oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Influence of rheology on debris-flow simulation
M. Arattano, L. Franzi,L. Marchi
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2006,
Abstract: Systems of partial differential equations that include the momentum and the mass conservation equations are commonly used for the simulation of debris flow initiation, propagation and deposition both in field and in laboratory research. The numerical solution of the partial differential equations can be very complicated and consequently many approximations that neglect some of their terms have been proposed in literature. Many numerical methods have been also developed to solve the equations. However we show in this paper that the choice of a reliable rheological model can be more important than the choice of the best approximation or the best numerical method to employ. A simulation of a debris flow event that occurred in 2004 in an experimental basin on the Italian Alps has been carried out to investigate this issue. The simulated results have been compared with the hydrographs recorded during the event. The rheological parameters that have been obtained through the calibration of the mathematical model have been also compared with the rheological parameters obtained through the calibration of previous events, occurred in the same basin. The simulation results show that the influence of the inertial terms of the Saint-Venant equation is much more negligible than the influence of the rheological parameters and the geometry. A methodology to quantify this influence has been proposed.
Assessing potential debris flow runout: a comparison of two simulation models
M. Pirulli,G. Sorbino
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: In the present paper some of the problems related to the application of the continuum mechanics modelling to debris flow runout simulation are discussed. Particularly, a procedure is proposed to face the uncertainties in the choice of a numerical code and in the setting of rheological parameter values that arise when the prediction of a debris flow propagation is required. In this frame, the two codes RASH3D and FLO2D are used to numerically analyse the propagation of potential debris flows affecting two study sites in Southern Italy. For these two study sites, a lack in information prevents that the rheological parameters can be obtained from the back analysis of similar well documented debris flow events in the area. As a prediction of the possible runout area is however required by decision makers, an alternative approach based on the analysis of the alluvial fans existing at the toe of the two studied basins is proposed to calibrate rheological parameters on the safe side. From the comparison of the results obtained with RASH3D (where a Voellmy and a Quadratic rheologies are implemented) and FLO2D (where a Quadratic rheology is implemented) it emerges that, for the two examined cases, numerical analyses carried out with RASH3D assuming a Voellmy rheology can be considered on the safe side respect to those carried out with a Quadratic rheology.
Assessing potential debris flow runout: a comparison of two simulation models  [PDF]
M. Pirulli,G. Sorbino
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: In the present paper some of the problems related to the application of the continuum mechanics modelling to debris flow runout simulation are discussed. Particularly, a procedure is proposed to face the uncertainties in the choice of a numerical code and in the setting of rheological parameter values that arise when the prediction of a debris flow propagation is required. In this frame, the two codes RASH3D and FLO2D are used to numerically analyse the propagation of potential debris flows affecting two study sites in Southern Italy. For these two study sites, a lack in information prevents that the rheological parameters can be obtained from the back analysis of similar well documented debris flow events in the area. As a prediction of the possible runout area is however required by decision makers, an alternative approach based on the analysis of the alluvial fans existing at the toe of the two studied basins is proposed to calibrate rheological parameters on the safe side. From the comparison of the results obtained with RASH3D (where a Voellmy and a Quadratic rheologies are implemented) and FLO2D (where a Quadratic rheology is implemented) it emerges that, for the two examined cases, numerical analyses carried out with RASH3D assuming a Voellmy rheology can be considered on the safe side respect to those carried out with a Quadratic rheology.
