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Bisphenol A-Mediated Suppression of LPL Gene Expression Inhibits Triglyceride Accumulation during Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adult Stem Cells  [PDF]
Chris Linehan, Sanjeev Gupta, Afshin Samali, Lynn O'Connor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036109
Abstract: The endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to accelerate the rate of adipogenesis and increase the amount of triglyceride accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate if that observation is mirrored in human primary cells. Here we investigated the effect of BPA on adipogenesis in cultured human primary adult stem cells. Continuous exposure to BPA throughout the 14 days of differentiation dramatically reduced triglyceride accumulation and suppressed gene transcription of the lipogenic enzyme, lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Results presented in the present study show for the first time that BPA can reduce triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis by attenuating the expression of LPL gene transcription. Also, by employing image cytometric analysis rather than conventional Oil red O staining techniques we show that BPA regulates triglyceride accumulation in a manner which does not appear to effect adipogenesis per se.
Post-Heparin LPL Activity Measurement Using VLDL As a Substrate: A New Robust Method for Routine Assessment of Plasma Triglyceride Lipolysis Defects  [PDF]
Mathilde Di Filippo, Christophe Mar?ais, Sybil Charrière, Oriane Marmontel, Martine Broyer, Mireille Delay, Micheline Merlin, Axel Nollace, René Valéro, Michel Lagarde, Valérie Pruneta-Deloche, Philippe Moulin, Agnès Sassolas
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096482
Abstract: Background Determination of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is important for hyperchylomicronemia diagnosis, but remains both unreliable and cumbersome with current methods. Consequently by using human VLDL as substrate we developed a new LPL assay which does not require sonication, radioactive or fluorescent particles. Methods Post-heparin plasma was added to the VLDL substrate prepared by ultracentrifugation of heat inactivated normolipidemic human serums, diluted in buffer, pH 8.15. Following incubation at 37°c, the NEFA (non esterified fatty acids) produced were assayed hourly for 4 hours. LPL activity was expressed as μmol/l/min after subtraction of hepatic lipase (HL) activity, obtained following LPL inhibition with NaCl 1.5 mmol/l. Molecular analysis of LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, APOE genes was available for 62 patients. Results Our method was reproducible (coefficient of variation (CV): intra-assay 5.6%, inter-assay 7.1%), and tightly correlated with the conventional radiolabelled triolein emulsion method (n = 26, r = 0.88). Normal values were established at 34.8±12.8 μmol/l/min (mean±SD) from 20 control subjects. LPL activities obtained from 71 patients with documented history of major hypertriglyceridemia showed a trimodal distribution. Among the 11 patients with a very low LPL activity (<10 μmol/l/min), 5 were homozygous or compound heterozygous for LPL or GPIHBP1 deleterious mutations, 3 were compound heterozygous for APOA5 deleterious mutations and the p.S19W APOA5 susceptibility variant, and 2 were free of any mutations in the usual candidate genes. No homozygous gene alteration in LPL, GPIHBP1 and APOC2 genes was found in any of the patients with LPL activity >10 μmol/l/min. Conclusion This new reproducible method is a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and reliably identifies LPL activity defects.
The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature  [cached]
Peter Schneck
American Studies Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study
María-José Ariza, Miguel-ángel Sánchez-Chaparro, Francisco-Javier Barón, Ana-María Hornos, Eva Calvo-Bonacho, José Rioja, Pedro Valdivielso, José-Antonio Gelpi, Pedro González-Santos
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-66
Abstract: A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption.We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.39-2.87; p < 0.001) or more (2 or 3 raising variants; OR = 2.90; 95% CI, 1.56-5.41; p < 0.001) were associated with HTG.Our results showed a significant independent additive effect on TG levels of the LPL polymorphisms HindIII, S447X, D9N and N291S; the S19W and -1131T/C variants of APOA5, and the ε4 allele of APOE in our study population. Moreover, some of the varian
African American and Caribbean Literatures in Belgium
Bénédicte Ledent
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2009,
Abstract: It has not been easy to collect information on African American research conducted in Belgium since the 1960s. In our country there has not been an undertaking of a size and scope comparable to what Michel and Geneviève Fabre have achieved in France, perhaps because Belgium is divided linguistically, with two communities, one Dutch-speaking, the other French-speaking, each with separate funding bodies, a situation that does not make national research projects easy to implement. This being sai...
