oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Temperature tides determined with meteor radar  [PDF]
W. K. Hocking,A. Hocking
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A new analysis method for producing tidal temperature parameters using meteor radar measurements is presented, and is demonstrated with data from one polar and two mid-latitude sites. The technique further develops the temperature algorithm originally introduced by Hocking (1999). That earlier method was used to produce temperature measurements over time scales of days and months, but required an empirical model for the mean temperature gradient in the mesopause region. However, when tides are present, this temperature gradient is modulated by the presence of the tides, complicating extraction of diurnal variations. Nevertheless, if the vertical wavelengths of the tides are known from wind measurements, the effects of the gradient variations can be compensated for, permitting determination of temperature tidal amplitudes and phases by meteor techniques. The basic theory is described, and results from meteor radars at Resolute Bay (Canada), London (Canada) and Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) are shown. Our results are compared with other lidar data, computer models, fundamental tidal theory and rocket data. Phase measurements at two mid-latitude sites (Albuquerque, New Mexico, and London, Canada) show times of maximum for the diurnal temperature tide to change modestly throughout most of the year, varying generally between 0 h and 6 h, with an excursion to 12 h in June at London. The semidiurnal tide shows a larger annual variation in time of maximum, being at 2–4 h in the winter months but increasing to 9 h during the late summer and early fall. We also find that, at least at mid-latitudes, the phase of the temperature tide matches closely the phase of the meridional tide, and theoretical justification for this statement is given. We also demonstrate that this is true using the Global Scale Wave Model (Hagan et al., 1999). Median values for the temperature amplitudes for each site are in the range 5 to 6 Kelvin. Results from a more northern site (Resolute Bay) show less consistency between the wind tides and the temperature tides, supporting suggestions that the temperature tides may be zonally symmetric at these high latitudes (e.g. Walterscheid and Sivjee, 2001). Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides) – Radio science (signal processing)
On the validity of the ambipolar diffusion assumption in the polar mesopause region
A. P. Ballinger, P. B. Chilson, R. D. Palmer,N. J. Mitchell
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: The decay of underdense meteor trails in the polar mesopause region is thought to be predominantly due to ambipolar diffusion, a process governed by the ambient temperature and pressure. Hence, observations of meteor decay times have been used to indirectly measure the temperature of the mesopause region. Using meteor observations from a SKiYMET radar in northern Sweden during 2005, this study found that weaker meteor trails have shorter decay times (on average) than relatively stronger trails. This suggests that processes other than ambipolar diffusion can play a significant role in trail diffusion. One particular mechanism, namely electron-ion recombination, is explored. This process is dependent on the initial electron density within the meteor trail, and can lead to a disproportionate reduction in decay time, depending on the strength of the meteor.
Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR)
A. R. Webster, P. G. Brown, J. Jones, K. J. Ellis,M. Campbell-Brown
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2004,
Abstract: The radar system described here (CMOR) comprises a basic 5-element receiving system, co-located with a pulsed transmitter, specifically designed to observe meteor echoes and to determine their position in space with an angular resolution of ~1° and a radial resolution of ~3 km. Two secondary receiving sites, a few km distant and arranged to form approximately a right angle with the base station, allow the determination of the velocity (speed and direction) of the meteor that, together with the time of occurrence, lead to an estimate of the orbit of the original meteoroid. Some equipment details are presented along with a method used to determine the orbits. Representative echoes are shown and observations on the 2002 Leonid shower presented.
The decay of radar echoes from meteors with particular reference to their use in the determination of temperature fluctuations near the mesopause  [cached]
W. Jones
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The rate of decay of a radar echo from an ionised meteor train will be governed by the diffusion coefficient of the plasma and this in turn will depend on the temperature. Very recently the temperature fluctuations near the mesopause have been monitored by this means, by the recording of the decay times of underdense trains. The usual derivation of the precise expression relating the underdense echo decay time to the temperature contains two important assumptions, (i) that the train is created with a Gaussian ionisation profile, and (ii) that kinetic theory may be applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient. We investigate the effect of these assumptions, showing that the first assumption is unnecessary, an underdense backscatter echo decaying exponentially with a decay time equal to λ2/(32π2D), where λ is the wavelength and D the diffusion coefficient, independently of the initial distribution. However, the second assumption is shown to be incorrect, and whereas according to kinetic theory D∝T1/2/ρ, where T and ρ are the atmospheric temperature and density, the correct result is D∝Tρ. This leads to an appreciable correction to the results for the temperature fluctuations.