Influence of check dams on debris-flow run-out intensity  [PDF]
A. Rema?tre,Th. W. J. van Asch,J.-P. Malet,O. Maquaire
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: Debris flows are very dangerous phenomena claiming thousands of lives and millions of Euros each year over the world. Disaster mitigation includes non-structural (hazard mapping, insurance policies), active structural (drainage systems) and passive structural (check dams, stilling basins) countermeasures. Since over twenty years, many efforts are devoted by the scientific and engineering communities to the design of proper devices able to capture the debris-flow volume and/or break down the energy. If considerable theoretical and numerical work has been performed on the size, the shape and structure of check dams, allowing the definition of general design criteria, it is worth noting that less research has focused on the optimal location of these dams along the debris-flow pathway. In this paper, a methodological framework is proposed to evaluate the influence of the number and the location of the check dams on the reduction of the debris-flow intensity (in term of flow thickness, flow velocity and volume). A debris-flow model is used to simulate the run-out of the debris flow. The model uses the Janbu force diagram to resolve the force equilibrium equations; a bingham fluid rheology is introduced and represents the resistance term. The model has been calibrated on two muddy debris-flow events that occurred in 1996 and 2003 at the Faucon watershed (South French Alps). Influence of the check dams on the debris-flow intensity is quantified taking into account several check dams configurations (number and location) as input geometrical parameters. Results indicate that debris-flow intensity is decreasing with the distance between the source area and the first check dams. The study demonstrates that a small number of check dams located near the source area may decrease substantially the debris-flow intensity on the alluvial fans.
On the use of the calibration-based approach for debris-flow forward-analyses  [PDF]
M. Pirulli
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-10-1009-2010
Abstract: In the present paper the problem of modeling the propagation of potential debris flows is tackled resorting to a numerical approach. In particular, numerical analyses are carried out with the RASH3D code, based on a single-phase depth-averaged continuum mechanics approach. Since each numerical analysis requires the selection of a rheology and the setting of the rheological input parameters, a calibration-based approach, where the rheological parameters are constrained by systematic adjustment during trial-and-error back-analysis of full-scale events, has been assumed. The back-analysis of a 1000 m3 debris flow, located at Tate's Cairn, Hong Kong, and the forward-analysis of a 10 000 m3 potential debris flow, located in the same basin have been used to investigate the transferability of back-calculated rheological parameters from one case to another. Three different rheologies have been tested: Frictional, Voellmy and Quadratic. From obtained results it emerges that 1) the back-calculation of a past event with different rheologies can help in selecting the rheology that better reproduces the runout of the analysed event and, on the basis of that selection, can give some indication about the dynamics of the investigated flow, 2) the use of back-calculated parameters for forward purposes requires that past and potential events have similar characteristics, some of which are a function of the assumed rheology. Among tested rheologies, it is observed that the Quadratic rheology is more influenced by volume size than Frictional and Voellmy rheologies and consequently its application requires that events are also similar in volume.
Parameterization of a numerical 2-D debris flow model with entrainment: a case study of the Faucon catchment, Southern French Alps
H. Y. Hussin, B. Quan Luna, C. J. van Westen, M. Christen, J.-P. Malet,Th. W. J. van Asch
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: The occurrence of debris flows has been recorded for more than a century in the European Alps, accounting for the risk to settlements and other human infrastructure that have led to death, building damage and traffic disruptions. One of the difficulties in the quantitative hazard assessment of debris flows is estimating the run-out behavior, which includes the run-out distance and the related hazard intensities like the height and velocity of a debris flow. In addition, as observed in the French Alps, the process of entrainment of material during the run-out can be 10–50 times in volume with respect to the initially mobilized mass triggered at the source area. The entrainment process is evidently an important factor that can further determine the magnitude and intensity of debris flows. Research on numerical modeling of debris flow entrainment is still ongoing and involves some difficulties. This is partly due to our lack of knowledge of the actual process of the uptake and incorporation of material and due the effect of entrainment on the final behavior of a debris flow. Therefore, it is important to model the effects of this key erosional process on the formation of run-outs and related intensities. In this study we analyzed a debris flow with high entrainment rates that occurred in 2003 at the Faucon catchment in the Barcelonnette Basin (Southern French Alps). The historic event was back-analyzed using the Voellmy rheology and an entrainment model imbedded in the RAMMS 2-D numerical modeling software. A sensitivity analysis of the rheological and entrainment parameters was carried out and the effects of modeling with entrainment on the debris flow run-out, height and velocity were assessed.
