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The Zithromax donation for trachoma elimination
Lisa A Rotondo,Rachel Seligson
Community Eye Health Journal , 2011,
Abstract: All readers of the Community Eye Health Journal who are responsible for managing trachoma programmes at national, regional, or district level need to be familiar with the requirements for Zithromax donation. The generous global donation of the antibiotic Zithromax by Pfizer Inc. through the International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) can play an important role in the successful elimination of blinding trachoma. Therefore, the procedures required to apply for and manage the product need to be understood and followed.
Body donation in India: a review  [cached]
Shrikant A. Rokade,B. H. Bahetee
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2320-6012.ijrms20130814
Abstract: The study of anatomy is inseparable from cadaveric dissection. However scarcity of cadavers is felt all over the world. Body donation is the preferred and major source of cadavers worldwide. It is defined as an informed and free act of giving one s whole body after death for medical education and research. This article gives a brief review of history of body donation. It reveals the details about who can donate and who can accept the body along with procedure followed to donate body in India. It discusses the donors attitude behind body donation and factors preventing people from body donation. It deals with approach of various religions towards body donation. It discusses some important ways to overcome the scarcity of bodies in India and the world. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000): 173-177]
Dementia as an Exclusion to Tissue Donation
Anita Jack
Cell & Tissue Transplantation & Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: The risk of transmission of potentially fatal infectious diseases from donor to recipient via tissue transplantation cannot practically be eliminated, but must be minimised. Careful screening of potential and actual donors is the major available tool to achieve this. Screening usually involves investigation of patient medical records for not only diagnoses, but also risk factors or markers for disease. Dementia is one such marker identified by tissue banks as it is one of the few indicators of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). However, CJD accounts for only a very small percentage of dementia cases in Australia and dementia is extremely common in the potential donor population. Aim: The aim of this investigation was to analyse the reasons for excluding potential donors from donation and to compare the number of individuals excluded due to dementia with the expected number of deaths due to CJD during the same period. Methodology: The Queensland Eye Bank is automatically notified of deaths which occur within many Queensland hospitals. Each notification is investigated to determine suitability for tissue donation using a standard procedure and the reason for exclusion from donation and/or transplantation is recorded. The death notifications received by the Queensland Eye Bank in 2007 were analysed to determine how many potential and actual donors were excluded due to dementia. Results: In 2007, of the 4053 death notifications received by QEB, 3575 were not considered suitable for donation. Of these, 168 (4.2%) were excluded on the basis of dementia.
Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in
S. Sanavi,R. Afshar,N. Sanavi
International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threateningdiseases.Objective: To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM) andblood (as tissue) donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15–18 years, whostudied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consistingof age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blooddonation according to a Likert scale.Results: Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% ingrade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities), 26% in grade III (30% naturalsciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities), and 16% in pre-university level (college) (32% naturalsciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities). The students had highly positive attitudes towardBM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54). The willingness for BM and blood donation wasdeclared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate onlyto their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation betweenthe donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantlycorrelated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively).Conclusion: Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesserthan blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organizededucational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary.
Intramolecular bridges formed by photoswitchable click amino acids
Christian Hoppmann,Ronald Kühne,Michael Beyermann
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.8.100
Abstract: Photoswitchable click amino acids (PSCaa) are amino acids bearing a side chain consisting of a photoswitchable unit elongated with a functional group that allows for a specific click reaction, such as an alkene that can react with the thiol group of a cysteine residue. An intramolecular click reaction results in the formation of a photoswitchable bridge, which can be used for controlling conformational domains in peptides and proteins. The ability to control conformations as well as the efficiency of the intramolecular bridging depends on the length of the PSCaa side chain and the distance to the cysteine residue to be clicked with. On comparing i,i+4 and i,i+7 spacings of PSCaa and cysteine in a model peptide without a preferred conformation, it was seen that the thiol–ene click reaction takes place efficiently in both cases. Upon induction of an α-helical structure by the addition of trifluoroethanol, the thiol click reaction occurs preferentially with the i,i+4 spacing. Even in the presence of glutathione as an additional thiol the click reaction of the PSCaa occurs intramolecularly with the cysteine rather than with the glutathione, indicating that the click reaction may be used even under reducing conditions occurring in living cells.
Confidentiality in gamete donation
Neda Yavari,Elaheh Motevasseli
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: During recent decades, the third person intervention in human artificial insemination has created new hopes for infertile couples. However these new progresses have propounded new ethical and legal concerns for families. One of them is confidentiality regarding gamete donor's identity, and its disclosure to the future child and others. Of course, negligence to this ethical issue would produce a big barrier for efficient health care services."nFor compiling this article we searched different websites including Pubmed, Ovid, Elsevier, Google and etc and the resulting articles were investigated carefully. "nIn this article, the history of gamete donation in different countries is reviewed initially and the mentioned reasons for anonymity with that of disclosure are compared. "nBecause of the different cultures and values of various societies, it is not justifiable to propose a unique method regarding this issue; however, there have to be clear rules in this regard, in each country. In order to facilitate this process, pretreatment counseling courses should be established to explain different aspects of this issue for the recipients.