First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA  [PDF]
A. N. Karashtin,Y. V. Shlyugaev,V. I. Abramov,I. F. Belov
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: HF sounding of the mesosphere was first carried out at SURA in summer 1994 at frequencies in the range 8–9 MHz using one of the sub-arrays of the SURA heating facility. The observations had a range resolution of 3 km. Almost all measurements indicated the presence of strong radar returns from altitudes between 83 and 90 km with features very similar to VHF measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes and polar mesopause summer echoes. In contrast to VHF observations, HF mesopause echoes are almost always present.
Comparison of D-region Doppler drift winds measured by the SuperDARN Finland HF radar over an annual cycle using the Kiruna VHF meteor radar  [PDF]
N. F. Arnold,P. A. Cook,T. R. Robinson,M. Lester
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The SuperDARN chain of oblique HF radars has provided an opportunity to generate a unique climatology of horizontal winds near the mesopause at a number of high latitude locations, via the Doppler shifted echoes from sources of ionisation in the D-region. Ablating meteor trails form the bulk of these targets, but other phenomena also contribute to the observations. Due to the poor vertical resolution of the radars, care must be taken to reduce possible biases from sporadic-E layers and Polar Mesospheric Summer echoes that can affect the effective altitude of the geophysical parameters being observed. Second, there is strong theoretical and observational evidence to suggest that the radars are picking up echoes from the backward looking direction that will tend to reduce the measured wind strengths. The effect is strongly frequency dependent, resulting in a 20% reduction at 12 MHz and a 50% reduction at 10 MHz. A comparison of the climatologies observed by the Super-DARN Finland radar between September 1999 and September 2000 and that obtained from the adjacent VHF meteor radar located at Kiruna is also presented. The agreement between the two instruments was very good. Extending the analysis to the SuperDARN Iceland East radar indicated that the principles outlined above could be applied successfully to the rest of the SuperDARN network. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; instruments and techniques) – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides)
Radar meteor decay rate variability and atmospheric consequences
D. A. Holdsworth,I. M. Reid
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2004,
Abstract: This paper describes the routine observations scheme implemented for the Buckland Park medium frequency (BPMF) radar. These observations are rare among current MF/HF radar observations in that they are made using a relatively narrow transmit polar diagram. The flexibility of the radar allows a number of analyses to be performed simultaneously. The analyses described include the full correlation analysis (FCA), spatial correlation analysis (SCA), hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI) and imaging Doppler interferometry (IDI) for observations of mesospheric dynamics and the temporal and spatial characteristics of their scatterers, the differential absorption experiment (DAE) for the estimation of electron densities and collision frequencies, and meteor analysis for estimation of meteor height, time and angle of arrival (AOA) distributions. Intercomparisons between wind velocities estimated using the FCA with SCA, HDI and IDI techniques are presented. The FCA velocities exhibit the well-known "triangle size effect" (TSE), whereby the wind velocity is underestimated at smaller antenna spacings. Although the SCA, IDI and HDI techniques were not applied concurrently, comparisons using FCA as a reference suggest these techniques produce velocities in good agreement.
Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the Arctic circle  [PDF]
W. Singer,J. Wei?,U. von Zahn
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: Meteors are an important source for (a) the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b) for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost) towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost) the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month) of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon. This radiant location should cause most of these shower meteors to occur above 100 km altitude. In our observations, the June maximum in meteor rate is produced, however, almost exclusively by meteors below 100 km altitude.
Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle
W. Singer,U. von Zahn,J. Wei?
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2004,
Abstract: Meteors are an important source for (a) the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b) for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost) towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost) the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month) of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.
Sodium resonance lidar observations during 2001 Leonid meteor shower over Wuhan
Jinbo Liu,Fan Yi
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/BF03182816
Abstract: Here is the first report on the observation of meteor ablation trails with lidar in China. Four long-lived Na ablation trails were observed during the 18/19 Nov. 2001 Leonid meteor shower with a sodium resonance lidar over Wuhan. The mean altitude of the 4 trails is 97.95 km, consistent with Leonid high entry velocity (~72 km/s). The peak density averages about 3380±3633 cm 3, and the abundance is (2.33 ±1.49) ×108 cm 2, both of which are higher than those previously observed for sporadic meteor trails. The RMS width is 359 m and the meteor’s age is 81 min, indicating that they are long duration meteor trails. These observation results are quite different from those of sporadic meteor trails, but comparable to the 1998 and 1999 Leonid report. Five night observations from 17 Nov. to 23 Nov. suggest that the 2001 Leonid meteor shower does not have a significant impact on the abundance of the background Na layer.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.