang,K.W. Chen
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1811.1815
Abstract: The objective of this study was to trace the route of avian Mx (myxo-virus resistance) gene evolution and knowledge of its structure and function variations. Mx gene cDNA sequences of six galliform and anseriform avians were used in this study. Datamonkey and DAMBE were used to detect recombination events and test nucleotide substitution saturation. PAML4b were used to test the selective pressure on amino acid sites. Saturation test did not indicate any sign of substitution saturation. Single breakpoint scanning and genetic algorithm scanning by Datamonkey found two breakpoints, located, respectively in 162 and 999 bp and divided the sequences into three nonrecombination split partitions. The selection test of site-specific mode showed that avian Mx gene sequences had suffered positive selection pressure. Likelihood Ratio Test (LTR) suggested M2a and M8 be more advantageous models,and in a total of eight positive sites with >95% posterior probability were identified in three nonrecombination split partitions. These detected positive sites distributed in N-ternimal and GTP-binding domain of Mx protein and might be important candidate marks for improving avian antiviral activity.
Study on the comprehensive evaluation index system of agro-eco-tourism destination

WEI Min,FENG Yong-Jun,LI Fen,WANG Xiao-Ling,

中国生态农业学报 , 2004,
Abstract: The evaluation principles and methods of agro-eco-tourism destination are put forward and a comprehensive evaluation index system,including tourist resources,agriculture and environments,social and economic factors,is constructed also. Using it, the Taishan agro-eco-tourism development area is evaluated.
The birds of the Addo National Park  [cached]
R. Liversidge
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1965, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v8i1.784
Abstract: The birds of the Addo National Park
The Radiant Agro-ecological Engineering and Its Function--A Case Study From Xinghuo Husbandary Farm

Zhang Bin,Zhang Xi-gu,
张 斌

中国生态农业学报 , 1993,
Abstract: In this paper the basic concept of radiant agro-ecoengineering is presented.With Xinghuo Husbandary Farm as an example,the radiant functions of the farm on the Production systems of the households around it are studied.Then the mechanism of the radiant action is probed into.
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