Intimate Partner Violence in African American Women
Campbell, D., Sharps, P., Gary, F., Campbell, J., Lopez, L
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2002,
Abstract: Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Takotsubo Syndrome in African American vs. Non-African American Women  [cached]
QaQa, Ashraf,Daoko, Joseph,Jallad, Nesreen,Aburomeh, Omar
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a reversible cause of heart failure rarely described in African-American patients. This study aimed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of TTS in African-American (AA) and non-African-American (NAA) patients.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of eight patients (four AA and four NAA) diagnosed with TTS, between June 2006 and August 2008, in four different teaching hospitals: St Michael’s Medical Center, St Joseph’s Medical Center, Trinitas hospital and St Louis’ University Hospital. We compared the patients with regard to presenting symptoms, precipitating stressors, electrocardiographic findings, troponin levels, ejection fraction and in-hospital course.Results: All patients were females (mean age 64 for AA and 67 for NAA). All patients experienced chest pain and had elevated troponin levels. Two AA and three NAA patients had associated shortness of breath and one NAA had syncope. All AA and three NAA had T-wave inversions. Three NAA and one AA had ST segment elevation. Three patients in both groups developed prolongation of the QT interval. Coronary angiograms did not reveal any significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Three patients, all NAA, needed hemodynamic support during their hospital stay but none died.Conclusion: AA and NAA women with TTS have similar presenting symptoms but may differ in the electrocardiographic findings and in-hospital course of the disease. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2):218-223.]
African American Visual Artists in France
Ma?ca Sanconie
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2009,
Abstract: This paper presents a panorama of the presence of African-American artists in France over the last 30 years or so: from 1979, when I met Michel Fabre, under whose direction I wrote my doctoral dissertation – completed in 1984 – up to and including my participation in Michel and Geneviève Fabre’s activities with the Cercle d’études afro-américaines. I have divided this time into three periods, all predicated on the extraordinary advent of Basquiat’s art in France in the late 1980s. These perio...
Racial difference in Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) correlates to triglyceride in non-obese and obese African American and Caucasian women
Thea Scantlebury-Manning, Joseph Bower, Katherine Cianflone, Hisham Barakat
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-6-18
Abstract: 129 women were recruited in total (age 21 – 73 y): 24 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) CA, 27 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) CA, 13 obese diabetic CA, 25 non-obese AA, 25 obese AA, and 15 obese diabetic AA. Cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoB, glucose and insulin were measured at baseline. TG, non-esterified fatty acids, leptin, and ASP were measured at baseline and postprandially following a fat meal.ASP, leptin, insulin and TG were significantly increased in obese subjects within each race. However, AA women had significantly lower ASP and TG than CA women at all BMI. Obese and diabetic AA women had significantly lower apoB levels than CA women when compared to their respective counterparts. For AA women, fasting ASP was positively correlated with BMI, cholesterol, apoB, LDL-C and glucose. For CA women, fasting ASP was positively correlated with BMI, leptin, glucose and insulin. However, for any given BMI, ASP was significantly reduced in AA vs CA (p = 0.0004). Similarly, for any given leptin level or TG levels, ASP was significantly lower in AA women (p = 0.041 and p = 0.003, respectively).CA women have higher baseline TG levels and an earlier TG peak that is accompanied with higher ASP levels suggesting increased ASP resistance, while AA women have lower baseline TG levels and a later TG peak at lower ASP levels suggesting increased ASP sensitivity. This may explain why AA women may have fewer metabolic complications, such as diabetes and CVD, when compared to their Caucasian counterparts at the same level of obesity.There has been an increase in the general prevalence of obesity from 15% during NHANES II (1976–1980) to more recent estimates of nearly 31% during NHANES (1999–2000)[1]. There are several risk factors that have been associated with obesity, including hyperinsulinemia, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In addition to the increased morbidity, approximately 325 000 deaths in the United States each year among nonsmokers are attributed t
Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women  [cached]
Marie N Fongwa,Lorraines S Evangelista,Ron D Hays,David S Martins
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2008,
Abstract: Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
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