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Differences of relevance in implicit and explicit memory tests: An ERP study
YueTing Li,Qi Li,ChunYan Guo
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0396-8
Abstract: An ERP study was conducted to explore the differences between other-relevant words and possessor-relevant words in implicit and explicit memory tests. The results show that other-relevant words are associated with a more negative ERP than possessor-relevant words during 300–900 ms whether in the implicit or the explicit memory tests. The N400 effect is also found in semantic processing of social materials. There is an ERP dissociation of retrieval formats between the implicit and the explicit memory tests during 700–900 ms, namely, there is no difference between other-relevant words and possessor-relevant words in the implicit memory while there is a significant difference between them in the explicit memory. Observed through Curry 6.0, the analysis of neural sources for other-relevant words and possessor-relevant words indicates that they have different locations. At 400 ms, activity is found in the left precuneus during possessor-relevant words processing. Both the right and the left precuneus are activated during other-relevant words processing. However, at 600 ms their location is both in the left precuneus. In a word, our results show that there exists a cognitive difference between other-relevant words and possessor-relevant words, and other-relevant words closely related to the percipient himself/herself are strongly responded to, which reflects that there is a bigger attention bias to the stimuli concerning the percipient himself/herself than to processor-relevant words.
Cognitive Neuroscience Research on the Dissociation between Implicit and Explicit Memory
从认知神经的角度看内隐记忆和外显记忆的分离

Meng Yingfang,Guo Chunyan,
孟迎芳
,郭春彦

心理科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: Implicit memory and explicit memory are two distinct memory systems underlying different neural substrates. This article reviews the relevant studies of dissociation between implicit and explicit memory from two aspects: neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. The neuropsychological evidence indexes that implicit memory is dissociated from explicit memory in neuroanatomy. Using the haemodynamic techniques of fMRI and PET, the most common finding is a decreased haemodynamic response in occipitotemporal cortex and left inferior prefrontal region for implicit memory, and a increased haemodynamic response in medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex and posterior medial parietal cortex for explicit memory. ERP studies have also found that there is different spatial and temporal distribution between implicit and explicit memory. At last, the author puts forward some advice for future research.
Dissociations between Implicit and Explicit Memory: An ERP Study of Face Recognition
内隐记忆和外显记忆的脑机制分离:面孔再认的ERP研究

Meng Yingfang,Guo Chunyan,
孟迎芳
,郭春彦

心理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The study adopted a "study-test"pattern to explore the relationship of implicit and explicit memory in face domain.In study phase,selective attention task is to processing a word superimposed on a face,so as to controlling the processing level of faces.In recognition phase,the task is old/new discrimination.We compared the ERPs produced by new faces with those produced by old faces that were misclassified by the subjects as new,which represents a neural correlate of implicit memory,and the ERPs produced by new faces with those produced by old faces that were classified as old,which represents a neural correlate of explicit memory.The results indicated that,the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory have been dissociated within a singe task.Explicit memory effect was observed in ERPs from 400ms after stimulus onset,at prefrontal and frontal electrodes.Implicit memory effect was seen in ERPs at 300~500ms from central and parietal electrodes.Our results were similar to results that come from experiments on word,which support the issue that implicit memory and explicit memory have commonality between stimulus domains.
THE EXPERIMENTAL DISSOCIATION BETWEEN IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT MEMORY TASKS: THE ROLE OF SURFACE FORMS ON TARGET STIMULUS
内隐和外显记忆任务之间的实验性分离:刺激的不同呈现形式的作用