Debris flow characteristics and relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees
A. Lorente,S. Beguería,J. C. Bathurst,J. M. García-Ruiz
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2003,
Abstract: Unconfined debris flows (i.e. not in incised channels) are one of the most active geomorphic processes in mountainous areas. Since they can threaten settlements and infrastructure, statistical and physically based procedures have been developed to assess the potential for landslide erosion. In this study, information on debris flow characteristics was obtained in the field to define the debris flow runout distance and to establish relationships between debris flow parameters. Such relationships are needed for building models which allow us to improve the spatial prediction of debris flow hazards. In general, unconfined debris flows triggered in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees are of the same order of magnitude as others reported in the literature. The deposition of sediment started at 17.8°, and the runout distance represented 60% of the difference in height between the head of the landslide and the point at which deposition started. The runout distance was relatively well correlated with the volume of sediment.
Rheology of sediment transported by a laminar flow  [PDF]
M. Houssais,C. P. Ortiz,D. J. Durian,D. J. Jerolmack
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Understanding the dynamics of fluid-driven sediment transport remains challenging, as it is an intermediate region between a granular material and a fluid flow. Boyer \textit{et al.}\citep{Boyer2011} proposed a local rheology unifying dense dry-granular and viscous-suspension flows, but it has been validated only for neutrally-buoyant particles in a confined system. Here we generalize the Boyer \textit{et al.}\citep{Boyer2011} model to account for the weight of a particle by addition of a pressure $P_0$, and test the ability of this model to describe sediment transport in an idealized laboratory river. We subject a bed of settling plastic particles to a laminar-shear flow from above, and use Refractive-Index-Matching to track particles' motion and determine local rheology --- from the fluid-granular interface to deep in the granular bed. Data from all experiments collapse onto a single curve of friction $\mu$ as a function of the viscous number $I_v$ over the range $10^{-5} \leq I_v \leq 1$, validating the local rheology model. For $I_v < 10^{-5}$, however, data do not collapse. Instead of undergoing a jamming transition with $\mu \rightarrow \mu_s$ as expected, particles transition to a creeping regime where we observe a continuous decay of the friction coefficient $\mu \leq \mu_s$ as $I_v$ decreases. The rheology of this creep regime cannot be described by the local model, and more work is needed to determine whether a non-local rheology model can be modified to account for our findings.
Confined flow of suspensions modeled by a frictional rheology  [PDF]
Brice Lecampion,Dmitry I. Garagash
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2014.557
Abstract: We investigate in detail the problem of confined pressure-driven laminar flow of neutrally buoyant non-Brownian suspensions using a frictional rheology based on the recent proposal of Boyer et al., 2011. The friction coefficient and solid volume fraction are taken as functions of the dimensionless viscous number I defined as the ratio between the fluid shear stress and the particle normal stress. We clarify the contributions of the contact and hydrodynamic interactions on the evolution of the friction coefficient between the dilute and dense regimes reducing the phenomenological constitutive description to three physical parameters. We also propose an extension of this constitutive law from the flowing regime to the fully jammed state. We obtain an analytical solution of the fully-developed flow in channel and pipe for the frictional suspension rheology. The result can be transposed to dry granular flow upon appropriate redefinition of the dimensionless number I. The predictions are in excellent agreement with available experimental results, when using the values of the constitutive parameters obtained independently from stress-controlled rheological measurements. In particular, the frictional rheology correctly predicts the transition from Poiseuille to plug flow and the associated particles migration with the increase of the entrance solid volume fraction. We numerically solve for the axial development of the flow from the inlet of the channel/pipe toward the fully-developed state. The available experimental data are in good agreement with our predictions. The solution of the axial development of the flow provides a quantitative estimation of the entrance length effect in pipe for suspensions. A analytical expression for development length is shown to encapsulate the numerical solution in the entire range of flow conditions from dilute to dense.
Method and its application of the momentum model for debris flow risk zoning
Fangqiang Wei,Kaiheng Hu,J. L. Lopez,Peng Cui
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2003, DOI: 10.1360/03tb9126
Abstract: In order to ascertain the distribution of flow depth and velocity of debris flow, the combination of numerical modeling and the GIS technology has been used to simulate the movement process of debris flow out of the outlet. The main model of momentum classification of risk zoning of debris flow is Z=Khv. Based on the distribution of the velocity and depth of debris flow, the distribution of momentum can be ascertained. Thereby the classification of risk zoning of debris flow can be worked out. A case study of Chacaito Valley in Caracas, Venezuela, is presented to illustrate the application of the method.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.