Physicians’ Belief about Organ Donation
A. Al-Marzoaki,E. Tashkindi,M. U. Farooq
International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Several studies have suggested that knowledge, attitudes and determinants concerning or gan donation are influenced by many factors including gender, educational level, occupation, sociodemo graphic status, income level, culture and religion. Objective: To highlight the awareness of cardiopulmonary and brain death (CD and BD) among the physi cians and their belief about the organ donation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 15% of 1700 physicians working under the auspices of Ministry of Health in Makkah region, were selected randomly from two hospitals of Makkah city, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital and King Abdalaziz Hospital. A self-administered questionnaire with dichotomous answers was distributed to them. Results: Out of 185 respondents, 174 (94.1%) identified the right definition of BD and CD and 155 (83.3%) agreed organ donation. The difference among physicians to differentiate CD from BD was not significant (p=0.2). Conclusion: Physicians had enough knowledge to differentiate CD from BD; most of them are highly positive regarding the concept of organ donation.
Monetary relationship in gamete donation - the ethical view
Fatemeh Shidfar,Saeedeh Sadeghi
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: During the last decades, gamete donation has been known as an assisted reproductive treatment for infertile couples. This method has raised many ethical issues; one of the dilemmas is the payment between the donor and recipient. In this article we discuss the payment issues in gamete donation. For compiling this article, we searched keywords of "gamete donation, monetary relationship and ethics" in Pubmed and Ovid. "nAfter reviewing the history of gamete donation, the risks and benefits of gamete donation, the motivations of donation and the financial incentives were reviewed. Then the ethical debates were discussed; the possibility of undue inducements, coercion and exploitation, the quality of informed consent, commodification of donation, compensating the risks and troubles, the results of not paying the donors and other ethical aspects were also explained."nPayment is one of the inevitable problems in gamete donation. Considering the scarce supply of gametes compared to its demand, the current policies of gamete donation without any payment leads to increasing numbers of infertile couples and also the longer waiting times for treatment. Moreover, the essential and immediate needs of couples for gamete leads to significant expenditures in illegal outlines. It is necessary to compile an arranged schedule to organize the financial relationship between the donor and recipient in a legal outline.
Autologous blood donation
Lawrence T Goodnough
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2408
Abstract: Preoperative autologous blood donation (PAD) was developed and promoted [1] in the surgical arena in response to medical and legal pressures to minimize exposure to allogeneic blood. The role of PAD in surgery continues to evolve, based on improved blood safety, increased blood costs, and emerging pharmacologic alternatives to blood transfusion [2]. PAD became accepted as a standard practice in certain elective surgical settings, such as total joint replacement surgery, so that by 1992 more than 6% of the blood transfused in the USA was autologous [3]. Subsequently, improvements in blood safety have led to a decline not only in the use of PAD (Table 1) but also in interest in exploring other autologous blood procurement strategies. Nevertheless, public perception of blood safety and the reluctance to accept allogeneic blood transfusion in the elective transfusion setting [4], along with emerging blood inventory shortages, render the application of autologous blood procurement strategies a subject of ongoing debate.Patients undergoing PAD may donate a unit (450 ± 45 ml, or up to 10.5 ml/kg body weight) of blood as often as twice weekly, until 72 hours before surgery. Under routine conditions, patients usually donate once weekly. Oral iron supplements are routinely prescribed. This iatrogenic blood loss is accompanied by a response in endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) levels that, although increased significantly over basal levels, remain within the normal range. The erythropoietic response that occurs under these conditions is therefore modest [5]. A summary of prospective, controlled trials of patients undergoing such blood loss via autologous phlebotomy is presented in Table 2[6-11], along with calculated estimates of red blood cell (RBC) volume expansion (erythropoiesis in excess of basal rates). With routine PAD, erythropoiesis of 220–351 ml (11–19% RBC expansion) [6,7], or the equivalent of 1–1.75 blood units, occurs in excess of basal erythropoiesis, which indica
Bone Marrow Donation from the Perspective of Sibling Donors
Oliveira-Cardoso, érika Arantes de;Santos, Manoel Ant?nio dos;Mastropietro, Ana Paula;Voltarelli, Júlio César;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692010000500011
Abstract: this study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic profile of sibling bone marrow donors and to describe how they perceive the donation. this was a descriptive, exploratory and longitudinal study. participants were 20 related bone marrow donors, between 18 and 42 years of age (mean=30.5 years, sd=7.47). interviews were held before and immediately after the donation. sociodemographic data were subject to descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative data to categorical content analysis. in the interviews held before the donation, stressor events were the sibling’s disease and treatment and the responsibility of being the donors. during the interviews after the donation, the following were mentioned: anxiety on the day before and on the day of the donation, pain the following day, and acknowledgement of the health team’s support as a facilitator of the donation process. in view of the findings, it is important for the team to outline intervention strategies to meet to the donors’ specific needs.
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