Zhou Renlai Tong Changshan Zheng Yuxiang,
周仁来
,佟长山,郑玉香

心理学报 , 1998,
Abstract: This article compared the effect of picture fragmentation level at the test on performance in the tasks of implicit and explicit memory. The expedmental dissociation between these two types of tasks was discovered: the implicit task of picture identification was influenced by this manipulation, While the explicit task of yes/ no recognition was not. Also, the dependent relationship between these two tasks was discovered by successive tests. Contrast to relative studies, the results concluded that ( 1 ) conceptually-driven tasks were sensitive to surface information of the stimulus at the study, data-driven tasks were sensitive to them both at the study and the test, (2) during the test both conceptually-driven and data-driven tasks prossess similar components of stimulus.
How the Brain Decides When to Work and When to Rest: Dissociation of Implicit-Reactive from Explicit-Predictive Computational Processes  [PDF]
Florent Meyniel,Lou Safra,Mathias Pessiglione
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003584
Abstract: A pervasive case of cost-benefit problem is how to allocate effort over time, i.e. deciding when to work and when to rest. An economic decision perspective would suggest that duration of effort is determined beforehand, depending on expected costs and benefits. However, the literature on exercise performance emphasizes that decisions are made on the fly, depending on physiological variables. Here, we propose and validate a general model of effort allocation that integrates these two views. In this model, a single variable, termed cost evidence, accumulates during effort and dissipates during rest, triggering effort cessation and resumption when reaching bounds. We assumed that such a basic mechanism could explain implicit adaptation, whereas the latent parameters (slopes and bounds) could be amenable to explicit anticipation. A series of behavioral experiments manipulating effort duration and difficulty was conducted in a total of 121 healthy humans to dissociate implicit-reactive from explicit-predictive computations. Results show 1) that effort and rest durations are adapted on the fly to variations in cost-evidence level, 2) that the cost-evidence fluctuations driving the behavior do not match explicit ratings of exhaustion, and 3) that actual difficulty impacts effort duration whereas expected difficulty impacts rest duration. Taken together, our findings suggest that cost evidence is implicitly monitored online, with an accumulation rate proportional to actual task difficulty. In contrast, cost-evidence bounds and dissipation rate might be adjusted in anticipation, depending on explicit task difficulty.
AN EXPERIMENT ON FORGETTING OF IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT MEMORY
内隐和外显记忆的遗忘特点

Guo Liping,
郭力平

心理学报 , 2002,
Abstract: According to the experimental dissociation paradigm, employing process dissociation procedure, an experiment was designed to investigate the forgetting characters of implicit and explicit memory through comparing the delayed performance of the two processing mechanisms of recognition The results showed that automaticity and recollection functionally differed from each other during the delays of 0, 6 minutes, 15 minutes, 1 hours and 7 days Especially from 0 to 15 minutes, recollection declined significantly, whereas automaticity declined unsignificantly It implied that implicit memory and explicit memory have different forgetting characters The results also showed that the effects of processing level on automaticity and recollection performance were different
RELIABILITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT MEMORY MEASURES
内隐和外显记忆测验的信度比较研究及思考

Li Dezhong,Liu Fenghua,
李德忠
,刘凤华

心理科学进展 , 2002,
Abstract: The evidences of functional dissociation and stochastic independence confirmed task dissociation between implicit and explicit measures. The dissociations have been assumed to indicate that the memory process or memory systems underlying performance in explicit tests differ from those underlying performance in implicit memory tests. However, recent studies showed that reliabilities of implicit measures were significantly lower than that of explicit measures. As a consequence, if simple functional dissociations are to be used in future research, more attention needs to be paid to the statistical power of the relevant group comparisons and to the psychometric qualities of the memory measurement instruments.
Brain Networks of Explicit and Implicit Learning  [PDF]
Jing Yang, Ping Li
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042993
Abstract: Are explicit versus implicit learning mechanisms reflected in the brain as distinct neural structures, as previous research indicates, or are they distinguished by brain networks that involve overlapping systems with differential connectivity? In this functional MRI study we examined the neural correlates of explicit and implicit learning of artificial grammar sequences. Using effective connectivity analyses we found that brain networks of different connectivity underlie the two types of learning: while both processes involve activation in a set of cortical and subcortical structures, explicit learners engage a network that uses the insula as a key mediator whereas implicit learners evoke a direct frontal-striatal network. Individual differences in working memory also differentially impact the two types of sequence learning.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL AND IMPLICIT/EXPLICIT MEMORY
内外控个体差异与外显、内隐记忆关系的实验研究

Guo Liping,
郭力平

心理学报 , 2000,
Abstract: Employing process dissociation procedure, the present study investigated the relationship between internal-external locus of control and implicit/explicit memory using specific pictures and abstract pictures as materials. The results revealed that internals had higher recollection scores on both specific and abstract pictures than did externals, but externals had higher automaticity scores on abstract pictures than did internals. The results indicated that individual difference of locus of control exhibited difference both on explicit and implicit memory.
Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching  [PDF]
Pietro Mazzoni,Nancy S. Wexler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007557
Abstract: Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes.
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